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1.
J Cell Mol Med ; 26(19): 4940-4948, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019413

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel coronavirus responsible for worldwide coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We previously observed that Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) are significantly overexpressed in naso-oropharyngeal swabs (NPS) of COVID-19 patients, suggesting their putative functional role in the disease progression. ACE2 and DPP4 overexpression in COVID-19 patients may be associated to epigenetic mechanism, such as miRNA differential expression. We investigated if hsa-let7b-5p, reported to target both ACE2 and DPP4 transcripts, could be involved in the regulation of these genes. We verified that the inhibition and overexpression of hsa-let7b-5p matched to a modulation of both ACE2 and DPP4 levels. Then, we observed a statistically significant downregulation (FC = -1.5; p < 0.05) of hsa-let7b-5p in the same COVID-19 and control samples of our previous study. This is the first study that shows hsa-let7b-5p low expression in naso-oropharyngeal swabs of COVID-19 patients and demonstrates a functional role of this miR in regulating ACE2 and DPP4 levels. These data suggest the involvement of hsa-let7b-5p in the regulation of genes necessary for SARS-CoV-2 infections and its putative role as a therapeutic target for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10194, 2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984424

ABSTRACT

Since the start of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, children aged ≤ 12 years have always been defined as underrepresented in terms of SARS-CoV-2 infections' frequency and severity. By correlating SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics with clinical and virological features in 612 SARS-CoV-2 positive patients aged ≤ 12 years, we demonstrated a sizeable circulation of different SARS-CoV-2 lineages over the four pandemic waves in paediatric population, sustained by local transmission chains. Age < 5 years, highest viral load, gamma and delta clades positively influence this local transmission. No correlations between COVID-19 manifestations and lineages or transmission chains are seen, except for a negative correlation between B.1.1.7 and hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load
4.
Bastard, Paul, Vazquez, Sara, Liu, Jamin, Laurie, Matthew T.; Wang, Chung Yu, Gervais, Adrian, Le Voyer, Tom, Bizien, Lucy, Zamecnik, Colin, Philippot, Quentin, Rosain, Jérémie, Catherinot, Emilie, Willmore, Andrew, Mitchell, Anthea M.; Bair, Rebecca, Garçon, Pierre, Kenney, Heather, Fekkar, Arnaud, Salagianni, Maria, Poulakou, Garyphallia, Siouti, Eleni, Sahanic, Sabina, Tancevski, Ivan, Weiss, Günter, Nagl, Laurenz, Manry, Jérémy, Duvlis, Sotirija, Arroyo-Sánchez, Daniel, Paz Artal, Estela, Rubio, Luis, Perani, Cristiano, Bezzi, Michela, Sottini, Alessandra, Quaresima, Virginia, Roussel, Lucie, Vinh, Donald C.; Reyes, Luis Felipe, Garzaro, Margaux, Hatipoglu, Nevin, Boutboul, David, Tandjaoui-Lambiotte, Yacine, Borghesi, Alessandro, Aliberti, Anna, Cassaniti, Irene, Venet, Fabienne, Monneret, Guillaume, Halwani, Rabih, Sharif-Askari, Narjes Saheb, Danielson, Jeffrey, Burrel, Sonia, Morbieu, Caroline, Stepanovskyy, Yurii, Bondarenko, Anastasia, Volokha, Alla, Boyarchuk, Oksana, Gagro, Alenka, Neuville, Mathilde, Neven, Bénédicte, Keles, Sevgi, Hernu, Romain, Bal, Antonin, Novelli, Antonio, Novelli, Giuseppe, Saker, Kahina, Ailioaie, Oana, Antolí, Arnau, Jeziorski, Eric, Rocamora-Blanch, Gemma, Teixeira, Carla, Delaunay, Clarisse, Lhuillier, Marine, Le Turnier, Paul, Zhang, Yu, Mahevas, Matthieu, Pan-Hammarström, Qiang, Abolhassani, Hassan, Bompoil, Thierry, Dorgham, Karim, consortium, Covid Hge, French, Covid study group, consortium, Comet, Gorochov, Guy, Laouenan, Cédric, Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos, Ng, Lisa F. P.; Renia, Laurent, Pujol, Aurora, Belot, Alexandre, Raffi, François, Allende, Luis M.; Martinez-Picado, Javier, Ozcelik, Tayfun, Keles, Sevgi, Imberti, Luisa, Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Troya, Jesus, Solanich, Xavier, Zhang, Shen-Ying, Puel, Anne, Wilson, Michael R.; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie, Abel, Laurent, Jouanguy, Emmanuelle, Ye, Chun Jimmie, Cobat, Aurélie, Thompson, Leslie M.; Andreakos, Evangelos, Zhang, Qian, Anderson, Mark S.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent, DeRisi, Joseph L..
Science immunology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918542

ABSTRACT

Life-threatening ‘breakthrough’ cases of critical COVID-19 are attributed to poor or waning antibody response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in individuals already at risk. Pre-existing autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I IFNs underlie at least 15% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases in unvaccinated individuals;however, their contribution to hypoxemic breakthrough cases in vaccinated people remains unknown. Here, we studied a cohort of 48 individuals (age 20-86 years) who received 2 doses of an mRNA vaccine and developed a breakthrough infection with hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia 2 weeks to 4 months later. Antibody levels to the vaccine, neutralization of the virus, and auto-Abs to type I IFNs were measured in the plasma. Forty-two individuals had no known deficiency of B cell immunity and a normal antibody response to the vaccine. Among them, ten (24%) had auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs (aged 43-86 years). Eight of these ten patients had auto-Abs neutralizing both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω, while two neutralized IFN-ω only. No patient neutralized IFN-β. Seven neutralized 10 ng/mL of type I IFNs, and three 100 pg/mL only. Seven patients neutralized SARS-CoV-2 D614G and the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) efficiently, while one patient neutralized Delta slightly less efficiently. Two of the three patients neutralizing only 100 pg/mL of type I IFNs neutralized both D61G and Delta less efficiently. Despite two mRNA vaccine inoculations and the presence of circulating antibodies capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2, auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs may underlie a significant proportion of hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia cases, highlighting the importance of this particularly vulnerable population. Type I IFN auto-Abs are found in 20% of hypoxemic, mRNA vaccinated COVID-19 patients despite SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Description

5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 869042, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809405

ABSTRACT

A 48-year-old patient affected with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 failed to respond to two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine, consisting of lipid nanoparticle encapsulated mRNA. As the disease is caused by biallelic variants of CAVIN1, a molecule indispensable for lipid endocytosis and regulation, we complemented the vaccination cycle with a single dose of the Ad26.COV2 vaccine. Adenovirus-based vaccine entry is mediated by the interaction with adenovirus receptors and transport occurs in clathrin-coated pits. Ten days after Ad26.COV2 administration, S- and RBD-specific antibodies and high-affinity memory B cells increased significantly to values close to those observed in Health Care Worker controls.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Liposomes , Middle Aged , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(11): e05108, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536131

ABSTRACT

A child who comes to our attention for the appearance of erythematous, scaly lesions localized to the upper and lower limbs for 2 months. Histological features suggested ichthyosiform disease and concomitant mutations in the SPINK5 and FLG2 genes confirmed Netherton syndrome with severe atopic manifestations.

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533885

ABSTRACT

Host genomic information, specifically genomic variations, may characterize susceptibility to disease and identify people with a higher risk of harm, leading to better targeting of care and vaccination. Italy was the epicentre for the spread of COVID-19 in Europe, the first country to go into a national lockdown and has one of the highest COVID-19 associated mortality rates. Qatar, on the other hand has a very low mortality rate. In this study, we compared whole-genome sequencing data of 14398 adults and Qatari-national to 925 Italian individuals. We also included in the comparison whole-exome sequence data from 189 Italian laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. We focused our study on a curated list of 3619 candidate genes involved in innate immunity and host-pathogen interaction. Two population-gene metric scores, the Delta Singleton-Cohort variant score (DSC) and Sum Singleton-Cohort variant score (SSC), were applied to estimate the presence of selective constraints in the Qatari population and in the Italian cohorts. Results based on DSC and SSC metrics demonstrated a different selective pressure on three genes (MUC5AC, ABCA7, FLNA) between Qatari and Italian populations. This study highlighted the genetic differences between Qatari and Italian populations and identified a subset of genes involved in innate immunity and host-pathogen interaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Adult , Alleles , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Exome/genetics , Female , Gene Frequency/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/epidemiology , Genetics, Population , Genomics/methods , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Qatar/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Whole Exome Sequencing/methods , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
8.
J Clin Invest ; 131(23)2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484167

ABSTRACT

GWAS involve testing genetic variants across the genomes of many individuals to identify genotype-phenotype associations. GWAS have enabled the identification of numerous genomic biomarkers in various complex human diseases, including infectious ones. However, few of these studies are relevant for clinical practice or at the bedside. In this issue of the JCI, Nakanishi et al. characterized the clinical implications of a major genetic risk factor for COVID-19 severity and its age-dependent effect, using individual-level data in a large international multicenter consortium. This study indicates that a common COVID-19 genetic risk factor (rs10490770) associates with increased risks of morbidity and mortality, suggesting potential implications for future clinical risk management. How can the genomic biomarkers identified by GWAS be associated with the clinical outcomes of an infectious disease? In this Commentary, we evaluate the advantages and limitations of this approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome-Wide Association Study , Biomarkers, Tumor , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sci Immunol ; 6(62)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434876

ABSTRACT

Autosomal inborn errors of type I IFN immunity and autoantibodies against these cytokines underlie at least 10% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases. We report very rare, biochemically deleterious X-linked TLR7 variants in 16 unrelated male individuals aged 7 to 71 years (mean: 36.7 years) from a cohort of 1,202 male patients aged 0.5 to 99 years (mean: 52.9 years) with unexplained critical COVID-19 pneumonia. None of the 331 asymptomatically or mildly infected male individuals aged 1.3 to 102 years (mean: 38.7 years) tested carry such TLR7 variants (p = 3.5 × 10-5). The phenotypes of five hemizygous relatives of index cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 include asymptomatic or mild infection (n=2, 5 and 38 years), or moderate (n=1, 5 years), severe (n=1, 27 years), or critical (n=1, 29 years) pneumonia. Two boys (aged 7 and 12 years) from a cohort of 262 male patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (mean: 51.0 years) are hemizygous for a deleterious TLR7 variant. The cumulative allele frequency for deleterious TLR7 variants in the male general population is < 6.5x10-4 We also show that blood B cell lines and myeloid cell subsets from the patients do not respond to TLR7 stimulation, a phenotype rescued by wild-type TLR7 The patients' blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce low levels of type I IFNs in response to SARS-CoV-2. Overall, X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency is a highly penetrant genetic etiology of critical COVID-19 pneumonia, in about 1.8% of male patients below the age of 60 years. Human TLR7 and pDCs are essential for protective type I IFN immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Immune System Diseases/complications , Toll-Like Receptor 7/deficiency , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alleles , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pedigree , Penetrance , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Young Adult
10.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(8): 762, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338531

ABSTRACT

While vaccination is the single most effective intervention to drastically reduce severe disease and death following SARS-CoV-2 infection, as shown in UK and Israel, some serious concerns have been raised for an unusual adverse drug reaction (ADR), including vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) with concurrent low platelets as well as capillary leak syndrome. In fact, the overall safety of the vaccine is highlighted by the low frequency of ADR considering that in UK, by the early June, 40 million first doses and 29 million second doses have been injected; nonetheless, 390 thrombotic events, including 71 fatal events have been reported. Interestingly, the cases reported low platelet counts with the presence of anti-platelet factor-4 (PF4) antibodies, indicating an abnormal clotting reaction. Here, out of three referred cases, we report a post-vaccine clinical case of fatal thrombosis with postmortem examination and whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis, whose pathogenesis appeared associated to a preexisting condition of thrombocytopenia due to myelodysplasia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/complications , Thromboembolism/etiology , Bone Marrow/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Middle Aged , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/complications , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/diagnosis , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/pathology
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(8): 5182-5187, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298501

ABSTRACT

Infections due to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are frequent during early childhood. Usually, they have a favorable clinical course. Conversely, HHV-6 congenital infections occur in about 1% of neonates and may present with more severe clinical pictures. HHV-6 can be found in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from patients with pneumonia and in immunocompromised patients can cause mild to severe pneumonia. In neonates, the role of HHV-6 in the genesis of severe pneumonia is poorly defined still now. We describe a healthy infant with a late-onset (15 days of life) severe interstitial pneumonia and heavy HHV-6 genome load, persistently detected in its BAL fluid. The baby underwent high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, hydroxychloroquine, steroids, and ganciclovir for 6 weeks and at 9 months she died. Next-generation sequencing of genes known to cause neonatal respiratory insufficiency revealed the presence of a "probably pathogenetic" heterozygous variant in the autosomal recessive DRC1 gene, a heterozygous variant of unknown significance (VUS) in the autosomal recessive RSPH9 gene, and a heterozygous VUS in the autosomal recessive MUC5B gene. HHV-6 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of late-onset severe respiratory distress in neonates and the co-occurrence of genetic predisposing factors or modifiers should be tested by specific molecular techniques. The intensity of HHV-6 genome load in BAL fluid could be an indicator of the response to antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/genetics , Roseolovirus Infections/genetics , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Fatal Outcome , Female , Genetic Variation , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , Mucin-5B/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Viral Load
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 310, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149708

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the ongoing world-wide pandemic which has already taken more than two million lives. Effective treatments are urgently needed. The enzymatic activity of the HECT-E3 ligase family members has been implicated in the cell egression phase of deadly RNA viruses such as Ebola through direct interaction of its VP40 Protein. Here we report that HECT-E3 ligase family members such as NEDD4 and WWP1 interact with and ubiquitylate the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. Furthermore, we find that HECT family members are overexpressed in primary samples derived from COVID-19 infected patients and COVID-19 mouse models. Importantly, rare germline activating variants in the NEDD4 and WWP1 genes are associated with severe COVID-19 cases. Critically, I3C, a natural NEDD4 and WWP1 inhibitor from Brassicaceae, displays potent antiviral effects and inhibits viral egression. In conclusion, we identify the HECT family members of E3 ligases as likely novel biomarkers for COVID-19, as well as new potential targets of therapeutic strategy easily testable in clinical trials in view of the established well-tolerated nature of the Brassicaceae natural compounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/enzymology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/antagonists & inhibitors , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport/metabolism , Female , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/genetics , Nedd4 Ubiquitin Protein Ligases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
13.
HLA ; 96(5): 610-614, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767643

ABSTRACT

With the aim to individuate alleles that may reflect a higher susceptibility to the disease, in the present study we analyzed the HLA allele frequency distribution in a group of 99 Italian patients affected by a severe or extremely severe form of COVID-19. After the application of Bonferroni's correction for multiple tests, a significant association was found for HLA-DRB1*15:01, -DQB1*06:02 and -B*27:07, after comparing the results to a reference group of 1017 Italian individuals, previously typed in our laboratory. The increased frequencies observed may contribute to identify potential markers of susceptibility to the disease, although controversial results on the role of single HLA alleles in COVID-19 patients have been recently reported.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Haplotypes , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alleles , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gene Frequency , HLA Antigens/classification , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 29, 2020 09 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that are common in humans and many animal species. Animal coronaviruses rarely infect humans with the exceptions of the Middle East respiratory syndrome ( MERS-CoV ), the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV), and now SARS-CoV-2, which is the cause of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies suggested that genetic variants in the ACE2 gene may influence the host susceptibility or resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection according to the functional role of ACE2 in human pathophysiology. However, many of these studies have been conducted in silico based on epidemiological and population data. We therefore investigated the occurrence of ACE2 variants in a cohort of 131 Italian unrelated individuals clinically diagnosed with COVID-19 and in an Italian control population, to evaluate a possible allelic association with COVID-19, by direct DNA analysis. METHODS: As a pilot study, we analyzed, by whole-exome sequencing, genetic variants of ACE2 gene in 131 DNA samples of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Tor Vergata University Hospital and at Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome. We used a large control group consisting of 1000 individuals (500 males and 500 females). RESULTS: We identified three different germline variants: one intronic c.439+4G>A and two missense c.1888G>C p.(Asp630His) and c.2158A>G p.(Asn720Asp) in a total of 131 patients with a similar frequency in male and female. Thus far, only the c.1888G>C p.(Asp630His) variant shows a statistically different frequency compared to the ethnically matched populations. Therefore, further studies are needed in larger cohorts, since it was found only in one heterozygous COVID-19 patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that there is no strong evidence, in our cohort, of consistent association of ACE2 variants with COVID-19 severity. We might speculate that rare susceptibility/resistant alleles could be located in the non-coding regions of the ACE2 gene, known to play a role in regulation of the gene activity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(9)2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738372

ABSTRACT

The recent global COVID-19 public health emergency is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections and can manifest extremely variable clinical symptoms. Host human genetic variability could influence susceptibility and response to infection. It is known that ACE2 acts as a receptor for this pathogen, but the viral entry into the target cell also depends on other proteins. The aim of this study was to investigate the variability of genes coding for these proteins involved in the SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cells. We analyzed 131 COVID-19 patients by exome sequencing and examined the genetic variants of TMPRSS2, PCSK3, DPP4, and BSG genes. In total we identified seventeen variants. In PCSK3 gene, we observed a missense variant (c.893G>A) statistically more frequent compared to the EUR GnomAD reference population and a missense mutation (c.1906A>G) not found in the GnomAD database. In TMPRSS2 gene, we observed a significant difference in the frequency of c.331G>A, c.23G>T, and c.589G>A variant alleles in COVID-19 patients, compared to the corresponding allelic frequency in GnomAD. Genetic variants in these genes could influence the entry of the SARS-CoV-2. These data also support the hypothesis that host genetic variability may contribute to the variability in infection susceptibility and severity.


Subject(s)
Basigin/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Furin/genetics , Mutation , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/genetics , Exome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
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