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Tegally, Houriiyah, San, James, Cotten, Matthew, Tegomoh, Bryan, Mboowa, Gerald, Martin, Darren, Baxter, Cheryl, Moir, Monika, Lambisia, Arnold, Diallo, Amadou, Amoako, Daniel, Diagne, Moussa, Sisay, Abay, Zekri, Abdel-Rahman, Barakat, Abdelhamid, Gueye, Abdou Salam, Sangare, Abdoul, Ouedraogo, Abdoul-Salam, Sow, Abdourahmane, Musa, Abdualmoniem, Sesay, Abdul, Lagare, Adamou, Kemi, Adedotun-Sulaiman, Abar, Aden Elmi, Johnson, Adeniji, Fowotade, Adeola, Olubusuyi, Adewumi, Oluwapelumi, Adeyemi, Amuri, Adrienne, Juru, Agnes, Ramadan, Ahmad Mabrouk, Kandeil, Ahmed, Mostafa, Ahmed, Rebai, Ahmed, Sayed, Ahmed, Kazeem, Akano, Balde, Aladje, Christoffels, Alan, Trotter, Alexander, Campbell, Allan, Keita, Alpha Kabinet, Kone, Amadou, Bouzid, Amal, Souissi, Amal, Agweyu, Ambrose, Gutierrez, Ana, Page, Andrew, Yadouleton, Anges, Vinze, Anika, Happi, Anise, Chouikha, Anissa, Iranzadeh, Arash, Maharaj, Arisha, Batchi-Bouyou, Armel Landry, Ismail, Arshad, Sylverken, Augustina, Goba, Augustine, Femi, Ayoade, Sijuwola, Ayotunde Elijah, Ibrahimi, Azeddine, Marycelin, Baba, Salako, Babatunde Lawal, Oderinde, Bamidele, Bolajoko, Bankole, Dhaala, Beatrice, Herring, Belinda, Tsofa, Benjamin, Mvula, Bernard, Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie, Marondera, Blessing, Khaireh, Bouh Abdi, Kouriba, Bourema, Adu, Bright, Pool, Brigitte, McInnis, Bronwyn, Brook, Cara, Williamson, Carolyn, Anscombe, Catherine, Pratt, Catherine, Scheepers, Cathrine, Akoua-Koffi, Chantal, Agoti, Charles, Loucoubar, Cheikh, Onwuamah, Chika Kingsley, Ihekweazu, Chikwe, Malaka, Christian Noël, Peyrefitte, Christophe, Omoruyi, Chukwuma Ewean, Rafaï, Clotaire Donatien, Morang’a, Collins, Nokes, James, Lule, Daniel Bugembe, Bridges, Daniel, Mukadi-Bamuleka, Daniel, Park, Danny, Baker, David, Doolabh, Deelan, Ssemwanga, Deogratius, Tshiabuila, Derek, Bassirou, Diarra, Amuzu, Dominic S. Y.; Goedhals, Dominique, Grant, Donald, Omuoyo, Donwilliams, Maruapula, Dorcas, Wanjohi, Dorcas Waruguru, Foster-Nyarko, Ebenezer, Lusamaki, Eddy, Simulundu, Edgar, Ong’era, Edidah, Ngabana, Edith, Abworo, Edward, Otieno, Edward, Shumba, Edwin, Barasa, Edwine, Ahmed, El Bara, Kampira, Elizabeth, Fahime, Elmostafa El, Lokilo, Emmanuel, Mukantwari, Enatha, Cyril, Erameh, Philomena, Eromon, Belarbi, Essia, Simon-Loriere, Etienne, Anoh, Etilé, Leendertz, Fabian, Taweh, Fahn, Wasfi, Fares, Abdelmoula, Fatma, Takawira, Faustinos, Derrar, Fawzi, Ajogbasile, Fehintola, Treurnicht, Florette, Onikepe, Folarin, Ntoumi, Francine, Muyembe, Francisca, Ngiambudulu, Francisco, Zongo Ragomzingba, Frank Edgard, Dratibi, Fred Athanasius, Iyanu, Fred-Akintunwa, Mbunsu, Gabriel, Thilliez, Gaetan, Kay, Gemma, Akpede, George, George, Uwem, van Zyl, Gert, Awandare, Gordon, Schubert, Grit, Maphalala, Gugu, Ranaivoson, Hafaliana, Lemriss, Hajar, Omunakwe, Hannah, Onywera, Harris, Abe, Haruka, Karray, Hela, Nansumba, Hellen, Triki, Henda, Adje Kadjo, Herve Albéric, Elgahzaly, Hesham, Gumbo, Hlanai, mathieu, Hota, Kavunga-Membo, Hugo, Smeti, Ibtihel, Olawoye, Idowu, Adetifa, Ifedayo, Odia, Ikponmwosa, Boubaker, Ilhem Boutiba-Ben, Ssewanyana, Isaac, Wurie, Isatta, Konstantinus, Iyaloo, Afiwa Halatoko, Jacqueline Wemboo, Ayei, James, Sonoo, Janaki, Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard, Makangara, Jean-Claude, Tamfum, Jean-Jacques, Heraud, Jean-Michel, Shaffer, Jeffrey, Giandhari, Jennifer, Musyoki, Jennifer, Uwanibe, Jessica, Bhiman, Jinal, Yasuda, Jiro, Morais, Joana, Mends, Joana, Kiconco, Jocelyn, Sandi, John Demby, Huddleston, John, Odoom, John Kofi, Morobe, John, Gyapong, John, Kayiwa, John, Okolie, Johnson, Xavier, Joicymara Santos, Gyamfi, Jones, Kofi Bonney, Joseph Humphrey, Nyandwi, Joseph, Everatt, Josie, Farah, Jouali, Nakaseegu, Joweria, Ngoi, Joyce, Namulondo, Joyce, Oguzie, Judith, Andeko, Julia, Lutwama, Julius, O’Grady, Justin, Siddle, Katherine, Victoir, Kathleen, Adeyemi, Kayode, Tumedi, Kefentse, Carvalho, Kevin Sanders, Mohammed, Khadija Said, Musonda, Kunda, Duedu, Kwabena, Belyamani, Lahcen, Fki-Berrajah, Lamia, Singh, Lavanya, Biscornet, Leon, Le.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334191

ABSTRACT

Investment in Africa over the past year with regards to SARS-CoV-2 genotyping has led to a massive increase in the number of sequences, exceeding 100,000 genomes generated to track the pandemic on the continent. Our results show an increase in the number of African countries able to sequence within their own borders, coupled with a decrease in sequencing turnaround time. Findings from this genomic surveillance underscores the heterogeneous nature of the pandemic but we observe repeated dissemination of SARS-CoV-2 variants within the continent. Sustained investment for genomic surveillance in Africa is needed as the virus continues to evolve, particularly in the low vaccination landscape. These investments are very crucial for preparedness and response for future pathogen outbreaks. One-Sentence Summary Expanding Africa SARS-CoV-2 sequencing capacity in a fast evolving pandemic.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unprecedented and ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has exposed weaknesses in African countries' health systems. The impact of shifted focus on COVID-19 for the past 2 years on routine health services, especially those for the epidemics of Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria, have been dramatic in both quantity and quality. METHODS: In this article, we reflect on the COVID-19 related disruptions on the Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria routine health services across Africa. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in disruptions of routine health services and diversion of already limited available resources in sub-Saharan Africa. As a result, disease programs like TB, malaria and HIV have recorded gaps in prevention and treatment with the prospects of reversing gains made towards meeting global targets. The extent of the disruption is yet to be fully quantified at country level as most data available is from modelling estimates before and during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate country-level data is required to convince donors and governments to invest more into revamping these health services and help prepare for managing future pandemics without disruption of routine services. Increasing government expenditure on health is a critical part of Africa's economic policy. Strengthening health systems at various levels to overcome the negative impacts of COVID-19, and preparing for future epidemics will require strong visionary political leadership. Innovations in service delivery and technological adaptations are required as countries aim to limit disruptions to routine services.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the data presented in the 2021 WHO global TB report and discuss the current constraints in the global response. INTRODUCTION AND METHODS: The WHO global TB reports, consolidate TB data from countries and provide up to date assessment of the global TB epidemic. We reviewed the data presented in the 2021 report. RESULTS: We noted that the 2021 WHO global TB report presents a rather grim picture on the trajectory of the global epidemic of TB including a stagnation in the annual decline in TB incidence, a decline in TB notifications and an increase in estimated TB deaths. All the targets set at the 2018 United Nations High Level Meeting on TB were off track. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: The sub-optimal global performance on achieving TB control targets in 2020 is attributed to the on-going COVID-19 pandemic, however, TB programs were already off track well before the onset of the pandemic, suggesting that the pandemic amplified an already fragile global TB response. We emphasize that ending the global TB epidemic will require bold leadership, optimization of existing interventions, widespread coverage, addressing social determinants of TB and importantly mobilization of adequate funding required for TB care and prevention.

6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Investments into 'Blue Skies' fundamental TB research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been forthcoming. We highlight why blue skies research will be essential for achieving global TB control and eradicating TB. METHODS: We review the historical background to early TB discovery research and give examples of where investments into basic science and fundamental 'blue skies research' are delivering novel data and approaches to advance diagnosis, management and holistic care for patients with active and latent TB infection. FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that making available adequate funding for priority investments into 'Blue skies research' to delineate scientific understanding of a new infectious diseases threat to global health security can lead to rapid development and rollout of new diagnostic platforms, treatments, and vaccines. Several advances in new TB diagnostics, new treatments and vaccine development are underpinned by basic science research. CONCLUSIONS: Blue Skies research is required to pave the way for a personalized medicine approach for management of TB and other Respiratory Tract Infections and preventing long-term functional disability. Transfer of skills and resources by wealthier nations is required to empower researchers in LMICs countries to engage in and lead Blue Skies research.

7.
IJID Reg ; 3: 106-113, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734535

ABSTRACT

Background: : SARS-CoV-2 variants have been emerging and are shown to increase transmissibility, pathogenicity, and decreased vaccine efficacies. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution, prevalence, and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Brazzaville, the Republic of Congo (ROC). Methods: : Between December 2020 and July 2021, a total of n=600 oropharyngeal specimens collected in the community were tested for COVID-19. Of the samples tested, 317 (53%) were SARS-CoV-2 positive. All samples that had a threshold of Ct <30 (n=182) were sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS), and all complete sequenced genomes were submitted to GISAID; lineages were assigned using pangolin nomenclature and a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. In addition, the global prevalence of the predominant lineages was analysed using data from GISAID and Outbreak databases. Results: : A total of 15 lineages circulated with B.1.214.2 (26%), B.1.214.1 (19%) and B.1.620 (18%) being predominant. The variants of concern (VOC) alpha (B.1.1.7) (6%) and for the first time in June delta (B.1.617.2) (4%) were observed. In addition, the B.1.214.1 lineage first reported from ROC was observed to be spreading locally and regionally. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the B.1.620 variant (VUM) under observation may have originated from either Cameroon or the Central African Republic. SARS-CoV-2 lineages were heterogeneous, with the densely populated districts of Poto-Poto and Moungali likely the epicenter of spread. Conclusion: : Longitudinal monitoring and molecular surveillance across time and space are critical to understanding viral phylodynamics, which could have important implications for transmissibility and impact infection prevention and control measures.

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329049

ABSTRACT

Background: Assessing immune responses after vaccination is part of the evaluation package of vaccine effectiveness in the real world. With regard to SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibody levels has been shown to be a good indicator of antibody immune response boosting. So far, limited data have been reported from Africa including in Central Africa. The objective of this study was to provide data on anti-S1 spike total IgG and neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated and non-vaccinated including naturally infected Congolese population during B.1.214.1 and B.1.617.2 variant waves. Methods: Recruited patients were divided into 4 groups: (1) Naturally infected by the B.1.214.1 variant on January 2021 and followed up until September 2021. These patients have been vaccinated at month 07 and then followed up for 2 months post vaccination;(2) Naturally infected by the B.1.617.2 variant from June 2021;(3) unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 individuals with no history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection;(3) fully vaccinated individuals with Sinopharm/BBIP-CorV or Janssen/Ad26.COV2.S. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by qRT-PCR and sequenced using Next-Generation Sequencing. ELISA method was used for detecting IgG, and neutralizing Antibody against SARS-CoV-2 antigens using commercial neutralizing assay. Results: Individuals infected by the B.1214.1 variant elicited consistently high IgG titers at 02, 03 and 06 months. Two months post vaccination with BBIP-CorV, participants showed a significant increase by x2.5 fold (p<0.0001) of total IgG and X1.5 fold for neutralizing antibody capacity. This study showed that natural infection with B1.617.2 (delta) variant was more immunogenic compared to those being infected with B1.214.2 variant at the same period. We found a significantly higher concentration in anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (p<0.0002) and antibodies neutralization capacity (P<0.0001) in fully vaccinated compared to unvaccinated participants. Two months post vaccination, individuals who received Janssen/Ad26.COV2.S presented higher (p= 0.01) total IgG to spike protein compared to BBIP-CorV. Conclusion: Both natural infection and vaccination with BBIP-CorV and Janssen/Ad26.COV2.S induced antibody response in Congolese population. In addition, Janssen/Ad26.COV2.S was more immunogenic than Sinopharm/BBIP-CorV. There is a need to investigate the duration of these antibodies both in previously infected and naive vaccinated Congolese to allow public heath stakeholders to make evidence-based decision on vaccine schedule for the Congolese population.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321933

ABSTRACT

More than a year after the emergence of COVID-19, significant regional differences in terms of morbidity persist, showing lower incidence rates in central Africa. The work reported here aims to test for a pre-pandemic natural immunity among populations in this region. To identify such pre-existing immunity, sera samples collected before the emergence of COVID-19 were tested to detect IgG antibodies reacting against SARS-CoV-2 proteins of major significance. Sera samples from blood donors of France were used as control. The results showed a statistically significant difference for antibodies prevalence between the samples collected in central Africa and the control samples. Our results suggest that in the central African sub-region the populations have been potentially pre-exposed before the COVID-19 pandemic to the antigens of a SARS-CoV-2-like virus.

12.
Nature ; 587(7834): 331, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671516
13.
IJID Reg ; 2: 130-136, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634818

ABSTRACT

Objectives: With limited data available from Central Africa, the aim of our study was to evaluate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab prevalence in indigenous residents of Bomassa, a village located in the Sangha region in the Republic of Congo. Methods: Plasma and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 304 healthy adult individuals, randomly recruited in May 2021 before vaccine introduction in the area. In addition, 82 plasma samples from the same area in 2019 were included as controls for the investigation of cross-reactivity against other coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected by qRT-PCR and sequenced using next-generation sequencing. ELISA was used for detecting IgG, IgM, and neutralizing Ab against SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Results: Around 4.9% (15/304) of the participants were SARS-CoV-2 positive, with B.1.631 being the only variant identified. Of 109 individuals harboring anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM Ab, 45.9% (50/109) had anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing Ab. Of the control samples collected before the pandemic, 3.7% (3/82) were positive for IgG, but negative for neutralizing Ab. Conclusions: Seroprevalence against SARS-CoV-2 occurred in 25% of the indigenous population sample, with almost 50% of these seropositive participants possessing neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that the spread of SARS-CoV-2 has been underestimated in the Republic of Congo.

14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S16-S21, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575135

ABSTRACT

In this perspective, we discuss the impact of COVID-19 on tuberculosis (TB)/HIV health services and approaches to mitigating the growing burden of these three colliding epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA countries bear significantly high proportions of TB and HIV cases reported worldwide, compared to countries in the West. Whilst COVID-19 epidemiology appears to vary across Africa, most countries in this region have reported relatively lower-case counts compared to the West. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden to already overstretched health systems in SSA, which, among other things, have been focused on the longstanding dual epidemics of TB and HIV. As with these dual epidemics, inadequate resources and poor case identification and reporting may be contributing to underestimations of the COVID-19 case burden in SSA. Modelling studies predict that the pandemic-related disruptions in TB and HIV services will result in significant increases in associated morbidity and mortality over the next five years. Furthermore, limited empirical evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 coinfections with TB and HIV are associated with increased mortality risk in SSA. However, predictive models require a better evidence-base to accurately define the impact of COVID-19, not only on communicable diseases such as TB and HIV, but on non-communicable disease comorbidities. Further research is needed to assess morbidity and mortality data among both adults and children across the African continent, paying attention to geographic disparities, as well as the clinical and socio-economic determinants of COVID-19 in the setting of TB and/or HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Child , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 113 Suppl 1: S7-S12, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573985

ABSTRACT

The October 2020 Global TB report reviews TB control strategies and United Nations (UN) targets set in the political declaration at the September 2018 UN General Assembly high-level meeting on TB held in New York. Progress in TB care and prevention has been very slow. In 2019, TB remained the most common cause of death from a single infectious pathogen. Globally, an estimated 10.0 million people developed TB disease in 2019, and there were an estimated 1.2 million TB deaths among HIV-negative people and an additional 208, 000 deaths among people living with HIV. Adults accounted for 88% and children for 12% of people with TB. The WHO regions of South-East Asia (44%), Africa (25%), and the Western Pacific (18%) had the most people with TB. Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the global total: India (26%), Indonesia (8.5%), China (8.4%), the Philippines (6.0%), Pakistan (5.7%), Nigeria (4.4%), Bangladesh (3.6%) and South Africa (3.6%). Only 30% of the 3.5 million five-year target for children treated for TB was met. Major advances have been development of new all oral regimens for MDRTB and new regimens for preventive therapy. In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic dislodged TB from the top infectious disease cause of mortality globally. Notably, global TB control efforts were not on track even before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many challenges remain to improve sub-optimal TB treatment and prevention services. Tuberculosis screening and diagnostic test services need to be ramped up. The major drivers of TB remain undernutrition, poverty, diabetes, tobacco smoking, and household air pollution and these need be addressed to achieve the WHO 2035 TB care and prevention targets. National programs need to include interventions for post-tuberculosis holistic wellbeing. From first detection of COVID-19 global coordination and political will with huge financial investments have led to the development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV2 infection. The world now needs to similarly focus on development of new vaccines for TB utilizing new technological methods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Miliary , Adult , Child , Humans , Nigeria , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
17.
One Health Outlook ; 3(1): 5, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of high consequence pathogens such as Ebola and SARS-CoV-2, along with the continued burden of neglected diseases such as rabies, has highlighted the need for preparedness for emerging and endemic infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using a One Health approach. To identify trends in SSA preparedness, the World Health Organization (WHO) Joint External Evaluation (JEE) reports were analysed. JEEs are voluntary, collaborative processes to assess country's capacities to prevent, detect and rapidly respond to public health risks. This report aimed to analyse the JEE zoonotic disease preparedness data as a whole and identify strengths and weaknesses. METHODS: JEE zoonotic disease preparedness scores for 44 SSA countries who had completed JEEs were analysed. An overall zoonotic disease preparedness score was calculated as an average of the sum of all the SSA country zoonotic disease preparedness scores and compared to the overall mean JEE score. Zoonotic disease preparedness indicators were analysed and data were collated into regions to identify key areas of strength. RESULTS: The mean 'Zoonotic disease' preparedness score (2.35, range 1.00-4.00) was 7% higher compared to the mean overall JEE preparedness score (2.19, range 1.55-3.30), putting 'Zoonotic Diseases' 5th out of 19 JEE sub-areas for preparedness. The average scores for each 'Zoonotic Disease' category were 2.45 for 'Surveillance Systems', 2.76 for 'Veterinary Workforce' and 1.84 for 'Response Mechanisms'. The Southern African region scored highest across the 'Zoonotic disease' categories (2.87).A multisectoral priority zoonotic pathogens list is in place for 43% of SSA countries and 70% reported undertaking national surveillance on 1-5 zoonotic diseases. 70% of SSA countries reported having public health training courses in place for veterinarians and 30% had veterinarians in all districts (reported as sufficient staffing). A multisectoral action plan for zoonotic outbreaks was in place for 14% countries and 32% reported having an established inter-agency response team for zoonotic outbreaks. The zoonotic diseases that appeared most in reported country priority lists were rabies and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) (both 89%), anthrax (83%), and brucellosis (78%). CONCLUSIONS: With 'Zoonotic Diseases' ranking 5th in the JEE sub-areas and a mean SSA score 7% greater than the overall mean JEE score, zoonotic disease preparedness appears to have the attention of most SSA countries. However, the considerable range suggests that some countries have more measures in place than others, which may perhaps reflect the geography and types of pathogens that commonly occur. The category 'Response Mechanisms' had the lowest mean score across SSA, suggesting that implementing a multisectoral action plan and response team could provide the greatest gains.

19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 3-7, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279589

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Republic of the Congo detected its first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on March 14, 2020, and within several weeks, the country had introduced protective measures that were still in force in July 2020. Over the course of time, the progression in the number of clinical cases has appeared to be lower than expected, although reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing has been somewhat limited. In order to evaluate the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within the Congolese population, a seroprevalence study was conducted on healthy individuals from different districts of Brazzaville who were willing to know their COVID-19 infection status. METHODS: Oropharyngeal swab and blood samples were collected from 754 healthy volunteers between April 2020 and July 2020. The samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 using a qualitative RT-PCR assay, and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were detected using two different rapid tests. RESULTS: A total of 56 participants (7.4%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The remaining 698 participants (92.6%) had negative RT-PCR results; of these, 117 were found to have anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using serological tests. For these RT-PCR-negative subjects, the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM was found to increase over time: from 1.7% and 2.5% in April, up to 14.2% and 17.6% in July, respectively. In April 2020, 5% of the women were found to have IgG or IgM antibodies, whereas the antibodies were not detected in any of the men. The seroprevalence in RT-PCR negative subjects was significantly higher in women within IgG (P = 0.012) and IgM (P = 0.045) over the first three months. CONCLUSION: The proportion of the population who seroconvert over the course of the first wave is an important data to predict the risk of future COVID-19 waves and this will facilitate the efficient use of limited resources in a low income country like the Republic of the Congo.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Congo/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 29-32, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258382

ABSTRACT

Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have the potential to seriously undermine the health system in sub-Saharan Africa with an increase in the incidences of malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infections. Based on current evidence in the African region the collateral impact of COVID-19 on the "big three diseases" shall be addressed in the following.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Syndemic , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics
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