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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621617

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess if influenza vaccination has an impact on the risk of COVID-19. A cohort of 46,112 health care workers were tested for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and filled in a survey on COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalization, and influenza vaccination. The RR of hospitalization due to SARS-CoV-2 for influenza vaccinated compared with unvaccinated participants was 1.00 for the seasonal vaccination in 2019/2020 (CI 0.56-1.78, p=1.00). Likewise, no clinical effect of influenza vaccination on development of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was found. The present findings indicate that influenza vaccination does not affect the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580632

ABSTRACT

C-reactive protein (CRP) has prognostic value in hospitalized patients with COVID-19; the importance of CRP in pre-hospitalized patients remains to be tested. Methods: Individuals with symptoms of COVID-19 had a SARS-CoV-2 PCR oropharyngeal swab test, and a measurement of CRP was performed at baseline, with an upper reference range of 10 mg/L. After 28 days, information about possible admissions, oxygen treatments, transfers to the ICU, or deaths was obtained from the patient files. Using logistic regression, the prognostic value of the CRP and SARS-CoV-2 test results was evaluated. Results: Among the 1006 patients included, the SARS-CoV-2 PCR test was positive in 59, and the CRP level was elevated (>10 mg/L) in 131. In total, 59 patients were hospitalized, only 3 of whom were SARS-CoV-2 positive, with elevated CRP (n = 2) and normal CRP (n = 1). The probability of being hospitalized with elevated CRP was 4.21 (95%CI 2.38-7.43, p < 0.0001), while the probability of being hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 positivity alone was 0.85 (95%CI 0.26-2.81, p = 0.79). Conclusions: CRP is not a reliable predictor for the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pre-hospitalized patients. CRP, while not a SARS-CoV-2 positive test, had prognostic value in the total population of patients presenting with COVID-19-related symptoms.

3.
J Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with HIV (PWH) are at increased risk of severe COVID-19. We aimed to determine humoral responses in PWH and controls who received two doses of BNT162b2. METHODS: In 269 PWH and 538 age matched controls, we measured IgG and neutralizing antibodies specific for the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 at baseline, three weeks and two months after first dose of BNT162b2. RESULTS: IgG antibodies increased from baseline to three weeks and from three weeks to two months in both groups, but the concentrations of IgG antibodies were lower in PWH than controls at three weeks and two months (p = 0.025 and p<0.001), respectively. The IgG titers in PWH with a humoral response at two months were 77.9% (95% CI: 62.5-97.0%, age and sex-adjusted p = 0.027) of controls. CONCLUSION: Reduced IgG antibody response to vaccination with BNT162b2 was found in PWH, and increased awareness of breakthrough infections in PWH is needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 757197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485060

ABSTRACT

The recent identification and rise to dominance of the P.1 and B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2 variants have brought international concern because they may confer fitness advantages. The same three positions in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) are affected in both variants, but where the 417 substitution differs, the E484K/N501Y have co-evolved by convergent evolution. Here we characterize the functional and immune evasive consequences of the P.1 and B.1.351 RBD mutations. E484K and N501Y result in gain-of-function with two different outcomes: The N501Y confers a ten-fold affinity increase towards ACE-2, but a modest antibody evasion potential of plasma from convalescent or vaccinated individuals, whereas the E484K displays a significant antibody evasion capacity without a major impact on affinity. On the other hand, the two different 417 substitutions severely impair the RBD/ACE-2 affinity, but in the combined P.1 and B.1.351 RBD variants, this effect is partly counterbalanced by the effect of the E484K and N501Y. Our results suggest that the combination of these three mutations is a two-step forward and one step back in terms of viral fitness.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Adult , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0090421, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476401

ABSTRACT

Most individuals seroconvert after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but being seronegative is observed in 1 to 9%. We aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with being seronegative following PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. In a prospective cohort study, we screened health care workers (HCW) in the Capital Region of Denmark for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We performed three rounds of screening from April to October 2020 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method targeting SARS-CoV-2 total antibodies. Data on all participants' PCR for SARS-CoV-2 RNA were captured from national registries. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were applied to investigate the probability of being seronegative and the related risk factors, respectively. Of 36,583 HCW, 866 (2.4%) had a positive PCR before or during the study period. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 866 HCW was 42 (31 to 53) years, and 666 (77%) were female. After a median of 132 (range, 35 to 180) days, 21 (2.4%) of 866 were seronegative. In a multivariable model, independent risk factors for being seronegative were self-reported asymptomatic or mild infection hazard ratio (HR) of 6.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 17; P < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) of ≥30, HR 3.1 (95% CI, 1.1 to 8.8; P = 0.039). Only a few (2.4%) HCW were not seropositive. Asymptomatic or mild infection as well as a BMI above 30 were associated with being seronegative. Since the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 reduces the risk of reinfection, efforts to protect HCW with risk factors for being seronegative may be needed in future COVID-19 surges. IMPORTANCE Most individuals seroconvert after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but negative serology is observed in 1 to 9%. We found that asymptomatic or mild infection as well as a BMI above 30 were associated with being seronegative. Since the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 reduces the risk of reinfection, efforts to protect HCW with risk factors for being seronegative may be needed in future COVID-19 surges.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Denmark , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/analysis , Seroconversion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a key factor in protecting against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We examined longitudinal changes in seroprevalence in healthcare workers (HCWs) in Copenhagen and the protective effect of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this prospective study, screening for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (ELISA) was offered to HCWs three times over 6 months. HCW characteristics were obtained by questionnaires. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346186. RESULTS: From April to October 2020 we screened 44 698 HCWs, of whom 2811 were seropositive at least once. The seroprevalence increased from 4.0% (1501/37 452) to 7.4% (2022/27 457) during the period (p < 0.001) and was significantly higher than in non-HCWs. Frontline HCWs had a significantly increased risk of seropositivity compared to non-frontline HCWs, with risk ratios (RRs) at the three rounds of 1.49 (95%CI 1.34-1.65, p < 0.001), 1.52 (1.39-1.68, p < 0.001) and 1.50 (1.38-1.64, p < 0.001). The seroprevalence was 1.42- to 2.25-fold higher (p < 0.001) in HCWs from dedicated COVID-19 wards than in other frontline HCWs. Seropositive HCWs had an RR of 0.35 (0.15-0.85, p 0.012) of reinfection during the following 6 months, and 2115 out of 2248 (95%) of those who were seropositive during rounds one or two remained seropositive after 4-6 months. The 133 of 2248 participants (5.0%) who seroreverted were slightly older and reported fewer symptoms than other seropositive participants. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs remained at increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 during the 6-month period. Seropositivity against SARS-CoV-2 persisted for at least 6 months in the vast majority of HCWs and was associated with a significantly lower risk of reinfection.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13153, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281729

ABSTRACT

Reports of persistent symptoms after hospitalization with COVID-19 have raised concern of a "long COVID" syndrome. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of and risk factors for acute and persistent symptoms in non-hospitalized patients with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed COVID-19. We conducted a cohort study of non-hospitalized participants identified via the Danish Civil Registration System with a SARS-CoV-2-positive PCR-test and available biobank samples. Participants received a digital questionnaire on demographics and COVID-19-related symptoms. Persistent symptoms: symptoms > 4 weeks (in sensitivity analyses > 12 weeks). We included 445 participants, of whom 34% were asymptomatic. Most common acute symptoms were fatigue, headache, and sneezing, while fatigue and reduced smell and taste were most severe. Persistent symptoms, most commonly fatigue and memory and concentration difficulties, were reported by 36% of 198 symptomatic participants with follow-up > 4 weeks. Risk factors for persistent symptoms included female sex (women 44% vs. men 24%, odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.1, p = 0.003) and BMI (odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2, p = 0.001). In conclusion, among non-hospitalized PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients one third were asymptomatic while one third of symptomatic participants had persistent symptoms illustrating the heterogeneity of disease presentation. These findings should be considered in health care planning and policy making related to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Acute Disease , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(12): 1401-1408, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health-care workers are thought to be highly exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in health-care workers and the proportion of seroconverted health-care workers with previous symptoms of COVID-19. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, screening was offered to health-care workers in the Capital Region of Denmark, including medical, nursing, and other students who were associated with hospitals in the region. Screening included point-of-care tests for IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Test results and participant characteristics were recorded. Results were compared with findings in blood donors in the Capital Region in the study period. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and April 23, 2020, we screened 29 295 health-care workers, of whom 28 792 (98·28%) provided their test results. We identified 1163 (4·04% [95% CI 3·82-4·27]) seropositive health-care workers. Seroprevalence was higher in health-care workers than in blood donors (142 [3·04%] of 4672; risk ratio [RR] 1·33 [95% CI 1·12-1·58]; p<0·001). Seroprevalence was higher in male health-care workers (331 [5·45%] of 6077) than in female health-care workers (832 [3·66%] of 22 715; RR 1·49 [1·31-1·68]; p<0·001). Frontline health-care workers working in hospitals had a significantly higher seroprevalence (779 [4·55%] of 16 356) than health-care workers in other settings (384 [3·29%] of 11 657; RR 1·38 [1·22-1·56]; p<0·001). Health-care workers working on dedicated COVID-19 wards (95 [7·19%] of 1321) had a significantly higher seroprevalence than other frontline health-care workers working in hospitals (696 [4·35%] of 15 983; RR 1·65 [1·34-2·03]; p<0·001). 622 [53·5%] of 1163 seropositive participants reported symptoms attributable to SARS-CoV-2. Loss of taste or smell was the symptom that was most strongly associated with seropositivity (377 [32·39%] of 1164 participants with this symptom were seropositive vs 786 [2·84%] of 27 628 without this symptom; RR 11·38 [10·22-12·68]). The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346186. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of health-care workers with antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 was low but higher than in blood donors. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health-care workers was related to exposure to infected patients. More than half of seropositive health-care workers reported symptoms attributable to COVID-19. FUNDING: Lundbeck Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/classification , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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