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1.
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823939

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study examines the initiation of prescribed medication treatments for cardiovascular risk (antihypertensives, lipid-lowering drugs, oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation, and smoking cessation medications) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the French population. Methods For each year between 2017 and 2021, we used the French National Insurance Database to identify the number of people with at least one reimbursement for these medications but no reimbursement in the previous 12 months. We computed incidence rate ratios (IRRs) between 2017–2019 and, respectively 2020 and 2021 using Poisson regression adjusted for age and 2017–2019 time trends. We recorded the number of lipid profile blood tests, Holter electrocardiograms, and consultations with family physicians or cardiologists. Results In 2020, IRR significantly decreased for initiations of antihypertensives (−11.1%[CI95%, −11.4%;−10.8%]), lipid-lowering drugs (−5.2%[CI95%, −5.5%;−4.8%]), oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation (−8.6%[CI95%, −9.1%;−8.0%]), and smoking cessation medications (−50.9%[CI95%, −51.1%;−50.7%]) compared to 2017–2019. Larger decreases were found in women compared to men except for smoking cessation medications, with the sex difference increasing with age. Similar analyses comparing 2021 to 2017–2019 showed an increase in the initiation of lipid-lowering drugs (+ 11.6%[CI95%, 10.7%;12.5%]) but even lower rates for the other medications, particularly in women. In addition, the 2020 number of people visiting a family physician or cardiologist decreased by 8.4 and 7.4%. A higher decrease in these visits was observed in those over 65 years of age compared to those under 65 years of age. A greater use of teleconsultation was found in women. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic heavily impacted the initiation of medication treatments for cardiovascular risk in France, particularly in women and people over 65 years.

2.
Chemosphere ; : 134837, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819450

ABSTRACT

The number of antibiotic compounds in wastewaters has been growing globally due to the covid-19 problem. Using antibiotics to treat the patients would produce larger amounts of these compounds into the environment with negative impacts. Hence, finding out the method for the elimination of toxic organic pollutants as well as antibiotics in water is urgent (In this study, the treatment of antibiotic pollutants including cefalexin (CF) and tetracycline (TC) was investigated by applying the advanced oxidation process based on Ni-doped TiO2 (Ni–TiO2). The characterizations technologies such as XRD, XPS, UV–vis, PL, and PC indicated that Ni doping would improve the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In the photodegradation experiments, the Ni–TiO2 possessed high photocatalytic degradation efficiencies with 93.6% for CF and 82.5% for TC. Besides, the removal rates of antibiotics after five cycles are higher than 75%, implying excellent stability of Ni–TiO2 photocatalyst. The result from the treatment of wastewater samples revealed that the Ni–TiO2 photocatalytic had good performance for removal of CF and TC at a high level of 88.6 and 80.2%, respectively.

3.
Environmental Challenges ; : 100526, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1800062

ABSTRACT

Objective The objective of the paper is to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 on inanimate surfaces in four healthcare facilities treating patients with COVID-19 and four quarantine regiments of provincial military commands. Methods From August to October 2020, a total of 468 one-off environmental samples consisting of inanimate surfaces, garbage, and wastewater were collected. The real-time RT-PCR assay targeting E and RdRp genes to detect SARS-CoV-2 and checklist and questionnaire of disinfection practices were employed. If detected by RT-PCR, then positive samples are subjected to cell culture to determine viability. Results The test results showed all samples (100%) to be negative with SARS-CoV-2 resulting in unperformed virus culture. As for recent disinfection practices, chlorine-based products dissolved at a concentration of 0.1% (1000 ppm) in the general context or 0.5% (5000 ppm) for blood and body fluid spills are routinely applied twice a day and at the discharge of patients or quarantined people. Conclusions The finding may illustrate the importance of disinfection practices in removing pathogens or significantly reducing SARS-CoV-2 contamination on environmental surfaces and waste.

4.
Cogent Social Sciences ; 8(1):2064590, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1795421
5.
RSC advances ; 11(5):2926-2934, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787474

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 rapidly infects millions of people worldwide since December 2019. There is still no effective treatment for the virus, resulting in the death of more than one million patients. Inhibiting the activity of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), 3C-like protease (3CLP), is able to block the viral replication and proliferation. In this context, our study has revealed that in silico screening for inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro can be reliably done using the monomeric structure of the Mpro instead of the dimeric one. Docking and fast pulling of ligand (FPL) simulations for both monomeric and dimeric forms correlate well with the corresponding experimental binding affinity data of 24 compounds. The obtained results were also confirmed via binding pose and noncovalent contact analyses. Our study results show that it is possible to speed up computer-aided drug design for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro by focusing on the monomeric form instead of the larger dimeric one. Binding of inhibitors to the monomeric SARS-CoV-2 Mpro is similar to the dimeric one.

6.
RSC advances ; 12(6):3729-3737, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787338

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been causing the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in several million deaths being reported. Numerous investigations have been carried out to discover a compound that can inhibit the biological activity of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, which is an enzyme related to the viral replication. Among these, PF-07321332 (Nirmatrelvir) is currently under clinical trials for COVID-19 therapy. Therefore, in this work, atomistic and electronic simulations were performed to unravel the binding and covalent inhibition mechanism of the compound to Mpro. Initially, 5 μs of steered-molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the ligand-binding process to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The successfully generated bound state between the two molecules showed the important role of the PF-07321332 pyrrolidinyl group and the residues Glu166 and Gln189 in the ligand-binding process. Moreover, from the MD-refined structure, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations were carried out to unravel the reaction mechanism for the formation of the thioimidate product from SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and the PF-07321332 inhibitor. We found that the catalytic triad Cys145–His41–Asp187 of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro plays an important role in the activation of the PF-07321332 covalent inhibitor, which renders the deprotonation of Cys145 and, thus, facilitates further reaction. Our results are definitely beneficial for a better understanding of the inhibition mechanism and designing new effective inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The catalytic triad Cys145–His41–Asp187 of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro plays an important role in the activation of the PF-07321332 covalent inhibitor.

7.
RSC Adv ; 12(6): 3729-3737, 2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784049

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been causing the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in several million deaths being reported. Numerous investigations have been carried out to discover a compound that can inhibit the biological activity of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, which is an enzyme related to the viral replication. Among these, PF-07321332 (Nirmatrelvir) is currently under clinical trials for COVID-19 therapy. Therefore, in this work, atomistic and electronic simulations were performed to unravel the binding and covalent inhibition mechanism of the compound to Mpro. Initially, 5 µs of steered-molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to evaluate the ligand-binding process to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The successfully generated bound state between the two molecules showed the important role of the PF-07321332 pyrrolidinyl group and the residues Glu166 and Gln189 in the ligand-binding process. Moreover, from the MD-refined structure, quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations were carried out to unravel the reaction mechanism for the formation of the thioimidate product from SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and the PF-07321332 inhibitor. We found that the catalytic triad Cys145-His41-Asp187 of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro plays an important role in the activation of the PF-07321332 covalent inhibitor, which renders the deprotonation of Cys145 and, thus, facilitates further reaction. Our results are definitely beneficial for a better understanding of the inhibition mechanism and designing new effective inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 826116, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771119

ABSTRACT

Despite the discovery of several closely related viruses in bats, the direct evolutionary progenitor of SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated potential animal sources of SARS-related coronaviruses using archived specimens from Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) and Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) confiscated from the illegal wildlife trade, and from common palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) raised on wildlife farms in Viet Nam. A total of 696 pangolin and civet specimens were screened for the presence of viral RNA from five zoonotic viral families and from Sarbecoviruses using primers specifically designed for pangolin coronaviruses. We also performed a curated data collection of media reports of wildlife confiscation events involving pangolins in Viet Nam between January 2016 and December 2020, to illustrate the global pangolin supply chain in the context of Viet Nam where the trade confiscated pangolins were sampled for this study. All specimens from pangolins and civets sampled along the wildlife supply chains between February 2017 and July 2018, in Viet Nam and tested with conventional PCR assays designed to detect flavivirus, paramyxovirus, filovirus, coronavirus, and orthomyxovirus RNA were negative. Civet samples were also negative for Sarbecoviruses, but 12 specimens from seven live pangolins confiscated in Hung Yen province, northern Viet Nam, in 2018 were positive for Sarbecoviruses. Our phylogenetic trees based on two fragments of the RdRp gene revealed that the Sarbecoviruses identified in these pangolins were closely related to pangolin coronaviruses detected in pangolins confiscated from the illegal wildlife trade in Yunnan and Guangxi provinces, China. Our curated data collection of media reports of wildlife confiscation events involving pangolins in Viet Nam between January 2016 and December 2020, reflected what is known about pangolin trafficking globally. Pangolins confiscated in Viet Nam were largely in transit, moving toward downstream consumers in China. Confiscations included pangolin scales sourced originally from Africa (and African species of pangolins), or pangolin carcasses and live pangolins native to Southeast Asia (predominately the Sunda pangolin) sourced from neighboring range countries and moving through Viet Nam toward provinces bordering China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pangolins , Animals , Animals, Wild , China , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnam/epidemiology
9.
Cogent Economics & Finance ; 10(1):2051824, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1764472
10.
Neurol Sci ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that acute stroke services were compromised during COVID-19 due to various pandemic-related issues. We aimed to investigate these changes by recruiting centers from different countries. METHODS: Eight countries participated in this cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study by providing data from their stroke data base. We compared 1 year before to 1 year during COVID-19 as regards onset to door (OTD), door to needle (DTN), door to groin (DTG), duration of hospital stay, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at baseline, 24 h, and at discharge as well as modified Rankin score (mRS) on discharge and at 3 months follow-up. RESULTS: During the pandemic year, there was a reduction in the number of patients, median age was significantly lower, admission NIHSS was higher, hemorrhagic stroke increased, and OTD and DTG showed no difference, while DTN time was longer, rtPA administration was decreased, thrombectomy was more frequent, and hospital stay was shorter. mRS was less favorable on discharge and at 3 months. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 showed variable effects on stroke services. Some were negatively impacted as the number of patients presenting to hospitals, DTN time, and stroke outcome, while others were marginally affected as the type of management.

11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752748

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude of active and recovering COVID-19 patients among at-risk communities and to identify the factors associated with positive serology. METHODS: Four hundred and eighty-three close contacts of COVID-19 patients residing in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 epidemic (September and October 2021) were included. Five weeks after exposure to a COVID-19 patient, they underwent a serology test using the BIOSYNEX COVID-19 BSS kit. RESULTS: The median age of participants was 37 years. A total of 34.6% individuals presented at least one clinical symptom between the time of contact with the COVID-19 patient and inclusion in study. A total of 1.7% unvaccinated individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time PCR, and 9.5% had evidence of recent infection (positive PCR and/or IgM). A further 26.7% unvaccinated individuals presented evidence of a past infection (positive IgG only). Socio-demographic characteristics, vaccination status and clinical symptoms were not associated with a positive IgM test. CONCLUSION: This is the first serosurvey conducted during the fourth wave of the epidemic in Vietnam. It revealed a seropositivity rate higher than in previous studies and confirmed the hyperendemicity of SARS-CoV-2. Testing using rapid serological tests proved to be a reliable, easy-to-use method and enabled a rapid estimation of the burden of COVID-19.

12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(7): e0228921, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741571

ABSTRACT

Monitoring the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 variants is necessary to make informed public health decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic. PCR assays have received global attention, facilitating a rapid understanding of variant dynamics because they are more accessible and scalable than genome sequencing. However, as PCR assays target only a few mutations, their accuracy could be reduced when these mutations are not exclusive to the target variants. Here we introduce PRIMES, an algorithm that evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 variant-specific PCR assays across different geographical regions by incorporating sequences deposited in the GISAID database. Using PRIMES, we determined that the accuracy of several PCR assays decreased when applied beyond the geographic scope of the study in which the assays were developed. Subsequently, we used this tool to design Alpha and Delta variant-specific PCR assays for samples from Illinois, USA. In silico analysis using PRIMES determined the sensitivity/specificity to be 0.99/0.99 for the Alpha variant-specific PCR assay and 0.98/1.00 for the Delta variant-specific PCR assay in Illinois, respectively. We applied these two variant-specific PCR assays to six local sewage samples and determined the dominant SARS-CoV-2 variant of either the wild type, the Alpha variant, or the Delta variant. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the spike (S) gene amplicons of the Delta variant-dominant samples, we found six mutations exclusive to the Delta variant (S:T19R, S:Δ156/157, S:L452R, S:T478K, S:P681R, and S:D950N). The consistency between the variant-specific PCR assays and the NGS results supports the applicability of PRIMES. IMPORTANCE Monitoring the introduction and prevalence of variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs) in a community can help the local authorities make informed public health decisions. PCR assays can be designed to keep track of SARS-CoV-2 variants by measuring unique mutation markers that are exclusive to the target variants. However, the mutation markers may not be exclusive to the target variants because of regional and temporal differences in variant dynamics. We introduce PRIMES, an algorithm that enables the design of reliable PCR assays for variant detection. Because PCR is more accessible, scalable, and robust for sewage samples than sequencing technology, our findings will contribute to improving global SARS-CoV-2 variant surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sewage
13.
Economies ; 10(3):57, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1715184

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on understanding the factors that affect the intention of using financial technology among young Vietnamese in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Fintech studies are abundant in developed countries and mainly focus on consumers' conditions, awareness, habits, and capital. These are expected to differ significantly from the situation in developing countries. We have reviewed factors that can affect the user's intention, including the Perceived Benefit (PB), Perceived Risk (PR), Belief (B), and Social Influence (SI), and rely on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) model in this research. The survey sample comprises 161 Z-generation consumers with strong flexibility and knowledge about the use of Fintech. We use the PLS-SEM (partial least squares structural equation modeling) analysis method with the SmartPLS software (SmartPLS GmbH, Oststeinbek, Germany) to evaluate the research model. We find that the Perceived Benefit (PB) has the most significant impact on the intention to use Fintech, followed by Belief (B). However, in general, the factors are not significant, perhaps due to many reasons that are intrinsic in Vietnam. Based on this result, service providers, policymakers, and researchers can calibrate the development and research for the following stages. We offer findings different from the previous research, thus especially extending the literature on young people.

14.
Crit Care Med ; 50(3): 353-362, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has disrupted critical care services across the world. In anticipation of surges in the need for critical care services, governments implemented "lockdown" measures to preserve and create added critical care capacity. Herein, we describe the impact of lockdown measures on the utilization of critical care services and patient outcomes compared with nonlockdown epochs in a large integrated health region. DESIGN: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Seventeen adult ICUs across 14 acute care hospitals in Alberta, Canada. PATIENTS: All adult (age ≥ 15 yr) patients admitted to any study ICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main exposure was ICU admission during "lockdown" occurring between March 16, 2020, and June 30, 2020. This period was compared with two nonpandemic control periods: "year prior" (March 16, 2019, to June 30, 2019) and "pre lockdown" immediately prior (November 30, 2019, to March 15, 2020). The primary outcome was the number of ICU admissions. Secondary outcomes included the following: daily measures of ICU utilization, ICU duration of stay, avoidable delay in ICU discharge, and occupancy; and patient outcomes. Mixed multilevel negative binomial regression and interrupted time series regression were used to compare rates of ICU admissions between periods. Multivariable regressions were used to compare patient outcomes between periods. During the lockdown, there were 3,649 ICU admissions (34.1 [8.0] ICU admissions/d), compared with 4,125 (38.6 [9.3]) during the prelockdown period and 3,919 (36.6 [8.7]) during the year prior. Mean bed occupancy declined significantly during the lockdown compared with the nonpandemic periods (78.7%, 95.9%, and 96.4%; p < 0.001). Avoidable ICU discharge delay also decreased significantly (42.0%, 53.2%, and 58.3%; p < 0.001). During the lockdown, patients were younger, had fewer comorbid diseases, had higher acuity, and were more likely to be medical admissions compared with the nonpandemic periods. Adjusted ICU and hospital mortality and ICU and hospital lengths of stay were significantly lower during the lockdown compared with nonpandemic periods. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown resulted in substantial changes to ICU utilization, including a reduction in admissions, occupancy, patient lengths of stay, and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , APACHE , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Alberta/epidemiology , Bed Occupancy , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Public Health , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
15.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327339

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology has emerged as a promising tool to monitor pathogens in a population, particularly when clinical diagnostic capacities become overwhelmed. During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), several jurisdictions have tracked viral concentrations in wastewater to inform public health authorities. While some studies have also sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes from wastewater, there have been relatively few direct comparisons between viral genetic diversity in wastewater and matched clinical samples from the same region and time period. Here we report sequencing and inference of SARS-CoV-2 mutations and variant lineages (including variants of concern) in 936 wastewater samples and thousands of matched clinical sequences collected between March 2020 and July 2021 in the cities of Montreal, Quebec City, and Laval, representing almost half the population of the Canadian province of Quebec. We benchmarked our sequencing and variant-calling methods on known viral genome sequences to establish thresholds for inferring variants in wastewater with confidence. We found that variant frequency estimates in wastewater and clinical samples are correlated over time in each city, with similar dates of first detection. Across all variant lineages, wastewater detection is more concordant with targeted outbreak sequencing than with semi-random clinical swab sampling. Most variants were first observed in clinical and outbreak data due to higher sequencing rate. However, wastewater sequencing is highly efficient, detecting more variants for a given sampling effort. This shows the potential for wastewater sequencing to provide useful public health data, especially at places or times when sufficient clinical sampling is infrequent or infeasible.

16.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327207

ABSTRACT

Pathways of transmission of coronavirus (COVID-19) disease in the human population are still emerging. However, empirical observations suggest that dense human settlements are the most adversely impacted, corroborating a broad consensus that human-to-human transmission is a key mechanism for the rapid spread of this disease. Here, using logistic regression techniques, estimates of threshold levels of population density were computed corresponding to the incidence in the human population. Regions with population densities greater than 3000 person per square mile in the United States have about 95% likelihood to get infected with COVID-19. Since case numbers of COVID-19 dynamically changed each day until November 30, 2020, ca. 4% of US counties were at 50% or higher risk of COVID-19 transmission. While threshold on population density is not the sole indicator for predictability of coronavirus in human population, yet it is one of the key variables on understanding and rethinking human settlement in urban landscapes. Plane language Summary Population density is certainly one of the key factors influencing the transmission of infectious diseases like COVID-19. It is approximated that in continental United States, population density of 1192 per square mile and higher presents 50% probability of getting infected with COVID-19. Key Points Based on data from the USA, the population density of 1192 persons per square mile represented a 50% or higher probability of risk of transmission of COVID-19. About 35 counties in the USA are at very high risk of transmission potential (95% or higher) for COVID-19. Analysis shows the vulnerability of urban towns to respiratory infectious disease

17.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326254

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been applied widely in our daily lives in a variety of ways with numerous success stories. AI has also contributed to dealing with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has been happening around the globe. This paper presents a survey of AI methods being used in various applications in the fight against the COVID-19 outbreak and outlines the crucial role of AI research in this unprecedented battle. We touch on areas where AI plays as an essential component, from medical image processing, data analytics, text mining and natural language processing, the Internet of Things, to computational biology and medicine. A summary of COVID-19 related data sources that are available for research purposes is also presented. Research directions on exploring the potential of AI and enhancing its capability and power in the pandemic battle are thoroughly discussed. We identify 13 groups of problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic and highlight promising AI methods and tools that can be used to address these problems. It is envisaged that this study will provide AI researchers and the wider community with an overview of the current status of AI applications, and motivate researchers to harness AI's potential in the fight against COVID-19.

18.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326253

ABSTRACT

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have recently emerged as a robust framework for graph-structured data. They have been applied to many problems such as knowledge graph analysis, social networks recommendation, and even Covid19 detection and vaccine developments. However, unlike other deep neural networks such as Feed Forward Neural Networks (FFNNs), few analyses such as verification and property inferences exist, potentially due to dynamic behaviors of GNNs, which can take arbitrary graphs as input, whereas FFNNs which only take fixed size numerical vectors as inputs. This paper proposes an approach to analyze GNNs by converting them into FFNNs and reusing existing FFNNs analyses. We discuss various designs to ensure the scalability and accuracy of the conversions. We illustrate our method on a study case of node classification. We believe that our approach opens new research directions for understanding and analyzing GNNs.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322704

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a well-known cause of severe enteric, respiratory, and systemic disease in a wide range of animals and in humans. To understand the route of disease origin and viral transmission in companion animals, a comparative pan-genomic analysis of coronavirus sequences originating from major felines and canines were conducted. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) is a rapid procedure for assessing the very close antigenic relationship between feline CoV (FCoVs) and canine CoV (CCoVs) and ANI-based phylogenetic tree that clustered CoVs according to their respective host species. While pan-genomic analysis demarcated strains clearly. The distribution of the clinical isolates all across the categories in the hierarchical phylogenetic model enabled the visualization of their original ecological niche rather than their isolation source, as infections are extremely rare events and evolutionary dead-ends. In polymorphism analysis, we found seven accessory gene clusters common to the FCoV/CCoV category clade, including pantropic strains, that perform functions supporting their pathogenicity. In addition, the gene presence/absence among FCoVs and CCoVs would provide very valuable information on species-specific control measures against CoV disease, such as the selection of good markers for differentiating new species from common and/or pantropic isolates. Also, the virulent FCoV strains were grouped with human CoV strains NL63 and 229E confirming hypotheses stating that cats are highly susceptible to HCoVs, while dogs have low susceptibility to the virus. In conclusion, the combined analysis allows for better phylogenetic resolution and the implication of virus origins, recombination, and virus–host interaction, as well as biomarkers.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318251

ABSTRACT

A pandemic such as COVID-19 can cause a sudden depletion in the worldwide supply of respirators, forcing healthcare providers to reuse them. In this study, we systematically evaluated dry heat treatment as a viable option for the safe decontamination of N95 respirators (1860, 3M) before its reuse. We found that the dry heat generated by an electric cooker (100°C, 5% relative humidity, 50 min) effectively inactivated Tulane virus (>5.2-log10 reduction), rotavirus (>6.6-log10 reduction), adenovirus (>4.0-log10 reduction), and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (>4.7-log10 reduction). The respirator integrity (determined based on the particle filtration efficiency and quantitative fit testing) was not compromised after 20 cycles of 50-min dry heat treatment. Based on these results, we propose dry heat decontamination generated by an electric cooker (e.g., rice cookers, instant pots, ovens) to be an effective and accessible decontamination method for the safe reuse of N95 respirators.

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