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1.
International Journal of Applied Glass Science ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1731162

ABSTRACT

Glass is the most used material in pharmaceutical packaging, and the production volumes are continuously growing. The reasons why glass can be considered the best material for pharmaceutical containers are discussed. A current picture of this area, which was showcased during the Covid-19 pandemic, is provided. Borosilicate glass products, which are currently the most used among those described by the Pharmacopoeia, are mostly considered, but new glasses that may be introduced in the future are also mentioned. A short view on the evolution of this type of glass and the current market situation are provided. Particular emphasis is given to chemical durability. Glasses are generally considered inert from the chemical point of view, but this is not exactly true. Phenomena such as the release of elemental impurities into solution, buffer interaction, and delamination have caused much concern in the last decade or so, especially as the complexity and value of drugs has been increasing. These phenomena are described, and it is pointed out that, thanks to the increasing scientific knowledge and production technologies, these issues are now under control, and the products on the market are of very high quality and very reliable. © 2022 The American Ceramic Society and Wiley Periodicals LLC.

2.
European Journal of Neurology ; 27:1306, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-710401

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection caused by a newly emergent coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. Maladjusted immune responses, e.g. cytokine release syndrome, may result in immunopathology and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid mediator, is crucial in maintaining endothelial cell chemotaxis and barrier integrity (Table 1). An industry- independent clinical study is currently underway in China investigating the efficacy of oral fingolimod 0.5 mg (a non selective S1P receptor modulator) taken once-daily, for three consecutive days in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Here we review the potential mechanisms by which fingolimod may regulate the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 and assess the potential benefit-risk of short-term treatment with fingolimod in patients with COVID- 19 experiencing ARDS. Results: The key hypotheses through which beneficial effects manifest are (1) attenuation of cytokine release via activation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A);(2) inhibition of Th17-mediated pathway;and (3) enhancement of the pulmonary endothelial barrier via c-Abl tyrosine kinase pathway (Table 2). The short-term intervention with fingolimod might rapidly attenuate maladjusted immune responses while sparing memory immune responses and thus has relatively low risk of infections. Any potential effects on heart rate and cardiac rhythm could be managed under the intensive care treatment setting. Furthermore, simulations from a PKPD model of lymphocyte count data with short-term fingolimod treatment will be presented. Conclusions: S1P receptor modulators, such as fingolimod, may represent a potential treatment option to ameliorate immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and merit further investigation following careful benefit-risk evaluation in this setting. (Table Presented) .

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