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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3540-3547, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767364

ABSTRACT

Low temperature and certain humidity are conducive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for long-time survival and long-distance spread during logistics and trades. Contaminated cold-chain or frozen products and outer packaging act as the carrier of SARS-CoV-2, that infects the high-risk population who works in the ports, cold storage or seafood market. Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, multiple localized outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 contaminated imported cold-chain products have been reported in China, which brought challenges to COVID-19 prevention and control. Here, we review the evidences of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission from six confirmed cold-chain related COVID-19 outbreaks in China, especially in terms of SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing and virus isolation. In addition, we summarize the characteristics and mode of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission from both six COVID-19 outbreaks in China and the outbreaks suspected cold-chain transmission in other countries. Finally, we analyze the underlying risks of SARS-CoV-2 cold-chain transmission and propose the preventive countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors
4.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(25): 453-457, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449640

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS TOPIC?: A novel human coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV, is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have released the primers and probes of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for the laboratory detection of COVID-19 infection. WHAT IS ADDED BY THIS REPORT?: Here we provide detailed technical data and evaluate the performance of three novel rRT-PCR assays targeting the ORF1ab, N, and E genes for detection of COVID-19 infection. The application of rRT-PCR assays among four types of specimens (alveolar lavage, sputum, throat swabs, and stool) from patients with COVID-19 indicated that the mean viral loads detected in sputum were higher than other specimens. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE?: These rRT-PCR assays reported here could be used for laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 infection with high sensitivity, specificity, and applicability. Sputum rather than throat swabs and stool should be a priority for specimen collection for laboratory detection of COVID-19.

5.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(25): 447-452, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449635

ABSTRACT

What is already known on this topic? Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by a novel human coronavirus named the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19 virus, was reported in December 2019. Complete genomes of the COVID-19 virus from clinical samples using next generation sequencing (NGS) have been reported. What is added by this report? Here we provide the technical data for sequencing complete genome of COVID-19 virus from clinical samples using the Sanger method. Two complete COVID-19 virus genome sequences (named WH19004-S and GX0002) were obtained from clinical samples of COVID-19 patients, and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ORF7a (T/C, nt 27,493) and ORF8 (T/C, nt 28,253) of WH19004-S were identified by Sanger sequencing. What are the implications for public health practice? The COVID-19 virus genome sequencing by Sanger method reported here could be used to generate data of high enough quality without requirement for expensive NGS equipment, which support sequencing complete genomes from clinical samples and monitoring of viral genetic variations of COVID-19 infections.

6.
mBio ; 12(5): e0222021, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440803

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused huge deaths and economic losses worldwide in the current pandemic. The main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is thought to be an ideal drug target for treating COVID-19. Leupeptin, a broad-spectrum covalent inhibitor of serine, cysteine, and threonine proteases, showed inhibitory activity against Mpro, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 127.2 µM in vitro in our study here. In addition, leupeptin can also inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 42.34 µM. More importantly, various strains of streptomyces that have a broad symbiotic relationship with medicinal plants can produce leupeptin and leupeptin analogs to regulate autogenous proteases. Fingerprinting and structure elucidation using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), respectively, further proved that the Qing-Fei-Pai-Du (QFPD) decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula for the effective treatment of COVID-19 during the period of the Wuhan outbreak, contains leupeptin. All these results indicate that leupeptin at least contributes to the antiviral activity of the QFPD decoction against SARS-CoV-2. This also reminds us to pay attention to the microbiomes in TCM herbs as streptomyces in the soil might produce leupeptin that will later infiltrate the medicinal plant. We propose that plants, microbiome, and microbial metabolites form an ecosystem for the effective components of TCM herbs. IMPORTANCE A TCM formula has played an important role in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. However, the mechanism of TCM action is still unclear. In this study, we identified leupeptin, a metabolite produced by plant-symbiotic actinomyces (PSA), which showed antiviral activity in both cell culture and enzyme assays. Moreover, leupeptin found in the QFPD decoction was confirmed by both HPLC fingerprinting and HRMS. These results suggest that leupeptin likely contributes to the antiviral activity of the QFPD decoction against SARS-CoV-2. This result gives us important insight into further studies of the PSA metabolite and medicinal plant ecosystem for future TCM modernization research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Leupeptins/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ecosystem , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(39)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428995

ABSTRACT

Bats are responsible for the zoonotic transmission of several major viral diseases, including those leading to the 2003 SARS outbreak and likely the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. While comparative genomics studies have revealed characteristic adaptations of the bat innate immune system, functional genomic studies are urgently needed to provide a foundation for the molecular dissection of the viral tolerance in bats. Here we report the establishment of genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR libraries for the screening of the model megabat, Pteropus alecto. We used the complementary RNAi and CRISPR libraries to interrogate P. alecto cells for infection with two different viruses: mumps virus and influenza A virus, respectively. Independent screening results converged on the endocytosis pathway and the protein secretory pathway as required for both viral infections. Additionally, we revealed a general dependence of the C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase gene, MTHFD1, for viral replication in bat cells and human cells. The MTHFD1 inhibitor, carolacton, potently blocked replication of several RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. We also discovered that bats have lower expression levels of MTHFD1 than humans. Our studies provide a resource for systematic inquiry into the genetic underpinnings of bat biology and a potential target for developing broad-spectrum antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Aminohydrolases/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Formate-Tetrahydrofolate Ligase/genetics , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP)/genetics , Multienzyme Complexes/genetics , Pandemics , Aminohydrolases/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chiroptera/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Formate-Tetrahydrofolate Ligase/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP)/antagonists & inhibitors , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens , Multienzyme Complexes/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Viruses/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/genetics
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 213, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249203

ABSTRACT

Although inoculation of COVID-19 vaccines has rolled out globally, there is still a critical need for safe and effective vaccines to ensure fair and equitable supply for all countries. Here, we report on the development of a highly efficacious mRNA vaccine, SW0123 that is composed of sequence-modified mRNA encoding the full-length SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein packaged in core-shell structured lipopolyplex (LPP) nanoparticles. SW0123 is easy to produce using a large-scale microfluidics-based apparatus. The unique core-shell structured nanoparticle facilitates vaccine uptake and demonstrates a high colloidal stability, and a desirable biodistribution pattern with low liver targeting effect upon intramuscular administration. Extensive evaluations in mice and nonhuman primates revealed strong immunogenicity of SW0123, represented by induction of Th1-polarized T cell responses and high levels of antibodies that were capable of neutralizing not only the wild-type SARS-CoV-2, but also a panel of variants including D614G and N501Y variants. In addition, SW0123 conferred effective protection in both mice and non-human primates upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Taken together, SW0123 is a promising vaccine candidate that holds prospects for further evaluation in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/immunology
11.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(21): 441-447, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237076

ABSTRACT

What is known about this topic? Few major outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in China after major non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccines have been deployed and implemented. However, sporadic outbreaks that had high possibility to be linked to cold chain products were reported in several cities of China.. What is added by this report? In July 2020, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Dalian, China. The investigations of this outbreak strongly suggested that the infection source was from COVID-19 virus-contaminated packaging of frozen seafood during inbound unloading personnel contact. What are the implications for public health practice? Virus contaminated paper surfaces could maintain infectivity for at least 17-24 days at -25 ℃. Exposure to COVID-19 virus-contaminated surfaces is a potential route for introducing the virus to a susceptible population. Countries with no domestic transmission of COVID-19 should consider introducing prevention strategies for both inbound travellers and imported goods. Several measures to prevent the introduction of the virus via cold-chain goods can be implemented.

14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4417, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744372

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was declared a pandemic on March 11 by WHO, due to its great threat to global public health. The coronavirus main protease (Mpro, also called 3CLpro) is essential for processing and maturation of the viral polyprotein, therefore recognized as an attractive drug target. Here we show that a clinically approved anti-HCV drug, Boceprevir, and a pre-clinical inhibitor against feline infectious peritonitis (corona) virus (FIPV), GC376, both efficaciously inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells by targeting Mpro. Moreover, combined application of GC376 with Remdesivir, a nucleotide analogue that inhibits viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), results in sterilizing additive effect. Further structural analysis reveals binding of both inhibitors to the catalytically active side of SARS-CoV-2 protease Mpro as main mechanism of inhibition. Our findings may provide critical information for the optimization and design of more potent inhibitors against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Binding Sites/drug effects , COVID-19 , Catalytic Domain , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Proline/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonic Acids , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(3): 325-328, 2020 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709361

ABSTRACT

An in-depth annotation of the newly discovered coronavirus (2019-nCoV) genome has revealed differences between 2019-nCoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or SARS-like coronaviruses. A systematic comparison identified 380 amino acid substitutions between these coronaviruses, which may have caused functional and pathogenic divergence of 2019-nCoV.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19 , China , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 99: 84-91, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The antiviral effects of Novaferon, a potent antiviral protein drug, on COVID-19 was evaluated in the laboratory, and in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial. METHODS: In the laboratory, Novaferon's inhibition of viral replication in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 entry into healthy cells was determined. Antiviral effects of Novaferon in COVID-19 patients with treatment of Novaferon, Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir, or Lopinavir/Ritonavir were evaluated. The primary endpoint was the SARS-CoV-2 clearance rates on day six of treatment, and the secondary endpoint was the time to SARS-CoV-2 clearance. RESULTS: Novaferon inhibited viral replication (EC50=1.02ng/ml), and prevented viral infection (EC50=0.10ng/ml). Results from the 89 enrolled COVID-19 patients showed that both Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups had significantly higher viral clearance rates on day six than Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (50.0% vs. 24.1%, p=0.0400, and 60.0% vs. 24.1%, p=0.0053). The median time to viral clearance was six days, six days, and nine days for three groups, respectively, a 3-day reduction in both the Novaferon and Novaferon plus Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups compared with the Lopinavir/Ritonavir group. CONCLUSIONS: Novaferon exhibited anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects in vitro and in COVID-19 patients. These data justify further evaluation of Novaferon. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Number ChiCTR2000029496 at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interferons/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Interferons/administration & dosage , Male , Pandemics , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/drug effects
17.
Cell ; 182(3): 713-721.e9, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-549043

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) threatens global public health. The development of a vaccine is urgently needed for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Here, we report the pilot-scale production of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate (BBIBP-CorV) that induces high levels of neutralizing antibodies titers in mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates (cynomolgus monkeys and rhesus macaques) to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2. Two-dose immunizations using 2 µg/dose of BBIBP-CorV provided highly efficient protection against SARS-CoV-2 intratracheal challenge in rhesus macaques, without detectable antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. In addition, BBIBP-CorV exhibits efficient productivity and good genetic stability for vaccine manufacture. These results support the further evaluation of BBIBP-CorV in a clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Guinea Pigs , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects
18.
Chin. J. Microbiol. Immunol. ; 2(40): 103-109, 20200229.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-23278

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the effects of different pre-sequencing sample processing modes on the results of whole genome sequencing with high-throughput sequencing (HTS) by taking the largest RNA virus (human coronavirus, HCoV) as the representative. Methods: Cell-cultured human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 strains were used as the representative samples and divided into different groups based on pre-sequencing processing modes as follows: untreated group, DNase and RNase treatment before nucleic acid extraction group, DNase treatment after nucleic acid extraction group, and DNase and RNase treatment before nucleic acid extraction and DNase treatment after nucleic acid extraction group. Nucleic acid samples of each group were analyzed by direct RNA sequencing (without amplification) and DNA sequencing after sequence independent single primer amplification (SISPA), respectively. Results: No significant difference in viral genome coverage rates was observed between different groups. The highest genome coverage and sequencing accuracy were obtained in DNase treatment after nucleic acid extraction group by direct RNA sequencing, and the ratio of viral reads and the sequencing depth of each locus were effectively improved by SISPA amplification. Conclusions: This study provided an optimized technical strategy for whole genome sequencing of RNA viruses such as coronavirus.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 732-739, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-5562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first broke out in 2019 and subsequently spread worldwide. Chloroquine has been sporadically used in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine shares the same mechanism of action as chloroquine, but its more tolerable safety profile makes it the preferred drug to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions. We propose that the immunomodulatory effect of hydroxychloroquine also may be useful in controlling the cytokine storm that occurs late phase in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2. Currently, there is no evidence to support the use of hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The pharmacological activity of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine was tested using SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were implemented for both drugs separately by integrating their in vitro data. Using the PBPK models, hydroxychloroquine concentrations in lung fluid were simulated under 5 different dosing regimens to explore the most effective regimen while considering the drug's safety profile. RESULTS: Hydroxychloroquine (EC50 = 0.72 µM) was found to be more potent than chloroquine (EC50 = 5.47 µM) in vitro. Based on PBPK models results, a loading dose of 400 mg twice daily of hydroxychloroquine sulfate given orally, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg given twice daily for 4 days is recommended for SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it reached 3 times the potency of chloroquine phosphate when given 500 mg twice daily 5 days in advance. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxychloroquine was found to be more potent than chloroquine to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Lung/drug effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
20.
Lancet ; 395(10224): 565-574, 2020 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-80

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In late December, 2019, patients presenting with viral pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, China. A novel coronavirus was subsequently identified as the causative pathogen, provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). As of Jan 26, 2020, more than 2000 cases of 2019-nCoV infection have been confirmed, most of which involved people living in or visiting Wuhan, and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed. METHODS: We did next-generation sequencing of samples from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cultured isolates from nine inpatients, eight of whom had visited the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan. Complete and partial 2019-nCoV genome sequences were obtained from these individuals. Viral contigs were connected using Sanger sequencing to obtain the full-length genomes, with the terminal regions determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Phylogenetic analysis of these 2019-nCoV genomes and those of other coronaviruses was used to determine the evolutionary history of the virus and help infer its likely origin. Homology modelling was done to explore the likely receptor-binding properties of the virus. FINDINGS: The ten genome sequences of 2019-nCoV obtained from the nine patients were extremely similar, exhibiting more than 99·98% sequence identity. Notably, 2019-nCoV was closely related (with 88% identity) to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, collected in 2018 in Zhoushan, eastern China, but were more distant from SARS-CoV (about 79%) and MERS-CoV (about 50%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 2019-nCoV fell within the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus, with a relatively long branch length to its closest relatives bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21, and was genetically distinct from SARS-CoV. Notably, homology modelling revealed that 2019-nCoV had a similar receptor-binding domain structure to that of SARS-CoV, despite amino acid variation at some key residues. INTERPRETATION: 2019-nCoV is sufficiently divergent from SARS-CoV to be considered a new human-infecting betacoronavirus. Although our phylogenetic analysis suggests that bats might be the original host of this virus, an animal sold at the seafood market in Wuhan might represent an intermediate host facilitating the emergence of the virus in humans. Importantly, structural analysis suggests that 2019-nCoV might be able to bind to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in humans. The future evolution, adaptation, and spread of this virus warrant urgent investigation. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong First Medical University.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , DNA, Viral/genetics , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genomics/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment
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