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Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081896


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a "wicked evil" in this century due to its extended progression and huge human mortalities. Although the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection is made simple and practical by employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) investigation, the process is costly, complex, time-consuming, and requires experts for testing and the constraints of a laboratory. Therefore, these challenges have raised the paradigm of on-site portable biosensors on a single chip, which reduces human resources and enables remote access to minimize the overwhelming burden on the existing global healthcare sector. This article reviews the recent advancements in biosensors for long coronavirus disease (COVID) management using a multitude of devices, such as point-of-care biosensors and lab-on-chip biosensors. Furthermore, it details the shift in the paradigm of SARS-CoV-2-on-chip biosensors from the laboratory to on-site detection with intelligent and economical operation, representing near-future diagnostic technologies for public health emergency management.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Point-of-Care Systems
Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev ; : 1-89, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077321


Infectious outbreaks are the foremost global public health concern, challenging the current healthcare system, which claims millions of lives annually. The most crucial way to control an infectious outbreak is by early detection through point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. POC diagnostics are highly advantageous owing to the prompt diagnosis, which is economical, simple and highly efficient with remote access capabilities. In particular, utilization of nanomaterials to architect POC devices has enabled highly integrated and portable (compact) devices with enhanced efficiency. As such, this review will detail the factors influencing the emergence of infectious diseases and methods for fast and accurate detection, thus elucidating the underlying factors of these infections. Furthermore, it comprehensively highlights the importance of different nanomaterials in POCs to detect nucleic acid, whole pathogens, proteins and antibody detection systems. Finally, we summarize findings reported on nanomaterials based on advanced POCs such as lab-on-chip, lab-on-disc-devices, point-of-action and hospital-on-chip. To this end, we discuss the challenges, potential solutions, prospects of integrating internet-of-things, artificial intelligence, 5G communications and data clouding to achieve intelligent POCs.

Int J Environ Health Res ; 32(8): 1815-1826, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196926


At the end of 2019 and 2020s, a wave of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) epidemics worldwide has catalyzed a new era of 'communicable infectious diseases'. However, the world is not currently prepared to deal with the growing burden of COVID-19, with the unexpected arrival of Hantavirus infection heading to the next several healthcare emergencies in public. Hantavirus is a significant class of zoonotic pathogens of negative-sense single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA). Hemorrhagic renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are the two major clinical manifestations. Till date, there is no effective treatments or vaccines available, public awareness and precautionary measures can help to reduce the spread of hantavirus disease. In this study, we outline the epidemiology, virology, clinical aspects, and existing HFRS and HCPS management approaches. This review will give an understanding of virus-host interactions and will help for the early preparation and effective handling of further outbreaks in an ever-changing environment.

COVID-19 , Hantavirus Infections , Hantavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Hantavirus/genetics , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans