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Pulm Ther ; 8(3): 333-342, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35608797


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has uncontrollable effects on many organs. A great number of previously published scientific reports have revealed that patients with diabetes mellitus face a more severe form of Covid-19 with a higher death rate. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old unvaccinated boy who was admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with a history of fever, cough, dyspnea, throat pain, nausea, and confusion that progressed to lethargy after 24 h. On clinical examination, he was in a coma with Kussmaul's breathing, and was anuric. His blood biochemical analysis demonstrated hyperglycemia, severe metabolic acidosis, kidney failure, electrolyte disturbances, and inflammation. Chest x-ray showed pneumonia and a pleural effusion. The results of the SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase chain reaction were positive. The patient was diagnosed with Covid-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children secondary to his acute respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, and new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus with diabetic ketoacidosis. He was intubated for invasive mechanical ventilation and received a normal saline infusion and continuous insulin infusion (0.1 IU/kg/h) for the treatment of his diabetic ketoacidosis. He was also treated with methylprednisolone, aspirin, and heparin, and underwent continuous renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure for 9 days. The patient was discharged from ICU on day 16 and was followed up regularly as an outpatient with daily treatment, including subcutaneous insulin injection (30 IU/day) and a calcium channel blocker for hypertension (nifedipine 20 mg/day).

Dev Biol ; 357(1): 211-26, 2011 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21723275


Polarized cortical mRNA determinants such as maternal macho-1 and pem-1 in ascidians, like budding yeast mating factor ASH1 reside on the cER-mRNA domain a subdomain of cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) and are translated in its vicinity. Using high resolution imaging and isolated cortical fragments prepared from eggs and embryos we now find that macho-1 and pem-1 RNAs co-localize with phospho-protein regulators of translation initiation (MnK/4EBP/S6K). Translation of cortical pem-1 RNA follows its bi-polarized relocalization. About 10 min after fertilization or artificial activation with a calcium ionophore, PEM1 protein is detected in the vegetal cortex in the vicinity of pem-1 RNA. About 40 min after fertilization-when pem-1 RNA and P-MnK move to the posterior pole-PEM1 protein remains in place forming a network of cortical patches anchored at the level of the zygote plasma membrane before disappearing. Cortical PEM1 protein is detected again at the 4 cell stage in the posterior centrosome attracting body (CAB) region where the cER-mRNA domain harboring pem-1/P-MnK/P-4EBP/P-S6K is concentrated. Bi-polarized PEM1 protein signals are not detected when pem-1 morpholinos are injected into eggs or zygotes or when MnK is inhibited. We propose that localized translation of the pem-1 RNA determinant is triggered by the fertilization/calcium wave and that the process is controlled by phospho-protein regulators of translation initiation co-localized with the RNA determinant on a sub-domain of the cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum.

Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis/physiology , RNA, Messenger, Stored/metabolism , Urochordata/genetics , Animals , Cell Polarity/physiology , Centrosome/metabolism , Drosophila/embryology , Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Urochordata/metabolism , Xenopus/embryology
Cytokine ; 45(3): 169-73, 2009 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19147373


T-cell functions are currently used as biomarkers for the pharmacodynamic monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs or as disease biomarkers of inflammation/sepsis and organ rejection. In order to evaluate co-factors potentially influencing the expression of the immunological biomarkers, we explored T-cell proliferation, T-cell activation (CD25 and CD71 expressions) and intra-lymphocyte cytokine production (interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) in healthy volunteers, dialysis patients and stable kidney-transplant patients treated with standard immunosuppressive therapy, i.e. tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid with or without steroids. Age was positively correlated with TNF-alpha expression in all three patient populations, and with IL-2 expression in healthy volunteers and kidney-transplant patients. Further age was correlated with inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in healthy volunteers and with the T-cell activation marker CD25 in kidney-transplant patients. In healthy volunteers lymphocyte proliferation was higher in woman as compared to men. Other biomarkers of T-cell function were independent of the gender. In the kidney-transplant patient group a significantly lower expression of all biomarkers of T-cell functions compared to healthy volunteers and dialysis patients. In dialysis patients we found significant increased IL-2 expression compared to healthy volunteers, while the other T-cell functions were not significantly different. Further time on dialysis had no effect on the level of biomarker expression. In conclusion we found decreased T-cell functions in kidney-transplant patients compared to healthy volunteers and dialysis patients, increased IL-2 expression in dialysis patients compared to healthy volunteers and in all three populations we found a correlation of age and intra-T-lymphocyte TNF-alpha expression.

Biomarkers/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Kidney Transplantation/immunology , Renal Dialysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Adult , Aging , Antigens, CD/biosynthesis , Cell Proliferation , Female , Humans , Interleukin-2/biosynthesis , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/biosynthesis , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Transferrin/biosynthesis