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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(4): 268-277, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused more than 210 000 deaths worldwide. However, little is known about the causes of death and the virus's pathologic features. OBJECTIVE: To validate and compare clinical findings with data from medical autopsy, virtual autopsy, and virologic tests. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Autopsies performed at a single academic medical center, as mandated by the German federal state of Hamburg for patients dying with a polymerase chain reaction-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. PATIENTS: The first 12 consecutive COVID-19-positive deaths. MEASUREMENTS: Complete autopsy, including postmortem computed tomography and histopathologic and virologic analysis, was performed. Clinical data and medical course were evaluated. RESULTS: Median patient age was 73 years (range, 52 to 87 years), 75% of patients were male, and death occurred in the hospital (n = 10) or outpatient sector (n = 2). Coronary heart disease and asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most common comorbid conditions (50% and 25%, respectively). Autopsy revealed deep venous thrombosis in 7 of 12 patients (58%) in whom venous thromboembolism was not suspected before death; pulmonary embolism was the direct cause of death in 4 patients. Postmortem computed tomography revealed reticular infiltration of the lungs with severe bilateral, dense consolidation, whereas histomorphologically diffuse alveolar damage was seen in 8 patients. In all patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the lung at high concentrations; viremia in 6 of 10 and 5 of 12 patients demonstrated high viral RNA titers in the liver, kidney, or heart. LIMITATION: Limited sample size. CONCLUSION: The high incidence of thromboembolic events suggests an important role of COVID-19-induced coagulopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism and overall clinical incidence of COVID-19-related death, as well as possible therapeutic interventions to reduce it. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Venous Thromboembolism/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1027586, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109790

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in high hospitalization rates worldwide. Acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 is frequent and associated with disease severity and poor outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of kidney replacement therapy (KRT) in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and its implication on outcome. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all COVID-19 patients admitted to the Department of Intensive Care Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany) between 1 March 2020 and 31 July 2021. Demographics, clinical parameters, type of organ support, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, mortality and severity scores were assessed. Results: Three-hundred critically ill patients with COVID-19 were included. The median age of the study population was 61 (IQR 51-71) years and 66% (n = 198) were male. 73% (n = 219) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation. Overall, 68% (n = 204) of patients suffered from acute respiratory distress syndrome and 30% (n = 91) required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We found that 46% (n = 139) of patients required KRT. Septic shock (OR 11.818, 95% CI: 5.941-23.506, p < 0.001), higher simplified acute physiology scores (SAPS II) (OR 1.048, 95% CI: 1.014-1.084, p = 0.006) and vasopressor therapy (OR 5.475, 95% CI: 1.127-26.589, p = 0.035) were independently associated with the initiation of KRT. 61% (n = 85) of patients with and 18% (n = 29) without KRT died in the ICU (p < 0.001). Cox regression found that KRT was independently associated with mortality (HR 2.075, 95% CI: 1.342-3.208, p = 0.001) after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at high risk of acute kidney injury with about half of patients requiring KRT. The initiation of KRT was associated with high mortality.

3.
Blood Purif ; : 1-10, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020585

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunomodulatory therapies have shown beneficial effects in patients with severe COVID-19. Patients with hypercytokinemia might benefit from the removal of inflammatory mediators via hemadsorption. METHODS: Single-center prospective randomized trial at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Patients with confirmed COVID-19, refractory shock (norepinephrine ≥0.2 µg/kg/min to maintain a mean arterial pressure ≥65 mm Hg), interleukin-6 (IL-6) ≥500 ng/L, and an indication for renal replacement therapy or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were included. Patients received either hemadsorption therapy (HT) or standard medical therapy (SMT). For HT, a CytoSorb® adsorber was used for up to 5 days and was replaced every 18-24 h. The primary endpoint was sustained hemodynamic improvement (norepinephrine ≤0.05 µg/kg/min ≥24 h). RESULTS: Of 242 screened patients, 24 were randomized and assigned to either HT (N = 12) or SMT (N = 12). Both groups had similar severity as assessed by SAPS II (median 75 points HT group vs. 79 SMT group, p = 0.590) and SOFA (17 vs. 16, p = 0.551). Median IL-6 levels were 2,269 (IQR 948-3,679) and 3,747 (1,301-5,415) ng/L in the HT and SMT groups at baseline, respectively (p = 0.378). Shock resolution (primary endpoint) was reached in 33% (4/12) versus 17% (2/12) in the HT and SMT groups, respectively (p = 0.640). Twenty-eight-day mortality was 58% (7/12) in the HT compared to 67% (8/12) in the SMT group (p = 1.0). During the treatment period of 5 days, 6/12 (50%) of the SMT patients died, in contrast to 1/12 (8%) in the HT group. CONCLUSION: HT was associated with a non-significant trend toward clinical improvement within the intervention period. In selected patients, HT might be an option for stabilization before transfer and further therapeutic decisions. This finding warrants further investigation in larger trials.

4.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 204, 2022 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A profound inflammation-mediated lung injury with long-term acute respiratory distress and high mortality is one of the major complications of critical COVID-19. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)-enriched immunoglobulins seem especially capable of mitigating the inflicted inflammatory harm. However, the efficacy of intravenous IgM-enriched preparations in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is largely unclear. METHODS: In this retrospective multicentric cohort study, 316 patients with laboratory-confirmed critical COVID-19 were treated in ten German and Austrian ICUs between May 2020 and April 2021. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Analysis was performed by Cox regression models. Covariate adjustment was performed by propensity score weighting using machine learning-based SuperLearner to overcome the selection bias due to missing randomization. In addition, a subgroup analysis focusing on different treatment regimens and patient characteristics was performed. RESULTS: Of the 316 ICU patients, 146 received IgM-enriched immunoglobulins and 170 cases did not, which served as controls. There was no survival difference between the two groups in terms of mortality at 30 days in the overall cohort (HRadj: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.55 to 1.25; p = 0.374). An improved 30-day survival in patients without mechanical ventilation at the time of the immunoglobulin treatment did not reach statistical significance (HRadj: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.05 to 1.08; p = 0.063). Also, no statistically significant difference was observed in the subgroup when a daily dose of ≥ 15 g and a duration of ≥ 3 days of IgM-enriched immunoglobulins were applied (HRadj: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.41 to 1.03; p = 0.068). CONCLUSIONS: Although we cannot prove a statistically reliable effect of intravenous IgM-enriched immunoglobulins, the confidence intervals may suggest a clinically relevant effect in certain subgroups. Here, an early administration (i.e. in critically ill but not yet mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients) and a dose of ≥ 15 g for at least 3 days may confer beneficial effects without concerning safety issues. However, these findings need to be validated in upcoming randomized clinical trials. Trial registration DRKS00025794 , German Clinical Trials Register, https://www.drks.de . Registered 6 July 2021.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701768

ABSTRACT

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 caused a worldwide healthcare threat. High critical care admission rates related to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure were observed. Medical advances helped increase the number of patients surviving the acute critical illness. However, some patients require prolonged critical care. Data on the outcome of patients with a chronic critical illness (CCI) are scarce. Single-center retrospective study including all adult critically ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 treated at the Department of Intensive Care Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, between 1 March 2020 and 8 August 2021. We identified 304 critically ill patients with COVID-19 during the study period. Of those, 55% (n = 167) had an ICU stay ≥21 days and were defined as chronic critical illness, and 45% (n = 137) had an ICU stay <21 days. Age, sex and BMI were distributed equally between both groups. Patients with CCI had a higher median SAPS II (CCI: 39.5 vs. no-CCI: 38 points, p = 0.140) and SOFA score (10 vs. 6, p < 0.001) on admission. Seventy-three per cent (n = 223) of patients required invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) (86% vs. 58%; p < 0.001). The median duration of MV was 30 (17-49) days and 7 (4-12) days in patients with and without CCI, respectively (p < 0.001). The regression analysis identified ARDS (OR 3.238, 95% CI 1.827-5.740, p < 0.001) and referral from another ICU (OR 2.097, 95% CI 1.203-3.654, p = 0.009) as factors significantly associated with new-onset of CCI. Overall, we observed an ICU mortality of 38% (n = 115) in the study cohort. In patients with CCI we observed an ICU mortality of 28% (n = 46) compared to 50% (n = 69) in patients without CCI (p < 0.001). The 90-day mortality was 28% (n = 46) compared to 50% (n = 70), respectively (p < 0.001). More than half of critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffer from CCI. Short and long-term survival rates in patients with CCI were high compared to patients without CCI, and prolonged therapy should not be withheld when resources permit prolonged therapy.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524051

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) represents a viable therapy option for patients with refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Currently, veno-venous (vv) ECMO is frequently used in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). VV-ECMO was also frequently utilised during the influenza pandemic and experience with this complex and invasive treatment has increased worldwide since. However, data on comparison of clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with COVID-19 and influenza-related severe ARDS treated with vv-ECMO are scarce. This is a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients treated with vv/(veno-arterial)va-ECMO between January 2009 and January 2021 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. All patients with confirmed COVID-19 or influenza were included. Patient characteristics, parameters related to ICU and vv/va-ECMO as well as clinical outcomes were compared. Mortality was assessed up to 90 days after vv/va-ECMO initiation. Overall, 113 patients were included, 52 (46%) with COVID-19 and 61 (54%) with influenza-related ARDS. Median age of patients with COVID-19 and influenza was 58 (IQR 53-64) and 52 (39-58) years (p < 0.001), 35% and 31% (p = 0.695) were female, respectively. Charlson Comorbidity Index was 3 (1-5) and 2 (0-5) points in the two groups (p = 0.309). Median SAPS II score pre-ECMO was 27 (24-36) vs. 32 (28-41) points (p = 0.009), and SOFA score was 13 (11-14) vs. 12 (8-15) points (p = 0.853), respectively. Median P/F ratio pre-ECMO was 64 (46-78) and 73 (56-104) (p = 0.089); pH was 7.20 (7.16-7.29) and 7.26 (7.18-7.33) (p = 0.166). Median days on vv/va-ECMO were 17 (7-27) and 11 (7-20) (p = 0.295), respectively. Seventy-one percent and sixty-nine percent had renal replacement therapy (p = 0.790). Ninety-four percent of patients with COVID-19 and seventy-seven percent with influenza experienced vv/va-ECMO-associated bleeding events (p = 0.004). Thirty-four percent and fifty-five percent were successfully weaned from ECMO (p = 0.025). Ninety-day mortality was 65% and 57% in patients with COVID-19 and influenza, respectively (p = 0.156). Median length of ICU stay was 24 (13-44) and 28 (16-14) days (p = 0.470), respectively. Despite similar disease severity, the use of vv/va-ECMO in ARDS related to COVID-19 and influenza resulted in similar outcomes at 90 days. A significant higher rate of bleeding complications and thrombosis was observed in patients with COVID-19.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1807-1818, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360311

ABSTRACT

Male sex was repeatedly identified as a risk factor for death and intensive care admission. However, it is yet unclear whether sex hormones are associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we analysed sex hormone levels (estradiol and testosterone) of male and female COVID-19 patients (n = 50) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) in comparison to control non-COVID-19 patients at the ICU (n = 42), non-COVID-19 patients with the most prevalent comorbidity (coronary heart diseases) present within the COVID-19 cohort (n = 39) and healthy individuals (n = 50). We detected significantly elevated estradiol levels in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to all control cohorts. Testosterone levels were significantly reduced in critically ill male COVID-19 patients compared to control cohorts. No statistically significant differences in sex hormone levels were detected in critically ill female COVID-19 patients, albeit similar trends towards elevated estradiol levels were observed. Linear regression analysis revealed that among a broad range of cytokines and chemokines analysed, IFN-γ levels are positively associated with estradiol levels in male and female COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, male COVID-19 patients with elevated estradiol levels were more likely to receive ECMO treatment. Thus, we herein identified that disturbance of sex hormone metabolism might present a hallmark in critically ill male COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Estradiol/blood , Testosterone/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Hypogonadism/pathology , Intensive Care Units , Interferon-gamma/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution
9.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(8): 1726-1729.e3, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317651

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects the nasopharynx and lungs and causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). It may impact the heart, brain, kidney, and liver.1 Although functional impairment of the liver has been correlated with worse clinical outcomes, little is known about the pathophysiology of hepatic injury and repair in COVID-19.2,3 Histologic evaluation has been limited to small numbers of COVID-19 cases with no control subjects2,4 and demonstrated largely heterogeneous patterns of pathology.2,3.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Kidney , Liver , SARS-CoV-2
10.
iScience ; 24(7): 102752, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275407

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory tract infection that can affect multiple organ systems. Predicting the severity and clinical outcome of individual patients is a major unmet clinical need that remains challenging due to intra- and inter-patient variability. Here, we longitudinally profiled and integrated more than 150 clinical, laboratory, and immunological parameters of 173 patients with mild to fatal COVID-19. Using systems biology, we detected progressive dysregulation of multiple parameters indicative of organ damage that correlated with disease severity, particularly affecting kidneys, hepatobiliary system, and immune landscape. By performing unsupervised clustering and trajectory analysis, we identified T and B cell depletion as early indicators of a complicated disease course. In addition, markers of hepatobiliary damage emerged as robust predictor of lethal outcome in critically ill patients. This allowed us to propose a novel clinical COVID-19 SeveriTy (COST) score that distinguishes complicated disease trajectories and predicts lethal outcome in critically ill patients.

11.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244046

ABSTRACT

In this study, we directly compared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients hospitalized during the first (27 February-28 July 2020) and second (29 July-31 December 2020) wave of the pandemic at a large tertiary center in northern Germany. Patients who presented during the first (n = 174) and second (n = 331) wave did not differ in age (median [IQR], 59 years [46, 71] vs. 58 years [42, 73]; p = 0.82) or age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (median [IQR], 2 [1, 4] vs. 2 [0, 4]; p = 0.50). During the second wave, a higher proportion of patients were treated as outpatients (11% [n = 20] vs. 20% [n = 67]), fewer patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (43% [n = 75] vs. 29% [n = 96]), and duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter (median days [IQR], 14 [8, 34] vs. 11 [5, 19]; p < 0.001). However, in-hospital mortality was high throughout the pandemic and did not differ between the two periods (16% [n = 27] vs. 16% [n = 54]; p = 0.89). While novel treatment strategies and increased knowledge about the clinical management of COVID-19 may have resulted in a less severe disease course in some patients, in-hospital mortality remained unaltered at a high level. These findings highlight the unabated need for efforts to hamper severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, to increase vaccination coverage, and to develop novel treatment strategies to prevent mortality and decrease morbidity.

12.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234757

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) led to an ongoing pandemic with a surge of critically ill patients. Very little is known about the occurrence and characteristic of cardiac arrest in critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated at the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim was to investigate the incidence and outcome of intensive care unit cardiac arrest (ICU-CA) in critically ill patients with COVID-19. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data of all consecutive adult patients with COVID-19 admitted (27 February 2020-14 January 2021) at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Of 183 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 18% (n = 33) had ICU-CA. The median age of the study population was 63 (55-73) years and 66% (n = 120) were male. Demographic characteristics and comorbidities did not differ significantly between patients with and without ICU-CA. Simplified Acute Physiological Score II (SAPS II) (ICU-CA: median 44 points vs. no ICU-CA: 39 points) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (median 12 points vs. 7 points) on admission were significantly higher in patients with ICU-CA. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was present in 91% (n = 30) with and in 63% (n = 94) without ICU-CA (p = 0.002). Mechanical ventilation was more common in patients with ICU-CA (97% vs. 67%). The median stay in ICU before CA was 6 (1-17) days. A total of 33% (n = 11) of ICU-CAs occurred during the first 24 h of ICU stay. The initial rhythm was non-shockable (pulseless electrical activity (PEA)/asystole) in 91% (n = 30); 94% (n = 31) had sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The median time to ROSC was 3 (1-5) minutes. Patients with ICU-CA had significantly higher ICU mortality (61% vs. 37%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that the presence of ARDS (odds ratio (OR) 4.268, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.211-15.036; p = 0.024) and high SAPS II (OR 1.031, 95% CI 0.997-1.065; p = 0.077) were independently associated with the occurrence of ICU-CA. A total of 18% of critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffered from a cardiac arrest within the intensive care unit. The occurrence of ICU-CA was associated with presence of ARDS and severity of illness.

13.
Biomarkers ; 26(5): 417-424, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: About 20% of ICU patients with COVID-19 require renal replacement therapy (RRT). Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) might be used for risk assessment. This study investigates MR-proADM for RRT prediction in ICU patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We analysed data of consecutive patients with COVID-19, requiring ICU admission at a university hospital in Germany between March and September 2020. Clinical characteristics, details on AKI, and RRT were assessed. MR-proADM was measured on admission. RESULTS: 64 patients were included (49 (77%) males). Median age was 62.5y (54-73). 47 (73%) patients were ventilated and 50 (78%) needed vasopressors. 25 (39%) patients had severe ARDS, and 10 patients needed veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. 29 (45%) patients required RRT; median time from admission to RRT start was 2 (1-9) days. MR-proADM on admission was higher in the RRT group (2.491 vs. 1.23 nmol/l; p = 0.002) and showed the highest correlation with renalSOFA. ROC curve analysis showed that MR-proADM predicts RRT with an AUC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.543-0.828; p = 0.019). In multivariable logistic regression MR-proADM was an independent predictor (OR: 3.813, 95% CI 1.110-13.102, p<0.05) for RRT requirement. CONCLUSION: AKI requiring RRT is frequent in ICU patients with COVID-19. MR-proADM on admission was able to predict RRT requirement, which may be of interest for risk stratification and management.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adrenomedullin/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Illness/therapy , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Germany , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
14.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 44, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 caused a pandemic and global threat for human health. Presence of liver injury was commonly reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, reports on severe liver dysfunction (SLD) in critically ill with COVID-19 are lacking. We evaluated the occurrence, clinical characteristics and outcome of SLD in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical course and laboratory was analyzed from all patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICU of the university hospital. SLD was defined as: bilirubin ≥ 2 mg/dl or elevation of aminotransferase levels (> 20-fold ULN). RESULTS: 72 critically ill patients were identified, 22 (31%) patients developed SLD. Presenting characteristics including age, gender, comorbidities as well as clinical presentation regarding COVID-19 overlapped substantially in both groups. Patients with SLD had more severe respiratory failure (paO2/FiO2: 82 (58-114) vs. 117 (83-155); p < 0.05). Thus, required more frequently mechanical ventilation (95% vs. 64%; p < 0.01), rescue therapies (ECMO) (27% vs. 12%; p = 0.106), vasopressor (95% vs. 72%; p < 0.05) and renal replacement therapy (86% vs. 30%; p < 0.001). Severity of illness was significantly higher (SAPS II: 48 (39-52) vs. 40 (32-45); p < 0.01). Patients with SLD and without presented viremic during ICU stay in 68% and 34%, respectively (p = 0.002). Occurrence of SLD was independently associated with presence of viremia [OR 6.359; 95% CI 1.336-30.253; p < 0.05] and severity of illness (SAPS II) [OR 1.078; 95% CI 1.004-1.157; p < 0.05]. Mortality was high in patients with SLD compared to other patients (68% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders, SLD was independently associated with mortality [HR3.347; 95% CI 1.401-7.999; p < 0.01]. CONCLUSION: One-third of critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffer from SLD, which is associated with high mortality. Occurrence of viremia and severity of illness seem to contribute to occurrence of SLD and underline the multifactorial cause.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5803, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132102

ABSTRACT

While several studies have described the clinical course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct comparisons with patients with seasonal influenza are scarce. We compared 166 patients with COVID-19 diagnosed between February 27 and June 14, 2020, and 255 patients with seasonal influenza diagnosed during the 2017-18 season at the same hospital to describe common features and differences in clinical characteristics and course of disease. Patients with COVID-19 were younger (median age [IQR], 59 [45-71] vs 66 [52-77]; P < 0001) and had fewer comorbidities at baseline with a lower mean overall age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (mean [SD], 3.0 [2.6] vs 4.0 [2.7]; P < 0.001) than patients with seasonal influenza. COVID-19 patients had a longer duration of hospitalization (mean [SD], 25.9 days [26.6 days] vs 17.2 days [21.0 days]; P = 0.002), a more frequent need for oxygen therapy (101 [60.8%] vs 103 [40.4%]; P < 0.001) and invasive ventilation (52 [31.3%] vs 32 [12.5%]; P < 0.001) and were more frequently admitted to the intensive care unit (70 [42.2%] vs 51 [20.0%]; P < 0.001) than seasonal influenza patients. Among immunocompromised patients, those in the COVID-19 group had a higher hospital mortality compared to those in the seasonal influenza group (13 [33.3%] vs 8 [11.6%], P = 0.01). In conclusion, we show that COVID-19 patients were younger and had fewer baseline comorbidities than seasonal influenza patients but were at increased risk for severe illness. The high mortality observed in immunocompromised COVID-19 patients emphasizes the importance of protecting these patient groups from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006953

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction, defined by a dysregulated host immune response to infection. During sepsis, the finely tuned system of immunity, inflammation and anti-inflammation is disturbed in a variety of ways. Both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways are upregulated, activation of the coagulation cascade and complement and sepsis-induced lymphopenia occur. Due to the manifold interactions in this network, the use of IgM-enriched intravenous immunoglobulins seems to be a promising therapeutic approach. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of evidence-based data to answer the important questions of appropriate patient populations, optimal timing and dosage of intravenous immunoglobulins. With this review, we aim to provide an overview of the role of immunoglobulins, with emphasis on IgM-enriched formulations, in the therapy of adult patients with sepsis and septic shock.


Subject(s)
Immunoglobulin M/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Inflammation/therapy , Sepsis/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/immunology , Shock, Septic/immunology
17.
Aust Crit Care ; 34(2): 167-175, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are large uncertainties with regard to the outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and mechanical ventilation (MV). High mortality (50-97%) was proposed by some groups, leading to considerable uncertainties with regard to outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission and MV. METHODS: A multicentre retrospective observational cohort study at 15 hospitals in Hamburg, Germany, was performed. Critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 who completed their ICU stay between February and June 2020 were included. Patient demographics, severity of illness, and ICU course were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 223 critically ill patients with COVID-19 were included. The majority, 73% (n = 163), were men; the median age was 69 (interquartile range = 58-77.5) years, with 68% (n = 151) patients having at least one chronic medical condition. Their Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was a median of 5 (3-9) points on admission. Overall, 167 (75%) patients needed MV. Noninvasive ventilation and high-flow nasal cannula were used in 31 (14%) and 26 (12%) patients, respectively. Subsequent MV, due to noninvasive ventilation/high-flow nasal cannula therapy failure, was necessary in 46 (81%) patients. Renal replacement therapy was initiated in 33% (n = 72) of patients, and owing to severe respiratory failure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was necessary in 9% (n = 20) of patients. Experimental antiviral therapy was used in 9% (n = 21) of patients. Complications during the ICU stay were as follows: septic shock (40%, n = 90), heart failure (8%, n = 17), and pulmonary embolism (6%, n = 14). The length of ICU stay was a median of 13 days (5-24), and the duration of MV was 15 days (8-25). The ICU mortality was 35% (n = 78) and 44% (n = 74) among mechanically ventilated patients. CONCLUSION: In this multicentre observational study of 223 critically ill patients with COVID-19, the survival to ICU discharge was 65%, and it was 56% among patients requiring MV. Patients showed high rate of septic complications during their ICU stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 132, 2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Despite treatment being in line with current guidelines, mortality remains high in those with septic shock. Intravenous immunoglobulins represent a promising therapy to modulate both the pro- and anti-inflammatory processes and can contribute to the elimination of pathogens. In this context, there is evidence of the benefits of immunoglobulin M (IgM)- and immunoglobulin A (IgA)-enriched immunoglobulin therapy for sepsis. This manuscript aims to summarize current relevant data to provide expert opinions on best practice for the use of an IgM- and IgA-enriched immunoglobulin (Pentaglobin) in adult patients with sepsis. MAIN TEXT: Sepsis patients with hyperinflammation and patients with immunosuppression may benefit most from treatment with IgM- and IgA-enriched immunoglobulin (Pentaglobin). Patients with hyperinflammation present with phenotypes that manifest throughout the body, whilst the clinical characteristics of immunosuppression are less clear. Potential biomarkers for hyperinflammation include elevated procalcitonin, interleukin-6, endotoxin activity and C-reactive protein, although thresholds for these are not well-defined. Convenient biomarkers for identifying patients in a stage of immune-paralysis are still matter of debate, though human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related expression on monocytes, lymphocyte count and viral reactivation have been proposed. The timing of treatment is potentially more critical for treatment efficacy in patients with hyperinflammation compared with patients who are in an immunosuppressed stage. Due to the lack of evidence, definitive dosage recommendations for either population cannot be made, though we suggest that patients with hyperinflammation should receive an initial bolus at a rate of up to 0.6 mL (30 mg)/kg/h for 6 h followed by a continuous maintenance rate of 0.2 mL (10 mg)/kg/hour for ≥ 72 h (total dose ≥ 0.9 g/kg). For immunosuppressed patients, dosage is more conservative (0.2 mL [10 mg]/kg/h) for ≥ 72 h, without an initial bolus (total dose ≥ 0.72 g/kg). CONCLUSIONS: Two distinct populations that may benefit most from Pentaglobin therapy are described in this review. However, further clinical evidence is required to strengthen support for the recommendations given here regarding timing, duration and dosage of treatment.

19.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717704

ABSTRACT

Recently, the stabilization of the endothelium has been explicitly identified as a therapeutic goal in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Adrecizumab (HAM8101) is a first-in-class humanized monoclonal anti-Adrenomedullin (anti-ADM) antibody, targeting the sepsis- and inflammation-based vascular and capillary leakage. Within a "treatment on a named-patient basis" approach, Adrecizumab was administered to eight extreme-critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The patients received a single dose of Adrecizumab, which was administered between 1 and 3 days after the initiation of mechanical ventilation. The SOFA (median 12.5) and SAPS-II (median 39) scores clearly documented the population at highest risk. Moreover, six of the patients suffered from acute renal failure, of whom five needed renal replacement therapy. The length of follow-up ranged between 13 and 27 days. Following the Adrecizumab administration, one patient in the low-dose group died at day 4 due to fulminant pulmonary embolism, while four were in stable condition, and three were discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU). Within 12 days, the SOFA score, as well as the disease severity score (range 0-16, mirroring critical resources in the ICU, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), decreased in five out of the seven surviving patients (in all high-dose patients). The PaO2/FiO2 increased within 12 days, while the inflammatory parameters C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6 decreased. Importantly, the mortality was lower than expected and calculated by the SOFA score. In conclusion, in this preliminary uncontrolled case series of eight shock patients with life-threatening COVID-19 and ARDS, the administration of Adrecizumab was followed by a favorable outcome. Although the non-controlled design and the small sample size preclude any definitive statement about the potential efficacy of Adrecizumab in critically ill COVID-19 patients, the results of this case series are encouraging.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Critical Illness , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Sepsis/etiology
20.
EBioMedicine ; 58: 102898, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One-third of all deaths in hospitals are caused by sepsis. Despite its demonstrated prevalence and high case fatality rate, antibiotics remain the only target-oriented treatment option currently available. Starting from results showing that low-dose anthracyclines protect against sepsis in mice, we sought to find new causative treatment options to improve sepsis outcomes. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in mice, and different treatment options were evaluated regarding cytokine and biomarker expression, lung epithelial cell permeability, autophagy induction, and survival benefit. Results were validated in cell culture experiments and correlated with patient samples. FINDINGS: Effective low-dose epirubicin treatment resulted in substantial downregulation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degrading enzyme S1P lyase (SPL). Consequent accumulation and secretion of S1P in lung parenchyma cells stimulated the S1P-receptor type 3 (S1PR3) and mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and ERK, reducing tissue damage via increased disease tolerance. The protective effects of SPL inhibition were absent in S1PR3 deficient mice. Sepsis patients showed increased expression of SPL, stable expression of S1PR3, and increased levels of mucin-1 and surfactant protein D as indicators of lung damage. INTERPRETATION: Our work highlights a tissue-protective effect of SPL inhibition in sepsis due to activation of the S1P/S1PR3 axis and implies that SPL inhibitors and S1PR3 agonists might be potential therapeutics to protect against sepsis by increasing disease tolerance against infections. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Center for Sepsis Control and Care (CSCC), the German Research Foundation (DFG), RTG 1715 (to M. H. G. and I. R.) and the National Institutes of Health, Grant R01GM043880 (to S. S.).


Subject(s)
Aldehyde-Lyases/metabolism , Epirubicin/administration & dosage , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors/metabolism , Animals , Autophagy , Cell Membrane Permeability , Cells, Cultured , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , Epirubicin/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mucin-1/metabolism , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D/metabolism , Random Allocation , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/metabolism , Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors/genetics , Treatment Outcome , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
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