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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1661221

ABSTRACT

Background: The effect of prone positioning (PP) on respiratory mechanics remains uncertain in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Methods: We prospectively analyzed the effects of PP on respiratory mechanics from continuous data with over a thousand time points during 16-h PP sessions in patients with COVID-19 and ARDS under VV-ECMO conditions. The evolution of respiratory mechanical and oxygenation parameters during the PP sessions was evaluated by dividing each PP session into four time quartiles: first quartile: 0–4 h, second quartile: 4–8 h, third quartile: 8–12 h, and fourth quartile: 12–16 h. Results: Overall, 38 PP sessions were performed in 10 patients, with 3 [2–5] PP sessions per patient. Seven (70%) patients were responders to at least one PP session. PP significantly increased the PaO2/FiO2 ratio by 14 ± 21% and compliance by 8 ± 15%, and significantly decreased the oxygenation index by 13 ± 18% and driving pressure by 8 ± 12%. The effects of PP on respiratory mechanics but not on oxygenation persisted after supine repositioning. PP-induced changes in different respiratory mechanical parameters and oxygenation started as early as the first-time quartile, without any difference in PP-induced changes among the different time quartiles. PP-induced changes in driving pressure (−14 ± 14 vs. −6 ± 10%, p = 0.04) and mechanical power (−11 ± 13 vs. −0.1 ± 12%, p = 0.02) were significantly higher in responders (increase in PaO2/FiO2 ratio > 20%) than in non-responder patients. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19 and severe ARDS, PP under VV-ECMO conditions improved the respiratory mechanical and oxygenation parameters, and the effects of PP on respiratory mechanics persisted after supine repositioning.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1462, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655608

ABSTRACT

Managing patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requires frequent changes in mechanical ventilator respiratory settings to optimize arterial oxygenation assessed by arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and saturation (SaO2). Pulse oxymetry (SpO2) has been suggested as a non-invasive surrogate for arterial oxygenation however its accuracy in COVID-19 patients is unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of COVID-19 status on the association between SpO2 and arterial oxygenation. We prospectively included patients with ARDS and compared COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 patients, regarding SpO2 and concomitant arterial oxygenation (SaO2 and PaO2) measurements, and their association. Bias was defined as mean difference between SpO2 and SaO2 measurements. Occult hypoxemia was defined as a SpO2 ≥ 92% while concomitant SaO2 < 88%. Multiple linear regression models were built to account for confounders. We also assessed concordance between positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) trial-induced changes in SpO2 and in arterial oxygenation. We included 55 patients, among them 26 (47%) with COVID-19. Overall, SpO2 and SaO2 measurements were correlated (r = 0.70; p < 0.0001), however less so in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001 vs. r = 0.84, p < 0.0001, p = 0.002 for intergroup comparison). Bias was + 1.1%, greater in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients (2.0 vs. 0.3%; p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, bias was associated with COVID-19 status (unstandardized ß = 1.77, 95%CI = 0.38-3.15, p = 0.01), ethnic group and ARDS severity. Occult hypoxemia occurred in 5.5% of measurements (7.7% in COVID-19 patients vs. 3.4% in non-COVID-19 patients, p = 0.42). Concordance rate between PEEP trial-induced changes in SpO2 and SaO2 was 84%, however less so in COVID-19 than in non-COVID-19 patients (69% vs. 97%, respectively). Similar results were observed for PaO2 regarding correlations, bias, and concordance with SpO2 changes. In patients with ARDS, SpO2 was associated with arterial oxygenation, but COVID-19 status significantly altered this association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oximetry , Prospective Studies
3.
World J Diabetes ; 12(10): 1674-1692, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488827

ABSTRACT

Diabetes, whether due to pancreatic beta cells insufficiency or peripheral resistance to insulin, has been suggested as a risk factor of developing severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Indeed, diabetes has been associated with a higher risk of infections and higher risk of developing severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related pneumonia. Diabetic patients often present associated comorbidities such as obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, and complications of diabetes, including chronic kidney disease, vasculopathy and relative immune dysfunction, all of which make them more susceptible to infectious complications. Moreover, they often present low-grade inflammation with increased circulating interleukin levels, endothelial susceptibility to inflammation and dysfunction, and finally, hyperglycemia, which increases this risk. Additionally, corticosteroids, which count among the few medications which showed benefit on survival and mechanical ventilation requirement in COVID-19 pneumonia in large randomized controlled trials, are associated to new onsets of diabetes, and metabolic disorders in patients with previous history of diabetes. Finally, SARS-CoV-2 via the alternate effects of the renin-angiotensin system, mediated by the angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2, was also associated with insulin resistance in key tissues involved in glucose homeostasis, such as liver, skeletal muscles, and adipose tissue; and also, with impaired insulin secretion by pancreatic ß-cells. In this work, we reviewed all elements which may help understand how diabetes affects patients with COVID-19, how treatments affect outcomes in patients with COVID-19, how they may cause new onsets of diabetes, and finally review how SARS-CoV-2 may inherently be a risk factor of developing diabetes, through immune-mediated diabetogenic mechanisms.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252388, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine combined with azithromycin (HCQ/AZI) has initially been used against coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective study, we assessed the clinical effects of HCQ/AZI, with a 28-days follow-up. METHODS: In a registry-study which included patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 15 and April 2, 2020, we compared patients who received HCQ/AZI to those who did not, regarding a composite outcome of mortality and mechanical ventilation with a 28-days follow-up. QT was monitored for patients treated with HCQ/AZI. Were excluded patients in intensive care units, palliative care and ventilated within 24 hours of admission. Three analyses were performed to adjust for selection bias: propensity score matching, multivariable survival, and inverse probability score weighting (IPSW) analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 203 patients were included: 60 patients treated by HCQ/AZI and 143 control patients. During the 28-days follow-up, 32 (16.3%) patients presented the primary outcome and 23 (12.3%) patients died. Propensity-score matching identified 52 unique pairs of patients with similar characteristics. In the matched cohort (n = 104), HCQ/AZI was not associated with the primary composite outcome (log-rank p-value = 0.16). In the overall cohort (n = 203), survival and IPSW analyses also found no benefit from HCQ/AZI. In the HCQ/AZI group, 11 (18.3%) patients prolonged QT interval duration, requiring treatment cessation. CONCLUSIONS: HCQ/AZI combination therapy was not associated with lower in-hospital mortality and mechanical ventilation rate, with a 28-days follow-up. In the HCQ/AZI group, 18.3% of patients presented a prolonged QT interval requiring treatment cessation, however, control group was not monitored for this adverse event, making comparison impossible.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
6.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 614562, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127976

ABSTRACT

Background: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is triggered by emotional or physical stress. It is defined as a reversible myocardial dysfunction, usually with apical ballooning aspect due to apical akinesia associated with hyperkinetic basal left ventricular contraction. Described in cases of viral infections such as influenza, only few have been reported associated with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the recent pandemic. Case summary: A 79-years-old man, with cardiovascular risk factors (type 2 diabetes and hypertension) and chronic kidney disease, presented to the emergency room for severe dyspnea after 8 days of presenting respiratory symptoms and fever. Baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) was normal, but he presented marked inflammatory syndrome. He was transferred to an intensive care unit to receive mechanical ventilation within 6 h, due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. He presented circulatory failure 2 days after, requiring norepinephrine support (up to up to 1.04 µg/kg/min). Troponin T was elevated (637 ng/l). ECG showed diffuse T wave inversion. Echocardiography showed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 40%), with visual signs of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Cardiac failure resolved after 24 h with troponin T decrease (433 ng/l) and restoration of cardiac function (LVEF 60% with regression of Takotsubo features). Patient died after 15 days of ICU admission, due to septic shock from ventilator-acquired pneumonia. Cardiac function was then normal. Conclusion: Mechanisms of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in viral infections include catecholamine-induced myocardial toxicity and inflammation related to sepsis. Differential diagnoses include myocarditis and myocardial infarction. Evidence of the benefit of immunomodulatory drugs and dexamethasone are growing to support this hypothesis in COVID-19.

8.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 13(10)2020 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006135

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor, administrated during the right timeframe may be beneficial against coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. All patients admitted for severe COVID-19 pneumonia (SpO2 ≤ 96% despite O2-support ≥ 6 L/min) without invasive mechanical ventilation were included in a retrospective cohort study in a primary care hospital. The treatment effect of a single-dose, 400 mg, of tocilizumab was assessed by comparing those who received tocilizumab to those who did not. Selection bias was mitigated using three statistical methods. Primary outcome measure was a composite of mortality and ventilation at day 28. A total of 246 patients were included (106 were treated with tocilizumab). Overall, 105 (42.7%) patients presented the primary outcome, with 71 (28.9%) deaths during the 28-day follow-up. Propensity-score-matched 84 pairs of comparable patients. In the matched cohort (n = 168), tocilizumab was associated with fewer primary outcomes than the control group (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.49 (95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.3-0.81), p-value = 0.005). These results were similar in the overall cohort (n = 246), with Cox multivariable analysis yielding a protective association between tocilizumab and primary outcome (adjusted HR = 0.26 (95%CI = 0.135-0.51, p = 0.0001), confirmed by inverse probability score weighting (IPSW) analysis (p < 0.0001). Analyses on mortality only, with 28 days of follow-up, yielded similar results. In this study, tocilizumab 400 mg in a single-dose was associated with improved survival without mechanical ventilation in patients with severe COVID-19.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 614569, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000108

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) related to Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality. It has been suggested that venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was suitable in this indication, albeit the effects of ECMO on the mechanical respiratory parameters have been scarcely described. In this case-series, we prospectively described the use of venovenous ECMO and its effects on mechanical respiratory parameters in eleven COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS. Implantation of ECMO occurred 6 [3-11] days after the onset of mechanical ventilation. At the time of ECMO implantation, all patients received neuromuscular blocking agents, three (27%) received inhaled nitric oxide and prone positioning was performed in all patients with 4 [3-5] sessions of PP per patient. Under ECMO, the tidal volume was significantly decreased from 6.1 [4.0-6.3] to 3.4 [2.5-3.6] mL/kg of predicted body weight and the positive end-expiratory pressure level was increased by 25 ± 27% whereas the driving pressure and the mechanical power decreased by 33 ± 25% and 71 ± 27%, respectively. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly increased from 68 [58-89] to 168 [137-218] and the oxygenation index significantly decreased from 28 [26-35] to 13 [10-15]. The duration of ECMO was 12 [8-25] days. Nine (82%) patients experienced ECMO-related complications and the main complication was major bleeding requiring blood transfusions. Intensive care unit mortality rate was 55% but no patient died from ECMO-related complications. In COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS, venovenous ECMO allowed ultra-protective ventilation, improved oxygenation and should be considered in highly selected patients with the most severe ARDS.

10.
Annales de Cardiologie et d'Angéiologie ; 69(5):338, 2020.
Article in French | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-893444

ABSTRACT

Introduction L’épidémie de Covid-19 a frappé la France dès février 2020. Selon certains auteurs, près de 40 % des patients hospitalisés présentaient une comorbidité cardiovasculaire [1], dont l’hypertension artérielle, le diabète et la cardiopathie ischémique sont parmi les plus fréquentes. Or ces patients sont souvent traités par des Inhibiteur de l’Enzyme de Conversion ou Antagonistes du Récepteur Angiotensine Aldostérone (IEC/ARA2). Rapidement la communauté médicale a été préoccupée par une éventuelle interaction entre le virus Sars-Cov-2 et le traitement par IEC/ARA2, certains appelant à les arrêter préventivement en cas de contamination [2]. En effet, sur des modèles animaux, le traitement par IEC/ARA 2, augmente l’expression cellulaire membranaire de l’Enzyme de Conversion de l’Angiotensine 2 (ACE2) [3], récepteur auquel le virus SARS cov-2 se lie au niveau de l’épithélium respiratoire. Le traitement par IEC/ARA 2 pourrait donc potentiellement aggraver les manifestations respiratoires du Covid-19 avec un sur-risque de syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë et mortalité [2]. L’objectif de notre étude était d’évaluer l’impact du traitement par IEC/ARA2 à l’admission sur la mortalité à 28jours chez les patients hospitalisés pour Covid-19. Matériels et méthodes Il s’agissait d’une étude observationnelle, rétrospective, sur un registre prospectif soumis à accord du Comité de Protection des Personnes (CPP) au sein de l’Hôpital de Montfermeil. Les patients inclus étaient hospitalisés pour Covid-19 entre le 15 mars 2020 et le 2 avril 2020. Le critère de jugement principal était la mortalité à 28jours de l’hospitalisation. Les critères de jugement secondaires étaient l’hospitalisation en soins intensifs, l’intubation orotrachéale à 28jours de l’hospitalisation, l’arrêt du traitement IEC/ARA 2 à l’admission. Le suivi était complet pour 97,3 % des patients. Résultats Deux cents soixante trois patients ont été inclus, l’âge médian était de 59,5 ans avec 41,4 % de patients de sexe féminins, 119 (45,2 %) des patients hospitalisés étaient hypertendus. Parmi les patients inclus, 67 (25,5 %) étaient sous IEC/ARA2 à l’admission et comparés à 196 (74,5 %) qui ne l’étaient pas. Durant le suivi de 28jours, 40 (15,2 %) patients sont décédés. Le traitement par IEC/ARA2 n’impactait pas la mortalité à 28jours (19,7 % vs 13,8 % log rank p=0,54) comme représenté sur la Fig. 1. On ne constatait pas de différence statistiquement significative entre les deux groupes pour l’hospitalisation en soins intensifs (24,2 % vs 18,4 % p=0,30) et l’intubation orotrachéale (15,2 % vs 9,7 % p=0,25) à 28jours de l’admission. Le traitement par IEC ARA2 a été arrêté à l’admission pour 28 (41,8 %) patients. Conclusion Le traitement par IEC/ARA2 n’était pas associé à une augmentation de la mortalité après un suivi de 28jours chez les patients hospitalisés pour Covid-19. Ces données ne sont pas en faveur d’un arrêt systématique des IEC/ARA2 en accord avec les consensus d’experts des sociétés savantes.

13.
Lancet ; 396(10245): e2-e3, 2020 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661790
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