Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 191
Filter
1.
2022 Acm/Ieee 44th International Conference on Software Engineering: New Ideas and Emerging Results (Icse-Nier 2022) ; : 116-120, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2032549

ABSTRACT

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have recently emerged as an effective framework for representing and analyzing graph-structured data. GNNs have been applied to many real-world problems such as knowledge graph analysis, social networks recommendation, and even COVID-19 detection and vaccine development. However, unlike other deep neural networks such as Feedforward Neural Networks (FFNNs), few verification and property inference techniques exist for GNNs. This is potentially due to dynamic behaviors of GNNs, which can take arbitrary graphs as input, whereas FFNNs which only take fixed size numerical vectors as inputs. This paper proposes GNN-Infer, an approach to analyze and infer properties of GNNs by extracting influential structures of the GNNs and then converting them into FFNNs. This allows us to leverage existing powerful FFNNs analyses to obtain results for the original GNNs. We discuss various designs of GNN-Infer to ensure the scalability and accuracy of the conversions. We also illustrate GNN-Infer on a study case of node classification. We believe that GNN-Infer opens new research directions for understanding and analyzing GNNs.

2.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1):100, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2029721

ABSTRACT

The use of collaborative health research approaches, such as integrated knowledge translation (IKT), was challenged during the COVID-19 pandemic due to physical distancing measures and transition to virtual platforms. As IKT trainees (i.e. graduate students, postdoctoral scholars) within the Integrated Knowledge Translation Research Network (IKTRN), we experienced several changes and adaptations to our daily routine, work and research environments due to the rapid transition to virtual platforms. While there was an increased capacity to communicate at local, national and international levels, gaps in equitable access to training and partnership opportunities at universities and organizations have emerged. This essay explores the experiences and reflections of 16 IKTRN trainees during the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic at the micro (individual), meso (organizational) and macro (system) levels. The micro level, or individual experiences, focuses on topics of self-care (taking care of oneself for physical and mental well-being), maintaining research activities and productivity, and leisure (social engagement and taking time for oneself), while conducting IKT research during the pandemic. At the meso level, the role of programmes and organizations explores whether and how institutions were able to adapt and continue research and/or partnerships during the pandemic. At the macro level, we discuss implications for policies to support IKT trainees and research, during and beyond emergency situations. Themes were identified that intersected across all levels, which included (i) equitable access to training and partnerships;(ii) capacity for reflexivity;(iii) embracing changing opportunities;and (iv) strengthening collaborative relationships. These intersecting themes represent ways of encouraging sustainable and equitable improvements towards establishing and maintaining collaborative health research approaches. This essay is a summary of our collective experiences and aims to provide suggestions on how organizations and universities can support future trainees conducting collaborative research. Thus, we hope to inform more equitable and sustainable collaborative health research approaches and training in the post-pandemic era.

3.
Journal of System and Management Sciences ; 12(3):1-24, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026594

ABSTRACT

In an organization, the relationship between leaders and employees has long been of interest not only to organizational managers but also to researchers in management science. The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of transformational leadership style on the impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance (case study in Vietnamese universities). We employed a mix of methodologies, including Bayesian analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and regression analysis, to achieve this objective. The results showed that organizational citizenship behavior positively impacts organizational performance at Vietnamese universities. Besides, we also found evidence that transformational leadership styles increase the positive impact of organizational citizenship behavior on organizational performance in Vietnamese universities. Theoretically, these results highlight the organizational performance elements. This finding demonstrates the managerial influence in inspiring people to contribute to the organization. Based on the research results, we also propose implications for Vietnamese universities to influence organizational citizenship behavior and transformative leadership styles to increase organizational performance. Finally, to the best of our knowledge, this is a rare study that applies Bayesian analysis in this area of research. © 2022, Success Culture Press. All rights reserved.

4.
South African Journal of Communication Disorders - die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Kommunikasieafwykings ; 69(2):e1-e6, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vietnam's first speech and language therapy (SLT) degrees commenced in 2019 utilising international educators. Continuity of the degrees was impacted by travel restrictions during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVES: This article presents a descriptive case report exploring the viability of online learning to continue clinical education (CE) of SLT students in Vietnam during the pandemic. METHOD: Students were scheduled for face to face placements throughout 2021. International SLT educators were to travel to Vietnam and work with interpreters and locally trained certificate level therapists to provide placement supervision. When travel became impossible, tele-supervision by international therapists working remotely and in partnership with local therapists and interpreters was arranged. The second wave of Covid-19 excluded students from healthcare settings early in their placements. To conclude these placements, tele-supervisors led online case-based discussions with students. For subsequent placements, Vietnamese and international therapists facilitated two to three weeks of online case-based group discussions for students, using cases with videos or avatars. RESULTS: Learning outcomes for students, as evidenced in written and oral assessments demonstrated attainment of many of the learning objectives of the placements. Satisfaction for all participants (students, tele-supervisors, online group facilitators) was high. Students will undertake face to face placements in the future;however they will commence these placements with heightened clinical reasoning and planning skills. CONCLUSION: Online CE is possible in LMIC and, as part of a program which includes face to face placements, can support essential CE outcomes and enhance preparation for subsequent direct experiences with patients.

5.
Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development ; 12(8):600-611, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022235

ABSTRACT

Urban slum dwellers lacked water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health care assistance during the COVID-19 outbreak. This research aimed to investigate the lived experiences of slum dwellers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were obtained through 453 questionnaires and 29 semi-structured interviews with community people and organizations from two slum neighbourhoods in Bangkok, Thailand. The results showed that respondents who had no access to WASH perceived the pandemic as more severe (t = -3.807, p < 0.001;df = 451), whereas respondents who had access to WASH had a higher protective intention towards COVID-19 (t = -3.947, p < 0.001;df = 431). However, there are no differences between the two groups in terms of knowledge, practice, vulnerability, perceived self-efficacy, response efficacy, or response cost between accessibility and non-accessibility to WASH. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) results showed that the knowledge of slum dwellers drives their current practice (beta = 0.456, p < 0.001) and perceived vulnerability (beta = 0.180, p < 0.001), wherein the current practice is influenced by their perceived vulnerability (beta = 0.163, p = 0.002). Their current practice also influences their perceived self-efficacy (beta = 0.314, p < 0.001), response efficacy (beta = 0.557, p < 0.001), and severity (beta = 0.198, p = 0.003). Their perceived severity affects their protective intention (beta = 0.102, p = 0.043) and perceived self-efficacy promotes their protective behaviours (beta = 0.308, p < 0.001). Future pandemic prevention programmes should improve the awareness about COVID-19 protection, self-efficacy, and response efficacy through community sensitization.

6.
Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy: CJRT = Revue Canadienne de la Thérapie Respiratoire : RCTR ; 58:136-136, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2011003

ABSTRACT

Canadian Respiratory Therapist COVID-19 vaccination uptake rates and responses were investigated with a look at the reasons behind any delays or non-vaccinations as well as other demographics, attitudes, or factors that may be shown to play a role. An anonymous survey using SurveyMonkey® on vaccination uptake rates, responses, and attitudes was available to Student, Graduate, and Registered Respiratory Therapists in Canada from July to October of 2021. A total of 1066 surveys (8.4% of target population) were started, 983 in English and 83 in French with 1013 completed fully and included in the data analysis. Canadian RT Vaccination uptake rates were compared to those of all Canadian healthcare workers which showed that 90.42% of the surveyed RT population in Canada received their vaccination right away compared to the posted rate at the time of 86.27% for all Canadian Healthcare Workers. Pearson Chi-Square Tests were performed to evaluate association between vaccination status and other categorical parameters evaluated in the survey. There was a significant (P = 0.013) association between early vaccination and age, a significant (P = 0.036) association between vaccination status and participants’ response on whether or not they have a family member or know someone who has had COVID-19, a significant (P < 0.001) association between vaccination status and attitudes towards trusting science to develop safe, effective, new vaccines, and a significant (P < 0.001) association between vaccination status and attitudes towards trusting the Ministry of Health to ensure that vaccines are safe. There was no significant association between vaccination status and gender, province/territory of residency/work, level of education, level of involvement with COVID-19 patients. The results suggest that the RT groups across Canada had higher early vaccination uptake rates than the general Healthcare worker groups and that age, relationship to people with COVID-19 and trust in science played a significant role in their vaccination uptake rates.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 852:158448, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2008100

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), an emerging approach for community-wide COVID-19 surveillance, was primarily characterized at large sewersheds such as wastewater treatment plants serving a large population. Although informed public health measures can be better implemented for a small population, WBE for neighborhood-scale sewersheds is less studied and not fully understood. This study applied WBE to seven neighborhood-scale sewersheds (average population of 1471) from January to November 2021. Community testing data showed an average of 0.004 % incidence rate in these sewersheds (97 % of monitoring periods reported two or fewer daily infections). In 92 % of sewage samples, SARS-CoV-2 N gene fragments were below the limit of quantification. We statistically determined 10–2.6 as the threshold of the SARS-CoV-2 N gene concentration normalized to pepper mild mottle virus (N/PMMOV) to alert high COVID-19 incidence rate in the studied sewershed. This threshold of N/PMMOV identified neighborhood-scale outbreaks (COVID-19 incidence rate higher than 0.2 %) with 82 % sensitivity and 51 % specificity. Importantly, neighborhood-scale WBE can discern local outbreaks that would not otherwise be identified by city-scale WBE. Our findings suggest that neighborhood-scale WBE is an effective community-wide disease surveillance tool when COVID-19 incidence is maintained at a low level.

8.
J Mol Model ; 28(10), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2007156

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 severe acute respiratory syndrome, which was fatal for millions of people worldwide, triggered the race to understand in detail the molecular mechanisms of this disease. In this work, the differences of interactions between the SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2 Receptor binding domain (RBD) and the human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor were studied using in silico tools. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 RBD is more stable and forms more interactions with ACE2 than SARS-CoV. At its interface, three stable binding patterns are observed and named red-K31, green-K353 and blue-M82 according to the central ACE2 binding residue. In SARS-CoV instead, only the first two binding patches are persistently formed during the MD simulation. Our MM/GBSA calculations indicate the binding free energy difference of about 2.5 kcal/mol between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV which is compatible with the experiments. The binding free energy decomposition points out that SARS-CoV-2 RBD–ACE2 interactions of the red-K31 (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$-23.5~\pm ~0.2~kcal/mol$$\end{document}-23.5±0.2kcal/mol) and blue-M82 (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$-9.1~\pm ~0.1~kcal/mol$$\end{document}-9.1±0.1kcal/mol) patterns contribute more to the binding affinity than in SARS-CoV (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$-1.8~\pm ~0.02~kcal/mol$$\end{document}-1.8±0.02kcal/mol for red-K31), while the contribution of the green-K353 pattern is very similar in the two strains (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$-17.8~\pm ~0.2~kcal/mol$$\end{document}-17.8±0.2kcal/mol and \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$-22.7~\pm ~0.1~kcal/mol$$\end{document}-22.7±0.1kcal/mol for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, respectively). Five groups of mutations draw our attention at the RBD–ACE2 binding interface, among them, the mutation –PPA469-471/GVEG482-485 has the most important and favorable impact on SARS-CoV-2 binding to the ACE2 receptor. These results, highlighting the molecular differences in the binding between the two viruses, contribute to the common knowledge about the new corona virus and to the development of appropriate antiviral treatments, addressing the necessity of ongoing pandemics.Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00894-022-05231-7.

9.
Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery ; 14:A47-A48, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005437

ABSTRACT

Background The mechanisms and outcomes in COVID-19- associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. Objectives The purpose of this study is to describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. Methods We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted COVID-19 patients with concomitant acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a MT between January 2018 to December 2020.Results: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO, 194 had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs. 71.2;p<0.001), and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs. 54, 14.2%;p =0.001). mTICI 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs. 252, 67.2%;p < 0.001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as mRS 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs.132, 66.7%;p =0.004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving mTICI 3 (OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2 -0.7;p<0.001), and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4 - 4.5;p=0.002). Conclusion COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. COVID-19 patients with LVO patients were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates. (Figure Presented).

10.
J Educ Eval Health Prof ; 19:22, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2002485

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The current study aimed to use network analysis to investigate medical and health students' readiness for online learning during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University. METHODS: A questionnaire survey on the students' readiness for online learning was performed using a Google Form from May 13 to June 22, 2021. In total, 1,377 completed responses were eligible for analysis out of 1,411 participants. The network structure was estimated for readiness scales with 6 factors: computer skills, internet skills, online communication, motivation, self-control, and self-learning. Data were fitted using a Gaussian graphical model with the extended Bayesian information criterion. RESULTS: In 1,377 students, a network structure was identified with 6 nodes and no isolated nodes. The top 3 partial correlations were similar in networks for the overall sample and subgroups of gender and grade levels. The self-control node was the strongest for the connection to others, with the highest nodal strength. The change of nodal strength was greatest in online communication for both gender and grade levels. The correlation stability coefficient for nodal strength was achieved for all networks. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that self-control was the most important factor in students' readiness network structures for online learning. Therefore, self-control needs to be encouraged during online learning to improve the effectiveness of achieving online learning outcomes for students.

12.
Medical Devices: Evidence and Research ; 15:277-283, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1997376

ABSTRACT

Background: Cold plasma has many characteristics that allow for effective wound healing. Due to its efficacy, we have applied it in treating patients with severe Covid-19 who have soft tissue skin lesions and diseases including burns, pressure ulcers, shingles, and contact or atopic dermatitis. This study aims to assess the general characteristics of Covid-19 patients with soft tissue lesions and to conduct a fundamental evaluation of the efficacy of cold plasmamed beams in treating soft tissue wounds in patients with severe Covid-19. Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 20 severe Covid-19 patients with soft tissue lesions at the Intensive Care Center for Covid-19 of Hue Central Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City from September 25 to November 11, 2021. These patients was performed cold plasma irradiation at any stage of wound progression, including new injuries and chronic wounds. Results: Among 915 severe Covid-19 patients treated at our center, 20 patients had soft tissue lesions. Grade I, II, and III pressure ulcers accounted for 70% of the 20 cases of soft tissue lesions and 1.53% of the total patients at the time of the survey. Pressure ulcers were present in only 0.55% of patients (5/915 patients). Eleven out of 20 patients (55.0%) had lesions before admission, and 9 (45.0%) had lesions that appeared after admission. After 14 days of treatment, 14/20 patients had complete epithelialization (70%), and in 18/20 patients, wound exudation had ceased. The wounds became painless;after 3 weeks, the rashes had completely disappeared. Conclusion: The study emphasizes that irradiation with cold plasma contributes to the wound healing process.

13.
International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997105

ABSTRACT

Purpose In the COVID-19 outbreak periods, people's life has been deranged, leading to disrupt the world. Firstly, the number of deaths is growing and has the potential to surpass the highest level at any time. Secondly, the pandemic broke many countries' fortified lines of epidemic prevention and gave people a more honest view of its seriousness. Finally, the pandemic has an impact on life, and the economy led to a shortage in medical, including a lack of clinicians, facilities and medical equipment. One of those, a simple ventilator is a necessary piece of medical equipment since it might be useful for a COVID-19 patient's treatment. In some cases, the COVID-19 patients require to be treated by modern ventilators to reduce lung damage. Therefore, the addition of simple ventilators is a necessity to relieve high work pressure on medical bureaucracies. Some low-income countries aim to build a simple ventilator for primary care and palliative care using locally accessible and low-cost components. One of the simple principles for producing airflow is to squeeze an artificial manual breathing unit (AMBU) iterative with grippers, which imitates the motion of human fingers. Unfortunately, the squeezing angle of grippers is not proportional to the exhaust air volume from the AMBU bag. This paper aims to model the AMBU bag by a mathematical equation that enables to implement on a simple controller to operate a bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilator with high accuracy performance. Design/methodology/approach This paper provides a curvature function to estimate the air volume exhausting from the AMBU bag. Since the determination of the curvature function is sophisticated, the coefficients of the curvature function are approximated by a quadratic function through the experimental identification method. To obtain the high accuracy performance, a linear regression model and a least square method are employed to investigate the characteristic of the BVM ventilator's grippers angle with respect to the airflow volume produced by the AMBU bag. Findings This paper investigates the correlation between the exhausting airflow of the AMBU bag and the grippers angle of the BVM ventilator. Originality/value The experimental results validated that the regression model of the characteristic of the exhausting airflow of the AMBU bag with respect to the grippers' angle has been fitted with a coefficient over 98% within the range of 350-750 ml.

14.
Journal of Southeast Asian Human Rights ; 6(1):72-100, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994713

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caught the entire world off guard;presenting policy-makers with various thorny issues to address. This article probes the intersection of the COVID-19 pandemic and human rights. We argue that, on the one hand, there is a growing concern about excessive and disproportionate restrictions on human rights under the guise of 'emergency powers'. On the other, the fact that rights are not taken seriously renders every effort to ward off the infectious disease faltering. Hence, we suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic should serve as a wake-up call for countries to step up their rights commitments. Despite the exceptional nature of the pandemic, human rights must remain at the heart of the States' legal and policy choices. © 2022 University of Osijek - Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. All rights reserved.

15.
International Journal of eBusiness and eGovernment Studies ; 14(2):35-56, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989005

ABSTRACT

The application of information technology in the actions of state agencies toward the creation of e-government is an inevitable trend and a popular model in many nations;constructing e-government has become a crucial undertaking, particularly during the Covid-19 pandemic. As the top objective of any government, e-government enables individuals to engage, obtain government services, boost transparency, decrease expenses, and enhance operational efficiency. This article suggests an e-Government Architecture Framework produced by Vietnam’s National Foundation for Science and Technology Development, a government agency. This framework was developed as a research framework to expand in developing countries to improve their capacity to connect, integrate, share, and reuse information deployed at these agencies and the National Systems (National Document Unified Axis System and National Government Service Platform) and national data databases (National Database on Business Registration;National Land Database and National Database on Population). The proposed framework will increase the adaptability of the procedure for building and deploying information systems and components under local requirements. © 2022

16.
Journal of Asian Finance Economics and Business ; 9(7):239-247, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1988559

ABSTRACT

Maintaining and expanding brand equity is regarded as an essential component of brand development. Effective management of brand equity leads to more opportunities for brand extension and the ability to draw in more customers. Brand equity, in particular, has a positive impact on consumer purchase intention. The purpose of this study is to look into the relationships between brand equity and consumption intention from the perspective of Vietnamese customers of India's COVID-19 vaccine products. Primary data is aggregated from 475 Vietnamese citizens with different occupations and backgrounds 18 years of age or older. The findings of the study show that consumption intention is positively inspired by brand equity, including brand association and brand quality. If consumers perceive high brand equity, it will have a higher impact on promoting consumption intention to the brand. India's COVID-19 vaccine needs to invest more in building brand equity in the Vietnamese market if it wants to increase the consumption choices of Vietnamese people. To create a good brand association and brand quality for India's COVID-19 vaccine, it is necessary to focus on communicating the good properties of the Indian-made vaccine such as safe, high protective effect, high immunity and protection, and long duration of immunity of vaccines.

17.
Journal of Asian Finance Economics and Business ; 9(7):101-108, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1988557

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused serious impacts not only on human health but also on the economies around the world. Enterprises play an important role in the development of every country but it is also one of the most affected sectors during the pandemic. Drawing on panel data of 131 enterprises listed on the Vietnamese stock exchange from 2016Q1 to 2021Q3, this study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on firm performance. Enterprises are classified into seven industries including Agriculture, Material, Industry, Real estate and Construction, Energy, Consumer, and Service. The paper also analyzes the variation of the effects among companies, focusing on differences in revenue and capital structure. The results show that the COVID-19 pandemic negatively affects business performance. In addition, the empirical findings indicate that revenue and debt decreasing can cause deterioration of firm performance during the pandemic period. The decrease in revenue has a direct impact on firm profitability. The reduction of debt levels affects the corporate leverage leading to adverse effects on firm performance. The negative effect is more pronounced for companies in some specific sectors including industry, real estate, construction, consumption, and services.

18.
Cancer Research ; 82(12), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1986483

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical observations that some coronavirus infections induced complete remissions in lymphoma patients emphasized again the potential of cancer virotherapy. Infection of cancer cells with oncolytic viruses reshapes the tumor microenvironment by activating anti-viral and anti-tumor immunity. A phase 1 clinical trial using oncolytic adenovirus Delta-24-RGD (DNX-2401) to treat recurrent malignant gliomas demonstrated activation of CD8+ T-cells and significant clinical benefits for a subset of patients. However, both anti-virus and anti-tumor immune responses are contingent on the activation of respective clones of CD8+ T-cells, which compete for clonal expansion. Thus, overexpansion of T-cells against viral antigens reduces the frequency of subdominant clones against tumor antigens. We hypothesized that inducing immune tolerance for viral antigens will decrease anti-viral immunity and in turn derepress anti-tumor immunity, resulting in enhanced efficacy of cancer virotherapy. In this work, we used nanoparticles encapsulating adenoviral antigens E1A, E1B and hexon that distributed to liver resident macrophages (P<0.0001) and induced peripheral immune tolerance. Functional experiments to restimulate immune cells with viral or tumor antigens showed that injection of nanoparticles induced virus-specific immune tolerance and redirected the focus of the immune response towards tumor peptides as measured by interferon-gamma secretion (P<0.0001). Co-culture experiments also showed increased activation of immune cells against fixed tumor cells after nanoparticle treatment (P<0.0001). Reduction of virus-specific T-cells and concurrent expansion of tumor-specific T-cell clones were further confirmed with E1A or OVA tetramers (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis suggested increased anti-tumor responses were due to differences in T-cell clones and not due to other immune populations including natural killer cells or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (P=0.3). Importantly, virotherapy in combination with nanoparticle-induced immune tolerance towards viral antigens in tumor-bearing mice increased the overall survival and doubled the percentage of long-term survivors compared to virus treatment alone. Our data should propel the development of a future clinical trial aiming to maximize the potential of anti-tumor immunity during cancer virotherapies.

19.
Journal of Information Technology Education-Research ; 21:297-335, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979916

ABSTRACT

Aim/Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the factors that have significant influences on students' adoption of e-learning systems and to what extent these factors affect them. Background E-learning has become an essential tool and makes it an inevitable option for education in the future. E-learning has received considerable attention in recent times as a global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, developing countries, including Vietnam, are facing many difficulties when adopting e-learning systems. Therefore, it is essential to comprehensively evaluate the factors that influence the intention of students to use e-learning to enhance the implementation process and also improve educational quality. Methodology Initially, the authors synthesized a literature review from 112 related studies to complete the proposed research model including the combination of C-TAM-TPB model and external variables impacting students' adoption of e-learning systems. After that, a sample of 172 students at FPT University Vietnam was collected to test the proposed model and explain students' intentions. The dataset was investigated and analyzed with PLS-SEM using the SmartPLS 3.3.3 tool. Contribution The study has made a valuable contribution to the current literature by proposing an extended model between C-TAM-TPB and three external variables to provide a better understanding of learners' intentions with e-learning systems. Furthermore, the research findings also provide useful guidelines for innovating and improving the e-learning system more effectively to advance students' learning motivation in the educational environment. Findings The findings demonstrate that Computer Self-efficacy and Perceived Accessibility have an important influence on Perceived Ease of Use by learners of an e-learning system. Furthermore, Perceived Enjoyment affects the Perceived Usefulness of e-learning systems. For the TAM, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use both have a positive impact on Attitude toward Use, and Attitude has a positive relationship with the Behavioral Intention of students. In addition, the factors from the TPB model (i.e., Perceived Behavioral Control and Subjective Norm) were identified as having a significant positive effect on Behavioral Intention to use e-learning. Recommendations for Practitioners Firstly, educational institutions should help along with the culture of using e-learning among students and lecturers. A supportive team should be accessible to help students use e-learning by providing instructions and addressing their questions. Secondly, system developers should concentrate on system-related aspects that have a significant influence on learners' attitudes and intentions to utilize, as well as build the most appropriate e-learning system for students. Recommendations for Researchers Firstly, the study fulfills a significant literature gap on evaluating e-learning effectiveness for learners in private institutions as they are focusing on developing quality education to gain competitive advantages. Secondly, based on research findings, the researchers may be able to advance studies to improve and innovate a quality system for ensuring the long-term usage of e-learning. Finally, this paper contributes to the theoretical foundation and development of an extended model for future studies to assess the intention when employing new technologies in education and other fields. Impact on Society E-learning will become a necessary tool and an unavoidable possibility in the next period of education. Therefore, this study presents an overview of the factors that have a notable influence on students' intention to adopt e-learning systems. This study then proposes to develop an optimal system for the teaching and learning process, as well as to adapt to future demands. Future Research Firstly, there are just three external variables that are considered to have an impact on learners' intention via TAM. However, other external factors could be exploited in future research. Secondly, the participants in this study are only students. If the lecturers could take part in this survey, the comparisons between faculty and students may have more usefulness for assessment. Thirdly, this model just interprets the results at a certain time, which is the COVID-19 outbreak and e-learning is an urgent response to maintain the process of teaching and learning. The perception, attitude, and performance of students may change over time. Therefore, as other researchers have recommended, longitudinal surveys should be considered here. Finally, the differences between majors may appear. Future studies can divide groups of learners according to their majors for a more significant test.

20.
Computers ; 11(7):21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979147

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, 2019 has seen unprecedented demand for medical equipment and supplies. However, the problem of waste treatment has not yet been given due attention, i.e., the traditional waste treatment process is done independently, and it is not easy to share the necessary information. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, the interaction between parties is minimized to limit infections. To evaluate the current system at medical centers, we also refer to the traditional waste treatment processes of four hospitals in Can Tho and Ho Chi Minh cities (Vietnam). Almost all hospitals are handled independently, lacking any interaction between the stakeholders. In this article, we propose a decentralized blockchain-based system for automating waste treatment processes for medical equipment and supplies after usage among the relevant parties, named Medical-Waste Chain. It consists of four components: medical equipment and supplies, waste centers, recycling plants, and sorting factories. Medical-Waste Chain integrates blockchain-based Hyperledger Fabric technology with decentralized storage of medical equipment and supply information, and securely shares related data with stakeholders. We present the system design, along with the interactions among the stakeholders, to ensure the minimization of medical waste generation. We evaluate the performance of the proposed solution using system-wide timing and latency analysis based on the Hyperledger Caliper engine. Our system is developed based on the hybrid-blockchain system, so it is fully scalable for both on-chain and off-chain-based extensions. Moreover, the participants do not need to pay any fees to use and upgrade the system. To encourage future use of Medical-Waste Chain, we also share a proof-of-concept on our Github repository.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL