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1.
Journal of Hospital Infection ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799836

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Between February 2022, when the war in Ukraine began, and April 1, 2022, the number of refugees to neighboring countries reached 4,137,842 people. The majority have fled to Poland. The main challenge for the health system in Poland in this situation is how to develop effective adaptation measures. Aim. The aim of this study is to describe threats and challenges to public health related in particular to infectious diseases and to identify the resources of the healthcare system that are necessary to meet the needs of the recent war refugees and the Polish population. Methods Scientific publications, statistical data from national and international organizations, information obtained from public institutions in Poland and Ukraine, and reliable sources of up-to-date information on the Internet were used. Key data on threats and challenges to public health were collected and presented. Findings. Differences were observed between Poland and Ukraine in terms of immunization programmes and their implementation as well as in relation to the prevalence of selected infectious diseases. The increase in demand for healthcare resources in Poland was estimated on the basis of current indicators. Both the possibilities of counteracting epidemic threats related to the current situation and possible consequences for the availability of services and the health condition of all people currently staying in Poland were presented. Conclusion European countries may experience public health threats due to the influx of war refugees. The data presented could be useful for European countries while developing effective strategies to mitigate public health issues.

2.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(6): 535-540, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287037

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION COVID­19 has been identified by the World Health Organization as a pandemic. Poland introduced extensive antiepidemic measures relatively early in order to slow down the spread of the disease. OBJECTIVES The study aims to present recent data on COVID­19 hospitalizations during the first months of the disease outbreak in Poland. PATIENTS AND METHODS This is a retrospective, population­based study conducted using hospital discharge records that included a diagnosis of COVID-19. Data were obtained from the National Institute of Public Health, where they had been originally collected for a Polish hospital morbidity study. They included 8840 hospitalization records from the period between February and September 2020. RESULTS Overall, there were 8252 records of patients hospitalized for COVID­19 for the first time, which accounted for 93% of all hospitalizations. The study group consisted of 4161 men (50.4%) and 4091 women (49.6%). Significantly more patients from urban than rural areas were hospitalized (21.8 per 100 000 vs 20.5 per 100 000; P <0.02). In the period subject to analysis, 1073 in­hospital deaths were observed (13% of all patients), 965 of which occurred during first­time hospitalizations (11.7% of all patients). In the study group, patients who died during hospitalization compared with those who survived hospitalization were significantly older, more frequently lived in urban areas, and had more comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS The findings of our study, especially the differences between survivors and nonsurvivors with COVID-19, may be helpful in recognizing patients requiring special medical care and preventive measures during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Poland , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 131(6): 535-540, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194834

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION COVID­19 has been identified by the World Health Organization as a pandemic. Poland introduced extensive antiepidemic measures relatively early in order to slow down the spread of the disease. OBJECTIVES The study aims to present recent data on COVID­19 hospitalizations during the first months of the disease outbreak in Poland. PATIENTS AND METHODS This is a retrospective, population­based study conducted using hospital discharge records that included a diagnosis of COVID-19. Data were obtained from the National Institute of Public Health, where they had been originally collected for a Polish hospital morbidity study. They included 8840 hospitalization records from the period between February and September 2020. RESULTS Overall, there were 8252 records of patients hospitalized for COVID­19 for the first time, which accounted for 93% of all hospitalizations. The study group consisted of 4161 men (50.4%) and 4091 women (49.6%). Significantly more patients from urban than rural areas were hospitalized (21.8 per 100 000 vs 20.5 per 100 000; P <0.02). In the period subject to analysis, 1073 in­hospital deaths were observed (13% of all patients), 965 of which occurred during first­time hospitalizations (11.7% of all patients). In the study group, patients who died during hospitalization compared with those who survived hospitalization were significantly older, more frequently lived in urban areas, and had more comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS The findings of our study, especially the differences between survivors and nonsurvivors with COVID-19, may be helpful in recognizing patients requiring special medical care and preventive measures during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Poland , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154527

ABSTRACT

The disinfection of surfaces in medical facilities is an important element of infection control, including the control of viral infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Preparations used for surface disinfection are typically characterized via their activity against test organisms (i.e., viruses, bacteria and fungi) in the laboratory. Typically, these methods use a suspension of the test organism to assess the bactericidal, fungicidal or virucidal activity of a given preparation. However, such suspension methods do not fully imitate real-life conditions. To address this issue, carrier methods have been developed, in which microorganisms are applied to the surface of a carrier (e.g., stainless steel, glass and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) and then dried. Such methods more accurately reflect the applications in real-life clinical practice. This article summarizes the available methods for assessing the virucidal activity of chemical disinfectants for use in medical facilities based on the current European standards, including the activity against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Disinfectants/standards , Europe , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development
5.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983006

ABSTRACT

Unexpected isolation, which has not yet been seen on a global scale, has created the conditions for evaluating nutrition in a situation of reduced spatial activity. The study aimed to assess the influence of lockdown on selected eating habits of Polish adults. An anonymous questionnaire was conducted, including questions about eating habits and self-reported anthropometric measurements, referring to "before" and "during" lockdown. We reported the findings of 312 adults (aged 41.12 ± 13.05 years). Overall, 64.1% of the participants were women, 77.7% urban inhabitants and 78.6% employed. The average length of social isolation was 50.79 ± 10.53 days. The majority (51.6%) of the respondents did not eat outside the house during lockdown (p < 0.0001). The number of meals eaten during the day during lockdown increased significantly, 11.2% of the respondents ate 5 and more meals (p < 0.0001). The percentage of people snacking between meals increased by 5.1% during lockdown (p = 0.0001). Eggs, potatoes, sweets, canned meat and alcohol were consumed considerably more commonly during lockdown, while fast-food products, instant soups and energy drinks were eaten or drunk significantly less frequently. A marked decrease in the number of daily servings of the following products was observed: bakery products, red meat, fast food, instant soups, sweet beverages and energy drinks. Conversely, the number of daily servings of sweets and canned meat significantly increased. Two thirds of the respondents reported body weight changes, with 45.86% of the participants being overweight during lockdown. Significant changes in the diet of Polish adults were found during lockdown due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Isolation , Weight Gain , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fast Foods , Female , Food Preferences , Humans , Life Style , Male , Meals , Middle Aged , Obesity/etiology , Overweight/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population
6.
Nutrients ; 12(10):3084, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-843192

ABSTRACT

Unexpected isolation, which has not yet been seen on a global scale, has created the conditions for evaluating nutrition in a situation of reduced spatial activity. The study aimed to assess the influence of lockdown on selected eating habits of Polish adults. An anonymous questionnaire was conducted, including questions about eating habits and self-reported anthropometric measurements, referring to “before”and “during”lockdown. We reported the findings of 312 adults (aged 41.12 ±13.05 years). Overall, 64.1% of the participants were women, 77.7% urban inhabitants and 78.6% employed. The average length of social isolation was 50.79 ±10.53 days. The majority (51.6%) of the respondents did not eat outside the house during lockdown (p <0.0001). The number of meals eaten during the day during lockdown increased significantly, 11.2% of the respondents ate 5 and more meals (p <0.0001). The percentage of people snacking between meals increased by 5.1% during lockdown (p = 0.0001). Eggs, potatoes, sweets, canned meat and alcohol were consumed considerably more commonly during lockdown, while fast-food products, instant soups and energy drinks were eaten or drunk significantly less frequently. A marked decrease in the number of daily servings of the following products was observed: bakery products, red meat, fast food, instant soups, sweet beverages and energy drinks. Conversely, the number of daily servings of sweets and canned meat significantly increased. Two thirds of the respondents reported body weight changes, with 45.86% of the participants being overweight during lockdown. Significant changes in the diet of Polish adults were found during lockdown due to COVID-19.

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