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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2891, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860373

ABSTRACT

Aging is associated with a reduced magnitude of primary immune responses to vaccination. mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have shown efficacy in older adults but virus variant escape is still unclear. Here we analyze humoral and cellular immunity against an early-pandemic viral isolate and compare that to the P.1 (Gamma) and B.1.617.2 (Delta) variants in two cohorts (<50 and >55 age) of mRNA vaccine recipients. We further measure neutralizing antibody titers for B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.595, with the latter SARS-CoV-2 isolate bearing the spike mutation E484Q. Robust humoral immunity is measured following second vaccination, and older vaccinees manifest cellular immunity comparable to the adult group against early-pandemic SARS-CoV-2 and more recent variants. More specifically, the older cohort has lower neutralizing capacity at 7-14 days following the second dose but equilibrates with the younger cohort after 2-3 months. While long-term vaccination responses remain to be determined, our results implicate vaccine-induced protection in older adults against SARS-CoV-2 variants and inform thinking about boost vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
J Immunol ; 208(11): 2461-2465, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847475

ABSTRACT

Several studies have demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 variant-of-concern B.1.1.529 (Omicron) exhibits a high degree of escape from Ab neutralization. Therefore, it is critical to determine how well the second line of adaptive immunity, T cell memory, performs against Omicron. To this purpose, we analyzed a human cohort (n = 327 subjects) of two- or three-dose mRNA vaccine recipients and COVID-19 postinfection subjects. We report that T cell responses against Omicron were largely preserved. IFN-γ-producing T cell responses remained equivalent to the response against the ancestral strain (WA1/2020), with some (∼20%) loss in IL-2 single or IL-2+IFN-γ+ polyfunctional responses. Three-dose vaccinated participants had similar responses to Omicron relative to post-COVID-19 participants and exhibited responses significantly higher than those receiving two mRNA vaccine doses. These results provide further evidence that a three-dose vaccine regimen benefits the induction of optimal functional T cell immune memory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Interleukin-2/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , /immunology
3.
PNAS Nexus ; 1(1): pgac028, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806566

ABSTRACT

Saliva specimens have drawn interest for diagnosing respiratory viral infections due to their ease of collection and decreased risk to healthcare providers. However, rapid and sensitive immunoassays have not yet been satisfactorily demonstrated for such specimens due to their viscosity and low viral loads. Using paper microfluidic chips and a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope, we developed a highly sensitive, low-cost immunofluorescence particulometric SARS-CoV-2 assay from clinical saline gargle samples. We demonstrated the limit of detection of 10 ag/µL. With easy-to-collect saline gargle samples, our clinical sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 86%, and 93%, respectively, for n = 27 human subjects with n = 13 RT-qPCR positives.

4.
Aging Cell ; 21(4): e13582, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788809

ABSTRACT

Older humans and animals often exhibit reduced immune responses to infection and vaccination, and this often directly correlates to the numbers and frequency of naive T (Tn) cells. We found such a correlation between reduced numbers of blood CD8+ Tn cells and severe clinical outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) in both humans naturally exposed to, and mice experimentally infected with, WNV. To examine possible causality, we sought to increase the number of CD8 Tn cells by treating C57BL/6 mice with IL-7 complexes (IL-7C, anti-IL-7 mAb bound to IL-7), shown previously to efficiently increase peripheral T-cell numbers by homeostatic proliferation. T cells underwent robust expansion following IL-7C administration to old mice increasing the number of total T cells (>fourfold) and NS4b:H-2Db -restricted antigen-specific CD8 T cells (twofold). This improved the numbers of NS4b-specific CD8 T cells detected at the peak of the response against WNV, but not survival of WNV challenge. IL-7C-treated old animals also showed no improvement in WNV-specific effector immunity (neutralizing antibody and in vivo T-cell cytotoxicity). To test quantitative limits to which CD8 Tn cell restoration could improve protective immunity, we transferred graded doses of Ag-specific precursors into old mice and showed that injection of 5400 (but not of 1800 or 600) adult naive WNV-specific CD8 T cells significantly increased survival after WNV. These results set quantitative limits to the level of Tn reconstitution necessary to improve immune defense in older organisms and are discussed in light of targets of immune reconstitution.


Subject(s)
West Nile Fever , West Nile virus , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Count , Interleukin-7 , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 207: 114192, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739563

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses, especially coronaviruses, have resulted in worldwide pandemics in the past couple of decades. Saliva-based paper microfluidic assays represent an opportunity for noninvasive and rapid screening, yet both the sample matrix and test method come with unique challenges. In this work, we demonstrated the rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 from saliva samples, which could be simpler and more comfortable for patients than existing methods. Furthermore, we systematically investigated the components of saliva samples that affected assay performance. Using only a smartphone, an antibody-conjugated particle suspension, and a paper microfluidic chip, we made the assay user-friendly with minimal processing. Unlike the previously established flow rate assays that depended solely on the flow rate or distance, this unique assay analyzes the flow profile to determine infection status. Particle-target immunoagglutination changed the surface tension and subsequently the capillary flow velocity profile. A smartphone camera automatically measured the flow profile using a Python script, which was not affected by ambient light variations. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1 fg/µL SARS-CoV-2 from 1% saliva samples and 10 fg/µL from simulated saline gargle samples (15% saliva and 0.9% saline). This method was highly specific as demonstrated using influenza A/H1N1. The sample-to-answer assay time was <15 min, including <1-min capillary flow time. The overall accuracy was 89% with relatively clean clinical saline gargle samples. Despite some limitations with turbid clinical samples, this method presents a potential solution for rapid mass testing techniques during any infectious disease outbreak as soon as the antibodies become available.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Microfluidics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the development of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after SARS-CoV-2 infection and after vaccination with messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines are limited. METHODS: From a prospective cohort of 3,975 adult essential and frontline workers tested weekly from August 2020 to March 2021 for SARS-CoV-2 infection by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay irrespective of symptoms, 497 participants had sera drawn after infection (170), vaccination (327), and after both infection and vaccination (50 from the infection population). Serum was collected after infection and each vaccine dose. Serum-neutralizing antibody titers against USA-WA1/2020-spike pseudotype virus were determined by the 50% inhibitory dilution. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) and corresponding fold increases were calculated using t-tests and linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Among 170 unvaccinated participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 158 (93%) developed neutralizing antibodies (nAb) with a GMT of 1,003 (95% CI=766-1,315). Among 139 previously uninfected participants, 138 (99%) developed nAb after mRNA vaccine dose-2 with a GMT of 3,257 (95% CI = 2,596-4,052). GMT was higher among those receiving mRNA-1273 vaccine (GMT =4,698, 95%CI= 3,186-6,926) compared to BNT162b2 vaccine (GMT=2,309, 95%CI=1,825-2,919). Among 32 participants with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, GMT was 21,655 (95%CI=14,766-31,756) after mRNA vaccine dose-1, without further increase after dose-2. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of mRNA vaccine after SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in the highest observed nAb response. Two doses of mRNA vaccine in previously uninfected participants resulted in higher nAb to SARS-CoV-2 than after one dose of vaccine or SARS-CoV-2 infection alone. Neutralizing antibody response also differed by mRNA vaccine product.

7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 200: 113912, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588210

ABSTRACT

SARS, a new type of respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV, was identified in 2003 with significant levels of morbidity and mortality. The recent pandemic of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has generated even greater extents of morbidity and mortality across the entire world. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spreads through the air in the form of droplets and potentially smaller droplets (aerosols) via exhaling, coughing, and sneezing. Direct detection from such airborne droplets would be ideal for protecting general public from potential exposure before they infect individuals. However, the number of viruses in such droplets and aerosols is too low to be detected directly. A separate air sampler and enough collection time (several hours) are necessary to capture a sufficient number of viruses. In this work, we have demonstrated the direct capture of the airborne droplets on the paper microfluidic chip without the need for any other equipment. 10% human saliva samples were spiked with the known concentration of SARS-CoV-2 and sprayed to generate liquid droplets and aerosols into the air. Antibody-conjugated submicron particle suspension is then added to the paper channel, and a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope isolated and counted the immunoagglutinated particles on the paper chip. The total capture-to-assay time was <30 min, compared to several hours with the other methods. In this manner, SARS-CoV-2 could be detected directly from the air in a handheld and low-cost manner, contributing to slowing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We can presumably adapt this technology to a wide range of other respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , SARS Virus , Aerosols , Humans , Microfluidics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(3): 923-933.e6, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatments for coronavirus disease 2019, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), are urgently needed but remain limited. SARS-CoV-2 infects cells through interactions of its spike (S) protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) on host cells. Multiple cells and organs are targeted, particularly airway epithelial cells. OM-85, a standardized lysate of human airway bacteria with strong immunomodulating properties and an impeccable safety profile, is widely used to prevent recurrent respiratory infections. We found that airway OM-85 administration inhibits Ace2 and Tmprss2 transcription in the mouse lung, suggesting that OM-85 might hinder SARS-CoV-2/host cell interactions. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate whether and how OM-85 treatment protects nonhuman primate and human epithelial cells against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 mRNA and protein expression, cell binding of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein, cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 S protein-pseudotyped lentiviral particles, and SARS-CoV-2 cell infection were measured in kidney, lung, and intestinal epithelial cell lines, primary human bronchial epithelial cells, and ACE2-transfected HEK293T cells treated with OM-85 in vitro. RESULTS: OM-85 significantly downregulated ACE2 and TMPRSS2 transcription and surface ACE2 protein expression in epithelial cell lines and primary bronchial epithelial cells. OM-85 also strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein binding to, SARS-CoV-2 S protein-pseudotyped lentivirus entry into, and SARS-CoV-2 infection of epithelial cells. These effects of OM-85 appeared to depend on SARS-CoV-2 receptor downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: OM-85 inhibits SARS-CoV-2 epithelial cell infection in vitro by downregulating SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression. Further studies are warranted to assess whether OM-85 may prevent and/or reduce the severity of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Extracts/administration & dosage , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Extracts/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Serine Endopeptidases/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/immunology , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Transcription, Genetic/immunology , Vero Cells
9.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 2002-2011, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447313

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have shown high efficacy, but immunocompromised participants were excluded from controlled clinical trials. In this study, we compared immune responses to the BNT162b2 mRNA Coronavirus Disease 2019 vaccine in patients with solid tumors (n = 53) who were on active cytotoxic anti-cancer therapy to a control cohort of participants without cancer (n = 50). Neutralizing antibodies were detected in 67% of patients with cancer after the first immunization, followed by a threefold increase in median titers after the second dose. Similar patterns were observed for spike protein-specific serum antibodies and T cells, but the magnitude of each of these responses was diminished relative to the control cohort. In most patients with cancer, we detected spike receptor-binding domain and other S1-specific memory B cell subsets as potential predictors of anamnestic responses to additional immunizations. We therefore initiated a phase 1 trial for 20 cancer cohort participants of a third vaccine dose of BNT162b2 ( NCT04936997 ); primary outcomes were immune responses, with a secondary outcome of safety. At 1 week after a third immunization, 16 participants demonstrated a median threefold increase in neutralizing antibody responses, but no improvement was observed in T cell responses. Adverse events were mild. These results suggest that a third dose of BNT162b2 is safe, improves humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and could be immunologically beneficial for patients with cancer on active chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Arizona , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/pathology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
10.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(10): 2459-2472, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377840

ABSTRACT

The pathogenicity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been attributed to its ability to enter through the membrane-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Therefore, it has been heavily speculated that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) therapy may modulate SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, exposure of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) and human endothelial cells (hECs) to SARS-CoV-2 identified significant differences in protein coding genes involved in immunity, viral response, and cardiomyocyte/endothelial structure. Specifically, transcriptome changes were identified in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon α/ß, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (hPSC-CMs) as well as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) (hECs) signaling pathways. However, pre-treatment of hPSC-CMs or hECs with two widely prescribed antihypertensive medications, losartan and lisinopril, did not affect the susceptibility of either cell type to SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings demonstrate the toxic effects of SARS-CoV-2 in hPSC-CMs/hECs and, taken together with newly emerging multicenter trials, suggest that antihypertensive drug treatment alone does not alter SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , COVID-19/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Lisinopril/pharmacology , Losartan/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome/drug effects
11.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Arizona Healthcare, Emergency Response, and Other Essential workers Study (AZ HEROES) aims to examine the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 illness among adults with high occupational exposure risk. OBJECTIVE: Study objectives include estimating incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in essential workers by symptom presentation and demographic factors, determining independent effects of occupational and community exposures on incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, establishing molecular and immunologic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in essential workers, describing the duration and patterns of rRT-PCR-positivity, and examining post-vaccine immunologic response. METHODS: Eligible participants include Arizona residents aged 18-85 years who work at least 20 hours per week in an occupation involving regular direct contact (within three feet) with others. Recruitment goals are stratified by demographic characteristics (50% aged 40 or older, 50% women, and 50% Hispanic or American Indian), by occupation (40% healthcare personnel, 30% first responders, and 30% other essential workers), and by prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (with up to 50% seropositive at baseline). Information on sociodemographics, health and medical history, vaccination status, exposures to individuals with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, use of personal protective equipment, and perceived risks are collected at enrollment and updated through quarterly surveys. Every week, participants complete active surveillance for COVID-19-like illness (CLI) and self-collect nasal swabs. Additional self-collected nasal swab and saliva specimens are collected in the event of CLI onset. Respiratory specimens are sent to Marshfield Laboratories and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay. CLI symptoms and impact on work and productivity are followed through illness resolution. Serum specimens are collected every 3 months and additional sera are collected following incident rRT-PCR positivity and after each COVID-19 vaccine dose. Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections will be calculated by person-weeks at risk and compared by occupation and demographic characteristics and by seropositivity status and infection and vaccination history. RESULTS: The AZ HEROES study was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Enrollment began July 27, 2020 and as of May 1, 2021 a total of 3,165 participants have been enrolled in the study. CONCLUSIONS: AZ HEROES is unique in aiming to recruit a diverse sample of essential workers and prospectively following strata of SARS-CoV-2 seronegative and seropositive adults. Survey results combined with active surveillance data on exposure, CLI, weekly molecular diagnostic testing, and periodic serology will be used to estimate the incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, assess the intensity and durability of immune responses to natural infection and COVID-19 vaccination, and contribute to the evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT: DERR1-10.2196/28925.

12.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(10): 1082-1089, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225244

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third highly pathogenic coronavirus to emerge in the human population in last two decades. SARS-CoV-2 spread from Wuhan, China, across the globe, causing an unprecedented public healthcare crisis. The virus showed remarkable age dependent pathology, with symptoms resembling common cold in most adults and children while causing more severe respiratory distress and significant mortality in older and frail humans. Even before the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak infectious diseases represented one of the major causes of death of older adults. Loss of immune function and reduced protection from infectious agents with age - immunosenescence - is a result of complex mechanisms affecting production and maintenance of immune cells as well as the initiation, maintenance and termination of properly directed immune responses. Here we briefly discuss the current knowledge on how this process affects age-dependent outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity , Age Factors , Aged , Humans
13.
Transl Res ; 232: 37-48, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989352

ABSTRACT

Approximately 15%-20% of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) progress beyond mild and self-limited disease to require supplemental oxygen for severe pneumonia; 5% of COVID-19-infected patients further develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. Despite mortality rates surpassing 40%, key insights into COVID-19-induced ARDS pathology have not been fully elucidated and multiple unmet needs remain. This review focuses on the unmet need for effective therapies that target unchecked innate immunity-driven inflammation which drives unchecked vascular permeability, multiorgan dysfunction and ARDS mortality. Additional unmet needs including the lack of insights into factors predicting pathogenic hyperinflammatory viral host responses, limited approaches to address the vast disease heterogeneity in ARDS, and the absence of clinically-useful ARDS biomarkers. We review unmet needs persisting in COVID-19-induced ARDS in the context of the potential role for damage-associated molecular pattern proteins in lung and systemic hyperinflammatory host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection that ultimately drive multiorgan dysfunction and ARDS mortality. Insights into promising stratification-enhancing, biomarker-based strategies in COVID-19 and non-COVID ARDS may enable the design of successful clinical trials of promising therapies.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular System Injuries/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Capillary Permeability , Cytokines/physiology , Humans , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Immunity ; 53(5): 925-933.e4, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856763

ABSTRACT

We conducted a serological study to define correlates of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Compared to those with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, individuals with severe disease exhibited elevated virus-neutralizing titers and antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Age and sex played lesser roles. All cases, including asymptomatic individuals, seroconverted by 2 weeks after PCR confirmation. Spike RBD and S2 and neutralizing antibodies remained detectable through 5-7 months after onset, whereas α-N titers diminished. Testing 5,882 members of the local community revealed only 1 sample with seroreactivity to both RBD and S2 that lacked neutralizing antibodies. This fidelity could not be achieved with either RBD or S2 alone. Thus, inclusion of multiple independent assays improved the accuracy of antibody tests in low-seroprevalence communities and revealed differences in antibody kinetics depending on the antigen. We conclude that neutralizing antibodies are stably produced for at least 5-7 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Arizona/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prevalence , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
15.
J Immunol ; 205(9): 2342-2350, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745208

ABSTRACT

The scale of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has thrust immunology into the public spotlight in unprecedented ways. In this article, which is part opinion piece and part review, we argue that the normal cadence by which we discuss science with our colleagues failed to properly convey likelihoods of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 to the public and the media. As a result, biologically implausible outcomes were given equal weight as the principles set by decades of viral immunology. Unsurprisingly, questionable results and alarmist news media articles have filled the void. We suggest an emphasis on setting expectations based on prior findings while avoiding the overused approach of assuming nothing. After reviewing Ab-mediated immunity after coronavirus and other acute viral infections, we posit that, with few exceptions, the development of protective humoral immunity of more than a year is the norm. Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is likely to follow the same pattern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
16.
Geroscience ; 42(3): 1013, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624400

ABSTRACT

The affiliation of the second author (Kenneth S. Knox) should have been Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA instead of Department of Medicine, University of Arizona-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA.

17.
Geroscience ; 42(2): 505-514, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46463

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus, the causative agent of the coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19), is taking the globe by storm, approaching 500,000 confirmed cases and over 21,000 deaths as of March 25, 2020. While under control in some affected Asian countries (Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam), the virus demonstrated an exponential phase of infectivity in several large countries (China in late January and February and many European countries and the USA in March), with cases exploding by 30-50,000/day in the third and fourth weeks of March, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 has proven to be particularly deadly to older adults and those with certain underlying medical conditions, many of whom are of advanced age. Here, we briefly review the virus, its structure and evolution, epidemiology and pathogenesis, immunogenicity and immune, and clinical response in older adults, using available knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 and its highly pathogenic relatives MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1. We conclude by discussing clinical and basic science approaches to protect older adults against this disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Chemokines/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/virology , Geriatrics , Humans , Immunosenescence , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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