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1.
J Inflamm Res ; 15: 4907-4920, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2005804

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Remdesivir is the first agent with proven clinical efficacy against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, its benefit is associated with early use, and its efficacy has been poorly studied in patients with hemato-oncological diseases, who have an increased risk of a severe course of infection. This study aimed to assess the effects of remdesivir on mortality, mechanical ventilation, and the duration of hospitalization in both the general population and in patients with hemato-oncological diseases. Materials and Methods: Longitudinal data for 4287 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed, including a subset of 200 individuals with hemato-oncological diseases. In total, 1285 (30.0%) patients received remdesivir, while the remaining patients were treated with other methods. Survival statistics for the 14- and 30-day observation time points were calculated using non-parametric and multivariate Cox models. Results: Mortality for the 14- and 30-day observation time points was notably lower among patients receiving remdesivir (7.2% vs 11.6%, p < 0.001 and 12.7% vs 16.0, p = 0.005, respectively); however, in multivariate models adjusted for age, sex, lung involvement, and lactate dehydrogenase and interleukin-6 levels, the administration of remdesivir did not reduce patient mortality at either the 14-day or 30-day time points. Among patients with haemato-oncological disease, significant survival benefit was observed at 14 and 30 days for patients treated with remdesivir (11.3% vs.16.7% and 24.2% vs 26.1%, respectively; p < 0.001). A favorable effect of remdesivir was also noted for the 14-day time point in multivariate survival analysis (HR:4.03 [95% confidence interval:1.37-11.88]; p = 0.01). Conclusion: Remdesivir significantly reduced the early mortality rate in COVID-19 patients with comorbid hemato-oncological disease, which emphasizes the need to administer this agent to immunosuppressed patients.

2.
Biomedicines ; 10(7)2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917285

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Thromboembolic events, including mainly pulmonary embolisms and ischemic strokes, occur in up to one-third of COVID-19 patients. As efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) among patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was not previously investigated, this study aimed to provide such data. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of TCZ on mortality in patients with confirmed acute pulmonary embolism, cytokine release storm and COVID-19 pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Longitudinal data of 4287 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected between 4 March 2020 and 16 January 2022. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the samples and dataset of cases with confirmed acute pulmonary embolism associated with at least moderate lung involvement due to COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: In the analyzed dataset, 64 adult patients were diagnosed with PE, and of these, 28 (44%) cases were treated with two 8 mg/kg doses of TCZ, and 36 (56%) did not receive this agent. The groups were balanced regarding demographics, comorbidities and the biochemical markers. Overall mortality in our study was 29.6% (n = 17). Mortality in the group treated with TCZ was 43% (n = 12) compared to 19% (n = 7) in the group without TCZ. In multivariate proportional Cox hazards models, intravenous administration of TCZ was independently associated with higher mortality (HR: 3.342 (CI: 1.077-10.370), p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with at least moderate lung involvement, CRS and acute pulmonary embolism, administration of TCZ is associated with increased mortality. Therefore, TCZ should be used with caution in SARS-CoV-2 cases with pulmonary embolism.

3.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 5027-5033, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vibrio vulnificus infections are a growing problem worldwide. In recent years, infections with this bacteria have been reported in Central Europe, especially in the German Baltic coast but also in France and Italy. Climate warming causes the sea temperature to increase every year, which translates to an increased risk of infections from the Vibrio group. Most of these are mild and present as wound infections, but some patients develop life-threatening sepsis from either ingestion of infected mollusks or wound lesions that develop into generalized infections. Illness may be associated with necrotizing fasciitis and may require several weeks of therapy, often based on a surgical operation, demarcation of necrosis or limb amputation. A case such as the one described in this manuscript has not been previously described in Poland and demonstrates the need for a multidisciplinary approach to infection with Vibrio vulnificus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old patient was pricked with an unknown object in the side of a lower limb during his stay at the Polish seaside. He developed a life-threatening infection in the form of severe sepsis with multiple organ failure. He required broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, and after obtaining results for Vibrio vulnificus targeted therapy, a surgical operation with skin lesion decompression and fasciotomy was performed. Finally, hyperbaric chamber therapy was given. The patient's general condition improved, and local changes and his vital parameters stabilized. CONCLUSION: Vibrio vulnificus infection may be confused with other causes of skin and subcutaneous tissue infection, although it requires a different approach and different targeted antibiotic therapies. This infection may take the form of a life-threatening disease requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

4.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084560

ABSTRACT

Liver injury-expressed as elevated liver enzymes-is common in patients with COVID-19. Little is known about the potential mechanisms of liver damage by SARS-CoV-2. A direct cytopathic effect on hepatocytes as well as injury related to hypoxia or hepatotoxicity are being considered. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical characteristic of COVID-19 disease in patients with normal and abnormal liver enzymes activity. A group of 150 patients with COVID-19, hospitalized in our center, was analyzed. Patients with the known liver comorbidities were excluded (n = 15). Clinical features and laboratory parameters were compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferase values. Liver injury expressed as any alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was noted in 45.6% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. The frequencies of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation were lower. It was noted that elevated ALT/AST unfavorably affected other parameters related to liver function such as albumin level; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP); and partly, ALP activity and influenced inflammation-related parameters. The most probable cause of mild hepatitis during COVID-19 was anoxia and immune-mediated damage due to the inflammatory response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. A direct cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 on hepatocytes, albeit less probable, can be considered as well. The use of potentially hepatotoxic drugs may contribute to liver damage.

5.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 10(4):672, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1077160

ABSTRACT

Liver injury—expressed as elevated liver enzymes—is common in patients with COVID-19. Little is known about the potential mechanisms of liver damage by SARS-CoV-2. A direct cytopathic effect on hepatocytes as well as injury related to hypoxia or hepatotoxicity are being considered. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical characteristic of COVID-19 disease in patients with normal and abnormal liver enzymes activity. A group of 150 patients with COVID-19, hospitalized in our center, was analyzed. Patients with the known liver comorbidities were excluded (n = 15). Clinical features and laboratory parameters were compared between patients with normal and abnormal aminotransferase values. Liver injury expressed as any alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation was noted in 45.6% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. The frequencies of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation were lower. It was noted that elevated ALT/AST unfavorably affected other parameters related to liver function such as albumin level;gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP);and partly, ALP activity and influenced inflammation-related parameters. The most probable cause of mild hepatitis during COVID-19 was anoxia and immune-mediated damage due to the inflammatory response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. A direct cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 on hepatocytes, albeit less probable, can be considered as well. The use of potentially hepatotoxic drugs may contribute to liver damage.

6.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(1): 93-100, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab, an inhibitor of the interleukin-6 receptor, may decrease the inflammatory response and control the symptoms of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the evidence is scarce. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with severe COVID-19 requiring oxygen therapy who received tocilizumab in seven centers across Poland. We assessed on-treatment changes in clinical status and inflammatory markers. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were included (19 male), with a mean age of 61.7 ± 12.4 years. The mean time from symptom onset to the first tocilizumab dose was 10.5 ± 5.7 days. Clinical status improved within 24 hours in 11 (39%) patients, within one week in 23 (82%) patients, and within two weeks in 25 (89%); one (4%) patient showed no change and two (7%) patients died. Sixteen patients (57%) no longer needed oxygen therapy within a week (p < 0.001). The serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and fibrinogen decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001). Lung changes improved in 21 (84%) patients within two weeks of treatment; 19 had minimal or no changes upon final examination. CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab can control the symptoms of severe COVID-19 by reducing the inflammatory response and rapidly improves the clinical status in most patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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