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1.
J Neurol ; 269(7): 3389-3399, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2020, a wide range of hygiene measures was implemented to mitigate infections caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In consequence, pulmonary infections due to other respiratory pathogens also decreased. Here, we evaluated the number of bacterial and viral meningitis and encephalitis cases during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: In a multicentre retrospective analysis of data from January 2016 until December 2020, numbers of patients diagnosed with bacterial meningitis and other types of CNS infections (such as viral meningitis and encephalitis) at 26 German hospitals were studied. Furthermore, the number of common meningitis-preceding ear-nose-throat infections (sinusitis, mastoiditis and otitis media) was evaluated. RESULTS: Compared to the previous years, the total number of patients diagnosed with pneumococcal meningitis was reduced (n = 64 patients/year in 2020 vs. n = 87 to 120 patients/year between 2016 and 2019, all p < 0.05). Additionally, the total number of patients diagnosed with otolaryngological infections was significantly lower (n = 1181 patients/year in 2020 vs. n = 1525 to 1754 patients/year between 2016 and 2019, all p < 0.001). We also observed a decline in viral meningitis and especially enterovirus meningitis (n = 25 patients/year in 2020 vs. n = 97 to 181 patients/year between 2016 and 2019, all p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: This multicentre retrospective analysis demonstrates a decline in the number of patients treated for viral and pneumococcal meningitis as well as otolaryngological infections in 2020 compared to previous years. Since the latter often precedes pneumococcal meningitis, this may point to the significance of the direct spread of pneumococci from an otolaryngological focus such as mastoiditis to the brain as one important pathophysiological route in the development of pneumococcal meningitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Mastoiditis , Meningitis, Pneumococcal , Meningitis, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Meningitis, Pneumococcal/microbiology , Meningitis, Viral/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314853

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypercoagulopathy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary artery embolism necessitate systemic anticoagulation. Case reports of intracerebral hemorrhages in ventilated COVID-19 patients warrant precaution. It is unclear however, if COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with and without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (ECMO) have more intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) compared to other ARDS patients. Methods: : We conducted a retrospective observational single center study enrolling all patients with ARDS from 01/2018-05/2020. Patients with ARDS positive for SARS-CoV2 PCR were allocated to the COVID-19 group. Propensity score matching was performed for age, ECMO and risk of bleeding according to HAS-BLED score. Results: : A total of 163, mostly severe ARDS patients were identified, 116 (71.2%) without COVID-19 and 47 (28.8%) positive for SARS-CoV-2. The two groups were comparable concerning the main confounders of ICH including age, HAS-BLED score, need for ECMO-therapy as well as anticoagulation levels reported. In 63/163 cases (38.7%), veno-venous ECMO therapy was required and ICU survival was 52.8%. Although HAS-BLED-score on admission was generally low (1.6±1.3), intracerebral hemorrhage was detected in 22 patients (13.5%) with no statistical difference between the groups (11.2 vs. 19.1% with and without SARS-CoV-2, respectively, p=0.21). Propensity score matching confirmed similar intracerebral bleeding rates in both groups (12.8 vs. 19.1% with and without SARS-CoV-2, respectively, p=0.57). Conclusions: : Intracerebral hemorrhage was detectable in every tenth patient with ARDS. We found no statistically significant increased bleeding rate in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 compared to other causes of ARDS.

4.
Neurocrit Care ; 34(3): 739-747, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism necessitating systemic anticoagulation. Case reports of intracerebral hemorrhages in ventilated COVID-19 patients warrant precaution. It is unclear, however, if COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with or without veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (VV-ECMO) have more intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) compared to other ARDS patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational single-center study enrolling all patients with ARDS from 01/2018 to 05/2020. PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 patients with ARDS were allocated to the COVID-19 group. Propensity score matching was performed for age, VV-ECMO, and bleeding risk. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients with moderate or severe ARDS were identified, 47 (28.8%) in the COVID-19 group, and 116 (71.2%) in the non-COVID-19 group. In 63/163 cases (38.7%), VV-ECMO therapy was required. The ICU survival was 52.8%. COVID-19 patients were older, more often male, and exhibited a lower SOFA score, but the groups showed similar rates of VV-ECMO therapy. Treatments with antiplatelet agents (p = 0.043) and therapeutic anticoagulation (p = 0.028) were significantly more frequent in the COVID-19 patients. ICH was detected in 22 patients (13.5%) with no statistical difference between the groups (11.2 vs. 19.1% without and with SARS-CoV-2, respectively, p = 0.21). Propensity score matching confirmed similar rates of ICH in both groups (12.8 vs. 19.1% without and with SARS-CoV-2, respectively, p = 0.57), thus leveling out possible confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Intracerebral hemorrhage was detected in every tenth patient with ARDS. Despite statistically higher rates of antiplatelet therapy and therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients, we found a similar rate of ICH in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 compared to other causes of ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Critical Care , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Germany , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Registries , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate , Young Adult
5.
Front Neurol ; 11: 609227, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054991

ABSTRACT

Objective: In light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and the associated hospitalization of an overwhelming number of ventilator-dependent patients, medical and/or ethical patient triage paradigms have become essential. While guidelines on the allocation of scarce resources do exist, such work within the subdisciplines of intensive care (e.g., neurocritical care) remains limited. Methods: A 16-item questionnaire was developed that sought to explore/quantify the expert opinions of German neurointensivists with regard to triage decisions. The anonymous survey was conducted via a web-based platform and in total, 96 members of the Initiative of German Neurointensive Trial Engagement (IGNITE)-study group were contacted via e-mail. The IGNITE consortium consists of an interdisciplinary panel of specialists with expertise in neuro-critical care (i.e., anesthetists, neurologists and neurosurgeons). Results: Fifty members of the IGNITE consortium responded to the questionnaire; in total the respondents were in charge of more than 500 Neuro ICU beds throughout Germany. Common determinants reported which affected triage decisions included known patient wishes (98%), the state of health before admission (96%), SOFA-score (85%) and patient age (69%). Interestingly, other principles of allocation, such as a treatment of "youngest first" (61%) and members of the healthcare sector (50%) were also noted. While these were the most accepted parameters affecting the triage of patients, a "first-come, first-served" principle appeared to be more accepted than a lottery for the allocation of ICU beds which contradicts much of what has been reported within the literature. The respondents also felt that at least one neurointensivist should serve on any interdisciplinary triage team. Conclusions: The data gathered in the context of this survey reveal the estimation/perception of triage algorithms among neurointensive care specialists facing COVID-19. Further, it is apparent that German neurointensivists strongly feel that they should be involved in any triage decisions at an institutional level given the unique resources needed to treat patients within the Neuro ICU.

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