Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 3 de 3
Biomedicines ; 10(5):1160, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857089


Prolonged daily face mask wearing over several months might affect health of the ocular surface and is reported to be associated with complaints of discomfort and dry-eye-like symptoms. We studied the ocular surface clinical parameters, tear soluble factors and immune cell proportions in ophthalmologists practicing within similar environmental conditions (n = 17) at two time points: pre-face-mask period (Pre-FM;end of 2019) and post-face-mask-wearing period (Post-FM;during 2020 COVID-19 pandemic), with continuous (~8 h/day) mask wear. A significant increase in ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores without changes in tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer's test 1 (ST1) and objective scatter index (OSI) was observed Post-FM. Tear soluble factors (increased-IL-1β, IL-33, IFNβ, NGF, BDNF, LIF and TSLP;decreased-IL-12, IL-13, HGF and VEGF-A) and mucins (MUC5AC) were significantly altered Post-FM. Ex vivo, human donor and corneoscleral explant cultures under elevated CO2 stress revealed that the molecular profile, particularly mucin expression, was similar to the Post-FM tear molecular profile, suggesting hypercapnia is a potential contributor to ocular surface discomfort. Among the immune cell subsets determined from ocular surface wash samples, significantly higher proportions of leukocytes and natural killer T cells were observed in Post-FM compared to Pre-FM. Therefore, it is important to note that the clinical parameters, tear film quality, tear molecular factors and immune cells profile observed in prolonged mask-wear-associated ocular surface discomfort were distinct from dry eye disease or other common ocular surface conditions. These observations are important for differential diagnosis as well as selection of appropriate ocular surface treatment in such subjects.

Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(12): 32, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484163


Purpose: The putative presence of SARS-CoV-2 in ocular specimen puts healthcare workers at risk. We thoroughly examined conjunctival swabs and tear fluid in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: A total of 243 symptomatic laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this observational multicenter study. Conjunctival swabs were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to identify viral strains and to determine tissue tropism. Schirmer tear samples from 43 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 25 healthy controls were analyzed by multiplex cytokine immunoassays. Results: Viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in conjunctival swabs from 17 (7.0%) of 243 COVID-19 patients. Conjunctival samples were positive for viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA as long as 12 days after disease onset. Cycle threshold (Ct) values for conjunctival swabs (mean 34.5 ± 5.1) were significantly higher than nasopharyngeal swabs (mean 16.7 ± 3.6). No correlation between Ct values of conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs was observed. The majority of positive conjunctival samples were detected only once and primarily during the first visit. Next-generation sequencing analysis revealed that the virus strain found in the conjunctiva was most often identical to the one found in the nasopharynx. Tear cytokine levels IL-1ß and IL-6 were elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions: Conjunctival samples that were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA contained the same viral strain as the nasopharynx. Translational Relevance: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA and elevated cytokines in tear fluid confirm the involvement of the ocular surface in COVID-19 disease.

COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Cohort Studies , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 46(9): 1297-1301, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780510


PURPOSE: To study propensity of aerosol and droplet generation during phacoemulsification using high-speed shadowgraphy and quantify its spread amid COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: Aerosol and droplet quantification laboratory. DESIGN: Laboratory study. METHODS: In an experimental set-up, phacoemulsification was performed on enucleated goat eyes and cadaveric human corneoscleral rims mounted on an artificial anterior chamber. Standard settings for sculpt and quadrant removal mode were used on Visalis 100 (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG). Microincision and standard phacoemulsification were performed using titanium straight tips (2.2 mm and 2.8 mm in diameter). The main wound incisions were titrated equal to and larger than the sleeve size. High-speed shadowgraphy technique was used to detect the possible generation of any droplets and aerosols. The visualization and quantification of size of the aerosols and droplets along with calculation of their spread were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: In longitudinal phacoemulsification using a peristaltic pump device with a straight tip, no aerosol generation was seen in a closed chamber. In larger wounds, there was a slow leak at the main wound. The atomization of balanced salt solution was observed only when the phacoemulsification tip was completely exposed next to the ocular surface. Under this condition, the nominal size of the droplet was approximately 50 µm, and the maximum calculated spread was 1.3 m. CONCLUSIONS: There was no visible aerosol generation during microincision or standard phacoemulsification. Phacoemulsification is safe to perform in the COVID-19 era by taking adequate precautions against other modes of transmission.

Aerosols/chemistry , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Microbubbles , Phacoemulsification/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Goats , Models, Animal , Ophthalmologists , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2