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Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(4): 407-414, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194781


CONTEXT.­: Autopsy pathologists, including medical examiners, provide valuable public health support for infectious disease deaths through surveillance for deaths of public health concern including emerging infections, identifying causative organisms for unexplained deaths, and providing insights into the pathology and pathogenesis of novel or unusual infections. However, autopsy poses biosafety risks to workers within and outside the laboratory. The highest rates of laboratory-acquired infections occur in autopsy workers. OBJECTIVE.­: To design and construct an appropriately biosafe autopsy laboratory. DESIGN.­: We conducted a biosafety risk assessment for autopsy workers using the process developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health and applied these findings as the basis of laboratory design and construction. RESULTS.­: Autopsy workers are unpredictably exposed to a variety of infectious organisms, including hepatitis C virus, HIV, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Hazardous autopsy procedures include using and encountering sharp objects and the generation of aerosols from dissection, fluid aspiration, rinsing tissues, and dividing bone with an oscillating saw. CONCLUSIONS.­: Exposure to blood-borne and airborne pathogens from procedures that can cause cutaneous inoculation and inhalation of aerosols indicates that human autopsies should be performed at biosafety level 3. We designed a large, entirely biosafety level 3 medical examiner autopsy laboratory using design principles and characteristics that can be scaled to accommodate smaller academic or other hospital-based autopsy spaces. Containment was achieved through a concentric ring design, with access control at interface zones. As new autopsy laboratories are planned, we strongly recommend that they be designed to function uniformly at biosafety level 3.

Autopsy , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Containment of Biohazards , Facility Design and Construction , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laboratories , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Coroners and Medical Examiners , Humans , Laboratory Personnel , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Occupational Health , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Safety Management
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100741, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071273


BACKGROUND: Suicides by any method, plus 'nonsuicide' fatalities from drug self-intoxication (estimated from selected forensically undetermined and 'accidental' deaths), together represent self-injury mortality (SIM)-fatalities due to mental disorders or distress. SIM is especially important to examine given frequent undercounting of suicides amongst drug overdose deaths. We report suicide and SIM trends in the United States of America (US) during 1999-2018, portray interstate rate trends, and examine spatiotemporal (spacetime) diffusion or spread of the drug self-intoxication component of SIM, with attention to potential for differential suicide misclassification. METHODS: For this state-based, cross-sectional, panel time series, we used de-identified manner and underlying cause-of-death data for the 50 states and District of Columbia (DC) from CDC's Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research. Procedures comprised joinpoint regression to describe national trends; Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient to assess interstate SIM and suicide rate congruence; and spacetime hierarchical modelling of the 'nonsuicide' SIM component. FINDINGS: The national annual average percentage change over the observation period in the SIM rate was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.3%, 5.4%; p<0.001) versus 1.8% (95% CI: 1.6%, 2.0%; p<0.001) for the suicide rate. By 2017/2018, all states except Nebraska (19.9) posted a SIM rate of at least 21.0 deaths per 100,000 population-the floor of the rate range for the top 5 ranking states in 1999/2000. The rank-order correlation coefficient for SIM and suicide rates was 0.82 (p<0.001) in 1999/2000 versus 0.34 (p = 0.02) by 2017/2018. Seven states in the West posted a ≥ 5.0% reduction in their standardised mortality ratios of 'nonsuicide' drug fatalities, relative to the national ratio, and 6 states from the other 3 major regions a >6.0% increase (p<0.05). INTERPRETATION: Depiction of rising SIM trends across states and major regions unmasks a burgeoning national mental health crisis. Geographic variation is plausibly a partial product of local heterogeneity in toxic drug availability and the quality of medicolegal death investigations. Like COVID-19, the nation will only be able to prevent SIM by responding with collective, comprehensive, systemic approaches. Injury surveillance and prevention, mental health, and societal well-being are poorly served by the continuing segregation of substance use disorders from other mental disorders in clinical medicine and public health practice. FUNDING: This study was partially funded by the National Centre for Injury Prevention and Control, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (R49CE002093) and the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (1UM1DA049412-01; 1R21DA046521-01A1).