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1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970282

ABSTRACT

Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder often preceded by viral illnesses or, more rarely, vaccinations. We report on a unique combination of postcoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine GBS that occurred months after a parainfectious COVID-19–related GBS. Shortly after manifesting COVID-19 symptoms, a 57-year-old man developed diplopia, right-side facial weakness, and gait instability that, together with electrophysiology and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, led to a diagnosis of post-COVID-19 GBS. The involvement of cranial nerves and IgM seropositivity for ganglioside GD1b were noteworthy. COVID-19 pneumonia, flaccid tetraparesis, and autonomic dysfunction prompted his admission to ICU. He recovered after therapy with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg). Six months later, GBS recurred shortly after the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. Again, the GBS diagnosis was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid and electrophysiology studies. IgM seropositivity extended to multiple gangliosides, namely for GM3/4, GD1a/b, and GT1b IgM. An IVIg course prompted complete recovery. This case adds to other previously reported observations suggesting a possible causal link between SARS-CoV-2 and GBS. Molecular mimicry and anti-idiotype antibodies might be the underlying mechanisms. Future COVID-19 vaccinations/revaccinations in patients with previous para-/post-COVID-19 GBS deserve a reappraisal, especially if they are seropositive for ganglioside antibodies.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2099171, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948097

ABSTRACT

Vaccines prevent infections in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Though recommendations regarding vaccinating patients with MS have been recently published, real-world data regarding vaccines' planning in patients receiving disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for MS are missing. Our aim was, therefore, to describe vaccination coverage rates, timing-proposal and safety in real-life vaccinating patients with MS undergoing DMDs before the start of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination campaign. Patients followed at our MS-center were referred to individualized immunization-programs customized to Italian recommendations, patients' risks, immunity to exanthematic diseases, ongoing DMDs, or therapy-start urgency. Disease-activity stated the need for an essential immunization-cycle, whose core was composed by four vaccines: meningococcal-B, pneumococcal conjugated, Haemophilus influenzae B, and meningococcal-ACWY vaccines. Vaccines were administered prior to the planned DMD-start when possible, inactivated-vaccines >2 weeks and live-vaccines >4 weeks before treatment-start. Patients received a 6-months clinical-/radiological-follow-up after immunization. One-hundred and ninety-five patients were vaccinated between April 2017 and January 2021. 124/195 (63.6%) started a vaccination-program before therapy-start/-switch and 108/124 (87.1%) effectively completed immunization before new therapy-start without any delay. The time needed for immunization-conclusion reached a median of 27 (confidence interval 22) days in 2020. No increase in clinical-/radiological-activity 3-/6-months after immunization was noted. In conclusion, our study confirmed feasibility and safety of a vaccination-protocol in patients with MS whose duration resulted in a median of 27 days.

3.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 25: 101273, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664610

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: to report a case of Acute Disseminated EncephaloMyelitis (ADEM) occurring after documented SARS-Cov2 infection and flu-like disease. OBSERVATION: A 59-years-old woman presented with progressive visual loss and right leg paresthesia started 6 days earlier when CT scan excluded abnormalities. Visual acuity was OU hand motion with bilateral slow pupillary response and unremarkable ocular extrinsic motility while visual field testing showed diffuse bilateral sensitivity reduction. The patient had also right leg paresthesia and reported a 2-weeks flu-like syndrome 15 days earlier, with nausea, diarrhea, anosmia, ageusia, cough. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed bilateral optic nerve enhancement, multiple brain and spine lesions. SARS-CoV-2 PCR tested negative on nasal swab and positive on cerebrospinal fluid. Patient's serum tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, negative for anti-aquaporin-4 and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies. A diagnosis of suspect ADEM post SARS-CoV-2 infection was made and treatment with high dose intravenous methylprednisolone (with subsequent prednisone tapering) and immunoglobulins started. Ten days later vision improved to 20/30 RE and 20/25 LE and 3 months later to 20/20. CONCLUSION AND IMPORTANCE: ADEM may ensue after SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. High suspicious index and prompt aggressive treatment may result in complete vision restauration.

5.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 42: 102120, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101811

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a novel disease entity that is spreading throughout the world. It has been speculated that patients with comorbidities and elderly patients could be at high risk for respiratory insufficiency and death. Immunosuppression could expose infected patients to even higher risks of disease complications due to dampened immune response. However, it has been speculated that overactive immune response could drive clinical deterioration and, based on this hypothesis, several immunosuppressants are currently being tested as potential treatment for COVID-19. METHODS: In this paper we report on a patient that has been treated with ocrelizumab (a B-cell depleting monoclonal antibody) for primary progressive multiple sclerosis who developed COVID-19. RESULTS: Despite complete B cell depletion, patient symptoms abated few days after hospitalization, and he was discharged to home-quarantine. Phone interview follow-up confirmed that, after 14 days, no new symptoms occurred. DISCUSSION: This report supports the putative role of immunosuppressive therapy in COVID-19 affected patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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