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1.
Antimicrobial Stewardship and Healthcare Epidemiology ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1873362

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) can be expanded to the outpatient setting to serve as a first line of defense against coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) hospitalizations and to reduce the burden on emergency departments and acute-care hospitals. Given the numerous emergency use authorizations of monoclonal antibodies and oral antivirals, ASPs possess the expertise and leadership to direct ambulatory COVID-19 initiatives and transform it into a predominantly outpatient illness. In this review, we summarize the critical role and benefits of an ASP-championed ambulatory COVID-19 therapeutics program. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S362, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746475

ABSTRACT

Background. Monoclonal antibodies were given emergency use authorization (EUA) by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of high-risk, outpatient COVID-19 infection. In New York City (NYC), the emergence and rapid growth of the B.1.526 variant of concern (VOC) possessing the E484K mutation was first noted in February 2021. In-vitro studies subsequently confirmed attenuated monoclonal antibody neutralization against VOCs. At our institution, bamlanivimab (BAM) alone or with etesevimab (B/E) and casirivimab/imdevimab (C/I) were utilized at different phases of the pandemic. The objective of this study was to assess their comparative efficacies in a highly variant prevalent setting. Methods. This retrospective analysis was conducted at an urban hospital in the Bronx, NY and evaluated adult monoclonal antibody recipients from any of our infusion sites. Patients initially received BAM but given the high prevalence of variants, treatment was transitioned to first B/E and then C/I exclusively. We compared BAM versus combination therapy as well as B/E versus C/I individually. The primary outcome was all-cause hospital admission within 30 days post infusion. Results. From February 1 to March 7, 2021, 358 patients received BAM and from March 17 to May 9, 2021, 86 and 179 patients received B/E and C/I, respectively. Compared to any combination infusion, patients who received BAM were significantly older, more likely to possess ≥ 2 qualifying EUA criteria, and less likely to be vaccinated for COVID-19 prior to infusion (Table 1). Following B/E and C/I, 4.5% of patients were admitted versus 10.1% for BAM, p=0.011. There were no significant differences in admission between B/E and C/I recipients, p=0.485. After excluding fully vaccinated patients (n=14) and adjusting for age and ≥ 2 EUA criteria, combination therapy remained associated with decreased odds of hospitalization compared to BAM (odds ratio, 0.48;95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.94). Conclusion. Combination therapy may be associated with fewer hospital admissions following infusion, although there were no statistically significant differences between the individual combination infusions. We suggest similar studies be conducted by other sites to understand the clinical impact of local SARS-CoV-2 variants on antibody efficacy.

3.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology ; 42(12):1524-1526, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1647718
5.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S313-S314, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185855

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID infections in inpatient psychiatry units present unique challenges during the pandemic, including behavioral characteristics of the patients, structural aspect of the unit, type of therapy for the patients. We present COVID outbreaks in psychiatry units in two hospitals in our medical center in Bronx, NY, and describe our mitigation strategies. Methods: Hosp A: In the early period of the pandemic in NY, 2 patients in the inpatient psychiatry unit tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 PCR. The unit was temporarily closed to new admissions. Hosp B: On 4/1, one of the patients in a 22 bed Psych unit, admitted since 3/10/20, developed fever, cough and tested positive for COVID-19 PCR. Two of her close contacts tested positive for SARS-COV-2 PCR. Results: Hospital A: In total, 5 of the 29 patients (17.2%) in the unit were SARSCoV- 2 positive, all of whom were asymptomatic. Hospital B: Testing of the remaining patients showed positive PCR in 10/14. PCR tests of healthcare workers (HCW) were positive in 13/46. Except for the index patient, all the patients were asymptomatic but 32/46 HCW reported symptoms. One negative patient subsequently turned positive. Infection control and prevention strategies instituted in both hospitals were the same with subtle differences due to dissimilar burden of infection and structure of the units. Table 1 shows the timing of the outbreak and the rapid institution of preventive measures in each of the hospitals. There was still difficulty with patients regarding adherence. Some of the patients refused to stay in isolation and would roam. Compliance with masking and hand hygiene was problematic. Communication was of paramount importance. Multiple meetings were held between the Psychiatry staff, Infection Control and Prevention team, executive leadership of the hospital. Environmental Services and Engineering were also involved. Communications with the NY State Department of Health occurred frequently. Conclusion: Strategies for management of COVID-19 patients in inpatient psychiatric units depends on the density of infected patients in the hospital and in the community. The implementation of practice change may need to be rapidly adjusted depending on the situation and available resources. Contingency plans should be formulated early on.

6.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 20(11):3247-3251, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1175017

ABSTRACT

To limit SARS-CoV-2 introduction, the United States restricted travel from China on February 2 and from Europe on March 13, 2020. By March 15, community transmission was widespread in New York City (NYC). The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted sentinel surveillance of influenza-like symptoms (ILS) and genetic sequencing to characterize community transmission and determine the geographic origin of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Among 544 specimens tested from persons with ILS and negative influenza test results, 36 (6.6%) were positive. Genetically sequenced positive specimens most closely resembled sequences circulating in Europe. Partnering with health care facilities and establishing systems for sentinel surveillance with capacity for genetic sequencing before an outbreak can inform timely public health response strategies.

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