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1.
iScience ; 26(5): 106601, 2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306660

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hijacks multiple human proteins during infection and viral replication. To examine whether any viral proteins employ human E3 ubiquitin ligases, we evaluated the stability of SARS-CoV-2 proteins with inhibition of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Using genetic screens to dissect the molecular machinery involved in the degradation of candidate viral proteins, we identified human E3 ligase RNF185 as a regulator of protein stability for the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein. We found that RNF185 and the SARS-CoV-2 envelope co-localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Finally, we demonstrate that the depletion of RNF185 significantly increases SARS-CoV-2 viral titer in a cellular model. Modulation of this interaction could provide opportunities for novel antiviral therapies.

2.
Cell Rep Methods ; 3(3): 100421, 2023 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246639

ABSTRACT

Serological assays are important diagnostic tools for surveying exposure to the pathogen, monitoring immune response post vaccination, and managing spread of the infectious agent among the population. Current serological laboratory assays are often limited because they require the use of specialized laboratory technology and/or work with a limited number of sample types. Here, we evaluate an alternative by developing time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) homogeneous assays that exhibited exceptional versatility, scalability, and sensitivity and outperformed or matched currently used strategies in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. We validated the performance of the assays measuring total immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels; antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) or Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV spike (S) protein; and SARS-CoV-2 S and nucleocapsid (N) proteins and applied it to several large sample sets and real-world applications. We further established a TR-FRET-based ACE2-S competition assay to assess the neutralization propensity of the antibodies. Overall, these TR-FRET-based serological assays can be rapidly extended to other antigens and are compatible with commonly used plate readers.

3.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228316

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a major public health concern, and vaccine unavailability, hesitancy, or failure underscore the need for discovery of efficacious antiviral drug therapies. Numerous approved drugs target protein kinases associated with viral life cycle and symptoms of infection. Repurposing of kinase inhibitors is appealing as they have been vetted for safety and are more accessible for COVID-19 treatment. However, an understanding of drug mechanism is needed to improve our understanding of the factors involved in pathogenesis. We tested the in vitro activity of three kinase inhibitors against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), including inhibitors of AXL kinase, a host cell factor that contributes to successful SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using multiple cell-based assays and approaches, gilteritinib, nintedanib, and imatinib were thoroughly evaluated for activity against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Each drug exhibited antiviral activity, but with stark differences in potency, suggesting differences in host dependency for kinase targets. Importantly, for gilteritinib, the amount of compound needed to achieve 90% infection inhibition, at least in part involving blockade of spike protein-mediated viral entry and at concentrations not inducing phospholipidosis (PLD), approached a clinically achievable concentration. Knockout of AXL, a target of gilteritinib and nintedanib, impaired SARS-CoV-2 variant infectivity, supporting a role for AXL in SARS-CoV-2 infection and supporting further investigation of drug-mediated AXL inhibition as a COVID-19 treatment. This study supports further evaluation of AXL-targeting kinase inhibitors as potential antiviral agents and treatments for COVID-19. Additional mechanistic studies are needed to determine underlying differences in virus response.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266791, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to emergency measures to continue patient care and research at a comprehensive cancer center while protecting both employees and patients. Determining exposure and infection rates with SARS-CoV-2 were important to adjust workplace policies over time. METHODS: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) has over 7,000 employees. Participation was voluntary. After consent, participants completed questionnaire of demographics, exposures and risk factors for COVID-19 illness at each time point (baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months) along with blood draws for SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. Primary measure was determination of titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG over time. RESULTS: In total, 745 employees enrolled from May 2020 to February 2021 (mean [SD] age, 40[14] years; 572[80%] women). From May to July 2020, 47 of 519 employees (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7-12.0%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG antibodies. Three months later, 40 of 428 employees had positive antibodies (8.5%, 95% CI 6.0-11.0%) with 17 newly positive. At month 6, 78.5% of participants reported having received at least one dose of vaccine and the positivity rate for those vaccinated was 98% (95% CI, 95-100%). Spike protein IgG titers for those vaccinated were 7.9 times higher than participants not vaccinated (median IgG titer = 0.28 for positive antibody but not vaccinated versus 2.2 for vaccinated) but demonstrate evidence of waning over time. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity remained less than 10% at a single comprehensive cancer center prior to vaccination and there is evidence of waning IgG titers over time after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Sci Immunol ; 6(64): eabj2901, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470496

ABSTRACT

The introduction of vaccines has inspired hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with the uncertain nature of this disease. Antibodies currently represent the strongest correlate of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, thus we profiled the earliest humoral signatures in a large cohort of acutely ill (survivors and nonsurvivors) and mild or asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19. Although a SARS-CoV-2­specific immune response evolved rapidly in survivors of COVID-19, nonsurvivors exhibited blunted and delayed humoral immune evolution, particularly with respect to S2-specific antibodies. Given the conservation of S2 across ß-coronaviruses, we found that the early development of SARS-CoV-2­specific immunity occurred in tandem with preexisting common ß-coronavirus OC43 humoral immunity in survivors, which was also selectively expanded in individuals that develop a paucisymptomatic infection. These data point to the importance of cross-coronavirus immunity as a correlate of protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survivors , Young Adult
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