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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338476

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Oral corticosteroids reduce the antibody titer of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. To date, the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on antibody titers is unknown. Study Design The design of this study is retrospective study. Methods: We analyzed the relationship between the clinical features and total antibody titers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein in 320 subjects who had never been infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and were vaccinated the second time with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine between October 1 to December 28, 2021. Results: Of the 320 subjects, 205 were treated with inhaled corticosteroids. The median antibody titer of patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids was 573 U/mL, which was significantly higher than that of patients treated without inhaled corticosteroids (451 U/mL, P=0.00155). The median antibody titers of smokers, men, and patients aged 65 years and over, were 315.5 U/mL, 385 U/mL, and 425.5 U/mL, respectively. These results are significantly lower than those of patients who never smoked, women, and patients aged less than 64 years (582 U/mL [P<0.001], 682.5 U/mL [P<0.001], and 717 U/mL [P<0.001], respectively). The multivariate analysis revealed that smoking history, females, and age were independent antibody titer-reducing factors (P=0,0458, <0.001, and P <0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The use of inhaled corticosteroids did not reduce the antibody titer against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Clinicians should continue treatment with inhaled corticosteroids if indicated.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831182

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron is now under investigation. We evaluated cross-neutralizing activity against Omicron in COVID-19 convalescent patients (n = 23) who had received two doses of an mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273). Intriguingly, after the second vaccination, the neutralizing antibody titers of subjects against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron, all became seropositive, and significant fold-increases (21.1-52.0) were seen regardless of the disease severity of subjects. Our findings thus demonstrate that two doses of mRNA vaccination to SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients can induce cross-neutralizing activity against Omicron.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 773652, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742214

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) has become one of the most pressing issues in public health. To control VOCs, it is important to know which COVID-19 convalescent sera have cross-neutralizing activity against VOCs and how long the sera maintain this protective activity. Methods: Sera of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 from March 2020 to January 2021 and admitted to Hyogo Prefectural Kakogawa Medical Center were selected. Blood was drawn from patients at 1-3, 3-6, and 6-8 months post onset. Then, a virus neutralization assay against SARS-CoV-2 variants (D614G mutation as conventional strain; B.1.1.7, P.1, and B.1.351 as VOCs) was performed using authentic viruses. Results: We assessed 97 sera from 42 patients. Sera from 28 patients showed neutralizing activity that was sustained for 3-8 months post onset. The neutralizing antibody titer against D614G significantly decreased in sera of 6-8 months post onset compared to those of 1-3 months post onset. However, the neutralizing antibody titers against the three VOCs were not significantly different among 1-3, 3-6, and 6-8 months post onset. Discussion: Our results indicate that neutralizing antibodies that recognize the common epitope for several variants may be maintained for a long time, while neutralizing antibodies having specific epitopes for a variant, produced in large quantities immediately after infection, may decrease quite rapidly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329141

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron is now under investigation. We evaluated cross-neutralizing activity against Omicron in COVID-19 convalescent patients (n=23) who had received two doses of an mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273). Surprisingly and interestingly, after the second vaccination, the subjects’ neutralizing antibody titers including that against Omicron all became seropositive, and significant fold-increases (21.1–52.0) were seen regardless of the subjects’ disease severity. Our findings thus demonstrate that at least two doses of mRNA vaccination to SARS-CoV-2 convalescent patients can induce cross-neutralizing activity against Omicron.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(10): ofab430, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of March 2021, Japan is facing a fourth wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To prevent further spread of infection, sera cross-neutralizing activity of patients previously infected with conventional SARS-CoV-2 against novel variants is important but has not been firmly established. METHODS: We investigated the neutralizing potency of 81 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' sera from the first to fourth waves of the pandemic against SARS-CoV-2 D614G, B.1.1.7, P.1, and B.1.351 variants using their authentic viruses. RESULTS: Most sera had neutralizing activity against all variants, showing similar activity against B.1.1.7 and D614G, but lower activity especially against B.1.351. In the fourth wave, sera-neutralizing activity against B.1.1.7 was significantly higher than that against any other variants, including D614G. The sera-neutralizing activity in less severe patients was lower than that of more severe patients for all variants. CONCLUSIONS: The cross-neutralizing activity of convalescent sera was effective against all variants but was potentially weaker for B.1.351. The high neutralizing activity specific to B.1.1.7 in the fourth wave suggests that mutations in the virus might cause conformational change of its spike protein, which affects immune recognition of D614G. Our results indicate that individuals who recover from COVID-19 could be protected from the severity caused by infection with newly emerging variants.

6.
Respir Investig ; 59(5): 670-674, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364442

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a great influence on medical practice in Japan. In this study, an online questionnaire-based survey was conducted among doctors routinely involved in the treatment of asthma. The questions included in the survey pertained to their thoughts on asthma treatment amidst COVID-19, changes in their clinical approach toward patients with asthma, and the behavioral changes in patients in the pandemic era. The results revealed a significant impact of the pandemic on asthma treatment. Regardless of whether or not they were directly involved in the treatment of patients with COVID-19, the doctors had avoided using nebulizers in outpatient wards/clinics and routine pulmonary function testing. An increase in canceled appointments and inappropriate/non-adherence to treatment among their patients were noticeable. Furthermore, the survey revealed an extensive impact of the pandemic on the doctors engaged in asthma treatment irrespective of the differences in their medical backgrounds.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Asthma/complications , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Respir Investig ; 59(5): 679-682, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309378

ABSTRACT

There is a concern that persons with underlying respiratory disease may have increased susceptibility to COVID-19 and/or increased severity/mortality if infected. However, information regarding such patients during the first wave of the epidemic is lacking in Japan. We surveyed chest physicians nationwide, and collected anonymous data concerning 1444 patients. Among COVID-19 patients, the prevalence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and interstitial lung diseases (ILD) was 3.4%, 4.8%, and 1.5%, respectively. Among COVID-19 patients with these 3 comorbidities, exacerbation of the comorbidity occurred in 12.2%, 18.8%, and 36.4%, respectively, and mortality (6.2% overall) was 4.1%, 13.0%, and 31.8%, respectively. The prevalence of asthma among COVID-19 patients was not higher than that for the general population, and mortality in COVID-19 patients with asthma was not higher than mortality in COVID-19 patients without underlying respiratory disease. COVID-19 patients having COPD or ILD had relatively high mortality, especially for ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Comorbidity , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Infect Dis ; 223(7): 1145-1149, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174909

ABSTRACT

Most patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience asymptomatic disease or mild symptoms, but some have critical symptoms requiring intensive care. It is important to determine how patients with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 react to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and suppress virus spread. Innate immunity is important for evasion from the first virus attack, and it may play an important role in the pathogenesis in these patients. We measured serum cytokine levels in 95 patients with COVID-19 during the infection's acute phase and report that significantly higher interleukin 12 and 2 levels were induced in patients with asymptomatic or mild disease than in those with moderate or severe disease, indicating the key roles of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of asymptomatic or mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-12/blood , Interleukin-2/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Interleukin-12/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
9.
JMA J ; 4(1): 1-7, 2021 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084276

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit a wide clinical spectrum ranging from mild respiratory symptoms to critical and fatal diseases, and older individuals are known to be more severely affected. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown. A neutralizing antibody against viruses is known to be important to eliminate the virus. In addition, this antibody is induced at high levels in patients with severe COVID-19, followed by a termination of virus replication. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibit high levels of cytokines/chemokines, even after the disappearance of the virus. This indicates that cytokines/chemokines play significant roles in disease severity. These findings also suggest that antiviral therapy (monoclonal antibody and/or convalescent plasma therapy) should be administered early to eliminate the virus, followed by steroid treatment after viral genome disappearance, especially in patients with severe symptoms.

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