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1.
Hepatology ; 74(SUPPL 1):341A-342A, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1508738

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID19 pandemic has affected persons dietary habits and life style, with effects on body weight. We have assessed the effect of the pandemic on the liver health by quantifying the changes in liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. Methods: This is a multi-center US study that included 3 tertiary clinical centers. Patients with chronic liver disease (51 NAFLD, 8 with resolved hepatitis C, 3 chronic hepatitis B, 5 primary biliary cholangitis and 36 combination of chronic liver disease), without evidence of an acute process (e.g. alcoholic hepatitis, alcohol abuse or new decompensation of cirrhosis), were enrolled. Patients were assessed between January and March 2020 and January and March 2021. Assessment included laboratory tests and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) on vibration transient elastography (VCTE). Results: 103 patients were assessed twice during the two periods. Baseline mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was 37 ± 36 (SD) U/L;aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 30 ± 18 U/L;total bilirubin 0.6 ± 0.31 mg/dL;albumin, 4.2 ± 0.72 g/dL;CAP score 293 ± 70 dB/m;and LSM on VCTE 8.1 ±6.2 kPa. Weight gain occurred in 54% of the population, whereas 39% lost weight, and 7% had no weight change. LSM increased by >20% in 30% of subjects;decreased by 20% in 27%;and remained within the 20% range in 43%. LSM increase by 20% was associated with significant weight gain and ALT increase (+2.3 ± 6.5 kg, and +17 ± 49.U/L (p<0.05)), in comparison to subjects who had their LSM changes within 20% range (+1.1 (3.7) kg, and -5.3 ±22.0 U/L) or had >20% decrease in LSM (-0.3 ±5.8 kg, and -6.0 ±21 U/L). CAP score median change was -2.9 ±85 dB/m in those who had LSM increase by >20%, whereas the score changed by 0.0 ± 44 dB/m in those who had LSM changes within 20% or 1.0 ± 58 dB/m in those >20% decrease. Conclusion: During the COVID 19 pandemic in this U.S. population, more than half of subjects with chronic liver disease gained weight, but others had no change or decreased weight. Adverse liver changes (LSM>20% and increased ALT) occurred in one-third of the population.

2.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277219

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical commonly used as a household antiseptic for cleaning and disinfecting. Chronic inhalation of hydrogen peroxide is described in case reports as causing interstitial lung disease with radiographic images demonstrating septal line thickening, honeycombing, and traction bronchiectasis with associated ground glass opacification. In a literature review, no cases of acute hydrogen peroxide inhalation induced lung injury have been previously described. This is a case of acute hydrogen peroxide induced pneumonitis initially masquerading as Covid-19 pneumonia. An 82-year-old male with a pertinent history of diastolic heart failure, obstructive sleep apnea, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with worsening dyspnea and morning hemoptysis. He endorsed a COVID-19 exposure two weeks previously. Upon initial evaluation, he was afebrile and hemodynamically normal, with tachypnea and requiring 6 liters of supplemental oxygen to maintain spo2> 88%. Pulmonary auscultation revealed clear breath sounds and no signs of fluid overload were evident on the remainder of the physical exam. The initial chest x-ray and CT imaging demonstrated multifocal, bilateral, hazy consolidations with increased interstitial markings concerning for COVID-19 pneumonia. Pertinent lab results revealed negative COVID-19 and viral respiratory PCR results, and respiratory cultures with no growth of pathogenic bacteria. An echocardiogram revealed new systolic dysfunction with a reduced ejection fraction of 35-40%. The patient continued to have severe dyspnea and hypoxemia despite treatment for heart failure, COPD, and bacterial pneumonia consisting of diuretics, bronchodilators, and antibiotics. On further interview the patient recounted mixing hydrogen peroxide in his CPAP humidifier for the previous week before admission, based on a friend's advice in preventing COVID-19. The patient was subsequently initiated on systemic glucocorticoid therapy and had significant improvement in hypoxemia and dyspnea and oxygen requirements decreased from 6L to 2L nasal cannula at time of discharge. In light of the recent influential media attention and fear, cleaning products such as bleach have received disproportionate attention in the killing of the COVID-19 virus. Similarly, hydrogen peroxide is used as a disinfectant, which was intentionally inhaled in large amounts and over a one-week duration in this case. Prior case reports describe environmental and occupational exposure over 3-5 years developing into a non-specific interstitial pneumonia pattern. This case demonstrates a rare acute pneumonitis after the recent use of hydrogen peroxide in a CPAP humidifier. Inhalation of hydrogen peroxide may produce an acute pneumonitis distinct from what has been described previously with chronic inhalation.

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