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Nat Metab ; 3(7): 909-922, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279905


Exosomes represent a subtype of extracellular vesicle that is released through retrograde transport and fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane1. Although no perfect methodologies currently exist for the high-throughput, unbiased isolation of pure plasma exosomes2,3, investigation of exosome-enriched plasma fractions of extracellular vesicles can confer a glimpse into the endocytic pathway on a systems level. Here we conduct high-coverage lipidomics with an emphasis on sterols and oxysterols, and proteomic analyses of exosome-enriched extracellular vesicles (EVs hereafter) from patients at different temporal stages of COVID-19, including the presymptomatic, hyperinflammatory, resolution and convalescent phases. Our study highlights dysregulated raft lipid metabolism that underlies changes in EV lipid membrane anisotropy that alter the exosomal localization of presenilin-1 (PS-1) in the hyperinflammatory phase. We also show in vitro that EVs from different temporal phases trigger distinct metabolic and transcriptional responses in recipient cells, including in alveolar epithelial cells, which denote the primary site of infection, and liver hepatocytes, which represent a distal secondary site. In comparison to the hyperinflammatory phase, EVs from the resolution phase induce opposing effects on eukaryotic translation and Notch signalling. Our results provide insights into cellular lipid metabolism and inter-tissue crosstalk at different stages of COVID-19 and are a resource to increase our understanding of metabolic dysregulation in COVID-19.

COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Lipidomics , Metabolomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Biological Transport , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Fractionation , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Chemical Fractionation , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology/methods , Exosomes/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lipidomics/methods , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
Brain Stimul ; 13(5): 1453-1460, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704141


BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging technology is being developed to enable non-invasive mapping of the latency distribution of cortical projection pathways in white matter, and correlative clinical neurophysiological techniques would be valuable for mutual verification. Interhemispheric interaction through the corpus callosum can be measured with interhemispheric facilitation and inhibition using transcranial magnetic stimulation. OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for determining the latency distribution of the transcallosal fibers with transcranial magnetic stimulation. METHODS: We measured the precise time courses of interhemispheric facilitation and inhibition with a conditioning-test paired-pulse magnetic stimulation paradigm. The conditioning stimulus was applied to the right primary motor cortex and the test stimulus was applied to the left primary motor cortex. The interstimulus interval was set at 0.1 ms resolution. The proportions of transcallosal fibers with different conduction velocities were calculated by measuring the changes in magnitudes of interhemispheric facilitation and inhibition with interstimulus interval. RESULTS: Both interhemispheric facilitation and inhibition increased with increment in interstimulus interval. The magnitude of interhemispheric facilitation was correlated with that of interhemispheric inhibition. The latency distribution of transcallosal fibers measured with interhemispheric facilitation was also correlated with that measured with interhemispheric inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: The data can be interpreted as latency distribution of transcallosal fibers. Interhemispheric interaction measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation is a promising technique to determine the latency distribution of the transcallosal fibers. Similar techniques could be developed for other cortical pathways.

Corpus Callosum/physiology , Electromyography/methods , Evoked Potentials, Motor/physiology , Motor Cortex/physiology , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Functional Laterality/physiology , Humans , Inhibition, Psychological , Male , Neural Inhibition/physiology , Young Adult