Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 81
Filter
1.
Health Promot Perspect ; 12(2): 192-199, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2057088

ABSTRACT

Background: The Japanese government advised mild or asymptomatic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases to self-isolate at home, while more severe individuals were treated at health posts. Poor compliance with self-isolation could be a potential reason for the new outbreak. Our study aimed to find out the correlation between the rising new cases of COVID-19 and home-based patients in Japan. Methods: A secondary data analysis study was conducted with the data from COVID-19- involved databases collected from Johns Hopkins University, Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and Community Mobility Reports of Google. New community cases, stringency index, number of tests, and active cases were analyzed. Using a linear regression model, an independent variable was utilized for a given date to predict the future number of community cases. Results: Research results show that outpatient cases, the stringency, and Google Mobility Trend were all significantly associated with the number of COVID-19 community cases from the sixth day to the ninth day. The model predicting community cases on the eighth day (R2=0.8906) was the most appropriate showing outpatients, residential index, grocery and pharmacy index, retail and recreation index, and workplaces index were positively related (ß1=24.2, 95% CI: 20.3- 26.3, P<0.0001; ß2=277.7, 95% CI: 171.8-408.2, P<0.0001; ß3=112.4, 95% CI: 79.8-158.3, P<0.0001; ß4=73.1, 95% CI: 53- 04.4, P<0.0001; ß5=57.2, 95% CI: 25.2-96.8, P=0.001, respectively). In contrast, inpatients, park index, and adjusted stringency index were negatively related to the number of community cases (ß6=-2.8, 95% CI: -3.9 - -1.6, P<0.0001; ß7=-33, 95% CI: -43.6 - -27, P<0.0001; ß8=-14.4, 95% CI: -20.1- -12, P<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion: Outpatient cases and indexes of Community Mobility Reports were associated with COVID-19 community cases.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2343-2347, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054907

ABSTRACT

To determine the epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus in homeless shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed data and sequences from respiratory specimens collected in 23 shelters in Washington, USA, during 2019-2021. Two clusters in children were genetically similar by shelter of origin. Shelter-specific interventions are needed to reduce these infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Washington/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology
3.
Rev Med Virol ; : e2398, 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047931

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) has created great global distress. This variant of concern shows multiple sublineages, importantly B.1.1.529.1 (BA.1), BA.1 + R346K (BA.1.1), and B.1.1.529.2 (BA.2), each with unique properties. However, little is known about this new variant, specifically its sub-variants. A narrative review was conducted to summarise the latest findings on transmissibility, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and efficacy of current vaccines and treatments. Omicron has shown two times higher transmission rates than Delta and above ten times more infectious than other variants over a similar period. With more than 30 mutations in the spike protein's receptor-binding domain, there is reduced detection by conventional RT-PCR and rapid antigen tests. Moreover, the two-dose vaccine effectiveness against Delta and Omicron variants was found to be approximately 21%, suggesting an urgent need for a booster dose to prevent the possibility of breakthrough infections. However, the current vaccines remain highly efficacious against severe disease, hospitalisation, and mortality. Japanese preliminary lab data elucidated that the Omicron sublineage BA.2 shows a higher illness severity than BA.1. To date, the clinical management of Omicron remains unchanged, except for monoclonal antibodies. Thus far, only Bebtelovimab could sufficiently treat all three sub-variants of Omicron. Further studies are warranted to understand the complexity of Omicron and its sub-variants. Such research is necessary to improve the management and prevention of Omicron infection.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 119: 117-118, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036055
6.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-8, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028797

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since there is not enough evidence of risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, this study aimed to evaluate them. METHODS: This survey-based study was conducted across 66 countries from May to November 2020 among suspected and confirmed individuals with COVID-19. The stepwise AIC method was utilized to determine the optimal multivariable logistic regression to explore predictive factors of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. RESULTS: Among 2372 respondents who participated in the study, there were 1172 valid responses. The profession of non-healthcare-worker (OR: 1.77, 95%CI: 1.04-3.00, p = .032), history of SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV infection (OR: 4.78, 95%CI: 2.34-9.63, p < .001), higher frequency of contact with colleagues (OR: 1.17, 95%CI: 1.01-1.37, p = .041), and habit of hugging when greeting (OR: 1.25, 95%CI: 1.00-1.56, p = .049) were associated with an increased risk of contracting COVID-19. Current smokers had a lower likelihood of having COVID-19 compared to former smokers (OR: 5.41, 95%CI: 1.93-17.49, p = .002) or non-smokers (OR: 3.69, 95%CI: 1.48-11.11, p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests several risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 transmission including the profession of non-healthcare workers, history of other coronavirus infections, frequent close contact with colleagues, the habit of hugging when greeting, and smoking status.


Since there is not enough evidence of risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, this study aimed to evaluate them. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was higher among non-healthcare workers and among those who had a history of being tested positive for SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV before the COVID-19 outbreak. The habit of frequent contact with colleagues or hugging when greeting significantly increased the risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2. The current smokers had a lower risk of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2 than others who had a habit of smoking tobacco in the past or who had never smoked.

7.
Lancet Regional Health. Americas ; 15:100348-100348, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998577

ABSTRACT

Background The circulation of respiratory viruses poses a significant health risk among those residing in congregate settings. Data are limited on seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in homeless shelter settings. Methods We analysed data from a clinical trial and SARS-CoV-2 surveillance study at 23 homeless shelter sites in King County, Washington between October 2019-May 2021. Eligible participants were shelter residents aged ≥3 months with acute respiratory illness. We collected enrolment data and nasal samples for respiratory virus testing using multiplex RT-PCR platform including HCoV. Beginning April 1, 2020, eligibility expanded to shelter residents and staff regardless of symptoms. HCoV species was determined by RT-PCR with species-specific primers, OpenArray assay or genomic sequencing for samples with an OpenArray relative cycle threshold <22. Findings Of the 14,464 samples from 3281 participants between October 2019-May 2021, 107 were positive for HCoV from 90 participants (median age 40 years, range: 0·9-81 years, 38% female). HCoV-HKU1 was the most common species identified before and after community-wide mitigation. No HCoV-positive samples were identified between May 2020-December 2020. Adults aged ≥50 years had the highest detection of HCoV (11%) among virus-positive samples among all age-groups. Species and sequence data showed diversity between and within HCoV species over the study period. Interpretation HCoV infections occurred in all congregate homeless shelter site age-groups with the greatest proportion among those aged ≥50 years. Species and sequencing data highlight the complexity of HCoV epidemiology within and between shelters sites. Funding Gates Ventures, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Health.

8.
Hepatology ; 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1940885

ABSTRACT

Since April 2022, the world has been witnessing a rapidly spreading outbreak of acute hepatitis of unknown origin in children < 16 years old that has affected several countries around the world. Most of the cases have presented with the clinical picture of severe hepatitis that has led to resorting to liver transplantation in several cases. Despite the numerous theories that have been suggested on the possible underlying etiologies of the outbreak, an association with hepatitis A-E viruses and a link to COVID-19 vaccines have been excluded. Adenovirus serotype 41 has been detected in numerous cases, which makes it the most likely underlying cause of the disease. Nevertheless, other hypotheses are being investigated to justify the severity of the clinical picture, which is not typical of this type of virus. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about the outbreak, highlight the suggested working hypotheses, and report the public health measures undertaken to tackle the outbreak.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is highly transmissible in vaccinated and unvaccinated populations. The dynamics governing its establishment and propensity towards fixation (reaching 100% frequency in the SARS-CoV-2 population) in communities remain unknown. In this work, we describe the dynamics of Omicron at three institutions of higher education (IHEs) in the greater Boston area. METHODS: We use diagnostic and variant-specifying molecular assays and epidemiological analytical approaches to describe the rapid dominance of Omicron following its introduction to three IHEs with asymptomatic surveillance programs. RESULTS: We show that the establishment of Omicron at IHEs precedes that of the state and region, and that the time to fixation is shorter at IHEs (9.5-12.5 days) than in the state (14.8 days) or region. We show that the trajectory of Omicron fixation among university employees resembles that of students, with a 2-3 day delay. Finally, we compare cycle threshold (Ct) values in Omicron vs. Delta variant cases on college campuses, and identify lower viral loads among college affiliates harboring Omicron infections. CONCLUSIONS: We document the rapid takeover of the Omicron variant at IHEs, reaching near-fixation within the span of 9.5-12.5 days despite lower viral loads, on average, than the previously dominant Delta variant. These findings highlight the transmissibility of Omicron, its propensity to rapidly dominate small populations, and the ability of robust asymptomatic surveillance programs to offer early insights into the dynamics of pathogen arrival and spread.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Supplement_3): S304-S314, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in all people, including those experiencing homelessness. RV epidemiology in homeless shelters is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional homeless shelter study in King County, Washington, October 2019-May 2021. Shelter residents or guardians aged ≥3 months reporting acute respiratory illness completed questionnaires and submitted nasal swabs. After 1 April 2020, enrollment expanded to residents and staff regardless of symptoms. Samples were tested by multiplex RT-PCR for respiratory viruses. A subset of RV-positive samples was sequenced. RESULTS: There were 1066 RV-positive samples with RV present every month of the study period. RV was the most common virus before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (43% and 77% of virus-positive samples, respectively). Participants from family shelters had the highest prevalence of RV. Among 131 sequenced samples, 33 RV serotypes were identified with each serotype detected for ≤4 months. CONCLUSIONS: RV infections persisted through community mitigation measures and were most prevalent in shelters housing families. Sequencing showed a diversity of circulating RV serotypes, each detected over short periods of time. Community-based surveillance in congregate settings is important to characterize respiratory viral infections during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04141917.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Homeless Persons , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , Rhinovirus/genetics , Washington/epidemiology
11.
Telemed J E Health ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908724

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telepharmacy is widely known as the delivery of pharmacy care offered by registered pharmacists and pharmacies using telecommunication technologies to patients at a distance. We conducted a systematic review of the reported usages, benefits, and limitations of telepharmacy models worldwide to further clarify the pros and cons of a telepharmacy model. Methods: A total of 39 relevant articles was included after searching for articles with a fixed term on four databases, including PubMed, Virtual Health Library (VHL), Global Health Library (GHL), and Google Scholar, as of April 2021. Results: Our review suggested that telepharmacy has played an essential role in addressing pharmacist shortages and helping patients both safely and effectively administer medications in underserved areas. During the COVID-19 pandemic, remote dispensing and counseling are effective measures to avoid infection. Conclusion: Telepharmacy could potentially replace or complement pharmaceutical-related activities, facilitating future innovation in the health care industry.

13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 120: 217-227, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889488

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of favipiravir in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Our protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020206305). Fourteen databases were searched until February 8th, 2021. An update search for new RCTs was done on March 2nd, 2022. Meta-analysis was done for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs. RESULTS: Overall, 157 studies (24 RCTs, 1 non-RCT, 21 observational studies, 2 case series, and 106 case reports) were included. On hospitalized patients, in comparison to standard of care, favipiravir showed a higher rate of viral clearance at day 5 (RR = 1.60, p = 0.02), defervescence at day 3-4 (RR = 1.99, p <0.01), chest radiological improvement (RR = 1.33, p <0.01), hospital discharge at day 10-11 (RR = 1.19, p <0.01), and shorter clinical improvement time (MD = -1.18, p = 0.05). Regarding adverse events, favipiravir groups had higher rates of hyperuricemia (RR = 9.42, p <0.01), increased alanine aminotransferase (RR = 1.35, p <0.01) but lower rates of nausea (RR = 0.42, p <0.01) and vomiting (R R= 0.19, p=0.02). There were no differences regarding mortality (RR=1.19, p=0.32), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (RR = 1.11, p = 0.25). On nonhospitalized patients, no significant differences were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Adding favipiravir to the standard of care provides better outcomes for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Pregnant, lactating women, and patients with a history of hyperuricemia should avoid using favipiravir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hyperuricemia , Amides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Pyrazines , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
Pulm Ther ; 8(3): 333-342, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859203

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has uncontrollable effects on many organs. A great number of previously published scientific reports have revealed that patients with diabetes mellitus face a more severe form of Covid-19 with a higher death rate. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old unvaccinated boy who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with a history of fever, cough, dyspnea, throat pain, nausea, and confusion that progressed to lethargy after 24 h. On clinical examination, he was in a coma with Kussmaul's breathing, and was anuric. His blood biochemical analysis demonstrated hyperglycemia, severe metabolic acidosis, kidney failure, electrolyte disturbances, and inflammation. Chest x-ray showed pneumonia and a pleural effusion. The results of the SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase chain reaction were positive. The patient was diagnosed with Covid-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children secondary to his acute respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, and new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus with diabetic ketoacidosis. He was intubated for invasive mechanical ventilation and received a normal saline infusion and continuous insulin infusion (0.1 IU/kg/h) for the treatment of his diabetic ketoacidosis. He was also treated with methylprednisolone, aspirin, and heparin, and underwent continuous renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure for 9 days. The patient was discharged from ICU on day 16 and was followed up regularly as an outpatient with daily treatment, including subcutaneous insulin injection (30 IU/day) and a calcium channel blocker for hypertension (nifedipine 20 mg/day).

15.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 24: 100474, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851725

ABSTRACT

Background: Nanocovax is a recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 subunit vaccine composed of full-length prefusion stabilized recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins (S-2P) and aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. Methods: We conducted a dose-escalation, open label trial (phase 1) and a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (phase 2) to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the Nanocovax vaccine (in 25 mcg, 50 mcg, and 75 mcg doses, aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted (0·5 mg/dose) in 2-dose regime, 28 days apart (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04683484). In phase 1, 60 participants received two intramuscular injection of the vaccine following dose-escalation procedure. The primary outcomes were reactogenicity and laboratory tests to evaluate the vaccine safety. In phase 2, 560 healthy adults received either vaccine doses similar in phase 1 (25 or 50 or 75 mcg S antigen in 0·5 mg aluminium per dose) or adjuvant (0·5 mg aluminium) in a ratio of 2:2:2:1. One primary outcome was the vaccine safety, including solicited adverse events for 7 day and unsolicited adverse events for 28 days after each injection as well as serious adverse event or adverse events of special interest throughout the study period. Another primary outcome was anti-S IgG antibody response (Index unit/ml). Secondary outcomes were surrogate virus neutralisation (inhibition percentage), wild-type SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation (dilution fold), and T-cell responses by intracellular staining for interferon gamma (IFNg). Anti-S IgG and neutralising antibody levels were compared with convalescent serum samples from symptomatic Covid-19 patients. Findings: For phase 1 study, no serious adverse events were observed for all 60 participants. Most adverse events were grade 1 and disappeared shortly after injection. For phase 2 study, after randomisation, 480 participants were assigned to receive the vaccine with adjuvant, and 80 participants were assigned to receive the placebo (adjuvant only). Reactogenicity was absent or mild in the majority of participants and of short duration (mean ≤3 days). Unsolicited adverse events were mild in most participants. There were no serious adverse events related to Nanocovax. Regarding the immunogenicity, Nanocovax induced robust anti-S antibody responses. In general, there humoral responses were similar among vaccine groups which reached their peaks at day 42 and declined afterward. At day 42, IgG levels of vaccine groups were 60·48 [CI95%: 51·12-71·55], 49·11 [41·26-58·46], 57·18 [48·4-67·5] compared to 7·10 [6·32-13·92] of convalescent samples. IgG levels reported here can be converted to WHO international standard binding antibody unit (BAU/ml) by multiplying them to a conversion factor of 21·8. Neutralising antibody titre of vaccine groups at day 42 were 89·2 [52·2-152·3], 80·0 [50·8-125.9] and 95·1 [63·1-143·6], compared to 55·1 [33·4-91·0] of the convalescent group. Interpretation: Up to day 90, Nanocovax was found to be safe, well tolerated, and induced robust immune responses. Funding: This work was funded by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam, and Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSC.

16.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 1: 100005, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819558
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian-Americans are one of the most understudied racial/ethnic minority populations. To increase representation of Asian subgroups, researchers have traditionally relied on data collection at community venues and events. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has created serious challenges for in-person data collection. In this case study, we describe multi-modal strategies for online recruitment of U.S. Vietnamese parents, compare response rates and participant characteristics among strategies, and discuss lessons learned. METHODS: We recruited 408 participants from community-based organizations (CBOs) (n = 68), Facebook groups (n = 97), listservs (n = 4), personal network (n = 42), and snowball sampling (n = 197). Using chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance, we compared participants recruited through different strategies regarding sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation-related characteristics, and mobile health usage. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71.8% (range: 51.5% for Vietnamese CBOs to 86.6% for Facebook groups). Significant differences exist for all sociodemographic and almost all acculturation-related characteristics among recruitment strategies. Notably, CBO-recruited participants were the oldest, had lived in the U.S. for the longest duration, and had the lowest Vietnamese language ability. We found some similarities between Facebook-recruited participants and those referred by Facebook-recruited participants. Mobile health usage was high and did not vary based on recruitment strategies. Challenges included encountering fraudulent responses (e.g., non-Vietnamese). Perceived benefits and trust appeared to facilitate recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Facebook and snowball sampling may be feasible strategies to recruit U.S. Vietnamese. Findings suggest the potential for mobile-based research implementation. Perceived benefits and trust could encourage participation and may be related to cultural ties. Attention should be paid to recruitment with CBOs and handling fraudulent responses.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Internet , Patient Selection , Adult , Asian Americans/psychology , Cultural Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Selection Bias , Socioeconomic Factors
18.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331639

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Nanocovax is a recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 subunit vaccine composed of full-length prefusion stabilized recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins (S-2P) and aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. In a Phase 1 and 2 studies, ( NCT04683484 ) the vaccine was found to be safe and induce a robust immune response in healthy adult participants. Methods We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of the Nanocovax vaccine against Covid-19 in approximately 13,007 volunteers aged 18 years and over. The immunogenicity was assessed based on Anti-S IgG antibody response, surrogate virus neutralization, wild-type SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and the types of helper T-cell response by intracellular staining (ICS) for interferon gamma (IFNg) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). The vaccine efficacy (VE) was calculated basing on serologically confirmed cases of Covid-19. Findings Up to day 180, incidences of solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AE) were similar between vaccine and placebo groups. 100 serious adverse events (SAE) were observed in both vaccine and placebo groups (out of total 13007 participants). 96 out of these 100 SAEs were determined to be unrelated to the investigational products. 4 SAEs were possibly related, as determined by the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) and investigators. Reactogenicity was absent or mild in the majority of participants and of short duration. These findings highlight the excellent safety profile of Nanocovax. Regarding immunogenicity, Nanocovax induced robust IgG and neutralizing antibody responses. Importantly, Anti S-IgG levels and neutralizing antibody titers on day 42 were higher than those of natural infected cases. Nanocovax was found to induce Th2 polarization rather than Th1. Post-hoc analysis showed that the VE against symptomatic disease was 51.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] was [34.4%-64.1%]. VE against severe illness and death were 93.3% [62.2-98.1]. Notably, the dominant strain during the period of this study was Delta variant. Interpretation Nanocovax 25 microgram (mcg) was found to be safe with the efficacy against symptomatic infection of Delta variant of 51.5%. Funding Research was funded by Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSC., and the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam;ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04922788 .

19.
International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755892
20.
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL