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1.
Cell ; 185(9): 1556-1571.e18, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447072

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron is highly transmissible and has substantial resistance to neutralization following immunization with ancestral spike-matched vaccines. It is unclear whether boosting with Omicron-matched vaccines would enhance protection. Here, nonhuman primates that received mRNA-1273 at weeks 0 and 4 were boosted at week 41 with mRNA-1273 or mRNA-Omicron. Neutralizing titers against D614G were 4,760 and 270 reciprocal ID50 at week 6 (peak) and week 41 (preboost), respectively, and 320 and 110 for Omicron. 2 weeks after the boost, titers against D614G and Omicron increased to 5,360 and 2,980 for mRNA-1273 boost and 2,670 and 1,930 for mRNA-Omicron, respectively. Similar increases against BA.2 were observed. Following either boost, 70%-80% of spike-specific B cells were cross-reactive against WA1 and Omicron. Equivalent control of virus replication in lower airways was observed following Omicron challenge 1 month after either boost. These data show that mRNA-1273 and mRNA-Omicron elicit comparable immunity and protection shortly after the boost.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca , RNA, Messenger
2.
Cell ; 185(1): 113-130.e15, 2022 01 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921774

ABSTRACT

mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Delta wanes over time; however, there are limited data on the impact of durability of immune responses on protection. Here, we immunized rhesus macaques and assessed immune responses over 1 year in blood and upper and lower airways. Serum neutralizing titers to Delta were 280 and 34 reciprocal ID50 at weeks 6 (peak) and 48 (challenge), respectively. Antibody-binding titers also decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Four days after Delta challenge, the virus was unculturable in BAL, and subgenomic RNA declined by ∼3-log10 compared with control animals. In nasal swabs, sgRNA was reduced by 1-log10, and the virus remained culturable. Anamnestic antibodies (590-fold increased titer) but not T cell responses were detected in BAL by day 4 post-challenge. mRNA-1273-mediated protection in the lungs is durable but delayed and potentially dependent on anamnestic antibody responses. Rapid and sustained protection in upper and lower airways may eventually require a boost.

3.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729558

ABSTRACT

mRNA-1273 vaccine efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 Delta wanes over time; however, there are limited data on the impact of durability of immune responses on protection. We immunized rhesus macaques at weeks 0 and 4 and assessed immune responses over one year in blood, upper and lower airways. Serum neutralizing titers to Delta were 280 and 34 reciprocal ID 50 at weeks 6 (peak) and 48 (challenge), respectively. Antibody binding titers also decreased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Four days after challenge, virus was unculturable in BAL and subgenomic RNA declined ∼3-log 10 compared to control animals. In nasal swabs, sgRNA declined 1-log 10 and virus remained culturable. Anamnestic antibody responses (590-fold increase) but not T cell responses were detected in BAL by day 4 post-challenge. mRNA-1273-mediated protection in the lungs is durable but delayed and potentially dependent on anamnestic antibody responses. Rapid and sustained protection in upper and lower airways may eventually require a boost.

4.
Science ; 374(6573): 1343-1353, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672695

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody responses gradually wane against several variants of concern (VOCs) after vaccination with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine messenger RNA-1273 (mRNA-1273). We evaluated the immune responses in nonhuman primates that received a primary vaccination series of mRNA-1273 and were boosted about 6 months later with either homologous mRNA-1273 or heterologous mRNA-1273.ß, which encompasses the spike sequence of the B.1.351 Beta variant. After boost, animals had increased neutralizing antibody responses across all VOCs, which was sustained for at least 8 weeks after boost. Nine weeks after boost, animals were challenged with the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant. Viral replication was low to undetectable in bronchoalveolar lavage and significantly reduced in nasal swabs in all boosted animals, suggesting that booster vaccinations may be required to sustain immunity and protection.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccine Efficacy , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunization, Secondary , Macaca mulatta , Memory B Cells/immunology , Nose/immunology , Nose/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T Follicular Helper Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Virus Replication
5.
Science ; 373(6561): eabj0299, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529476

ABSTRACT

Immune correlates of protection can be used as surrogate endpoints for vaccine efficacy. Here, nonhuman primates (NHPs) received either no vaccine or doses ranging from 0.3 to 100 µg of the mRNA-1273 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. mRNA-1273 vaccination elicited circulating and mucosal antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner. Viral replication was significantly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavages and nasal swabs after SARS-CoV-2 challenge in vaccinated animals and most strongly correlated with levels of anti­S antibody and neutralizing activity. Lower antibody levels were needed for reduction of viral replication in the lower airway than in the upper airway. Passive transfer of mRNA-1273­induced immunoglobulin G to naïve hamsters was sufficient to mediate protection. Thus, mRNA-1273 vaccine­induced humoral immune responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 in NHPs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Immunization Schedule , Immunization, Passive , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mesocricetus , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccine Potency , Virus Replication
6.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426813

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody responses gradually wane after vaccination with mRNA-1273 against several variants of concern (VOC), and additional boost vaccinations may be required to sustain immunity and protection. Here, we evaluated the immune responses in nonhuman primates that received 100 µg of mRNA-1273 vaccine at 0 and 4 weeks and were boosted at week 29 with mRNA-1273 (homologous) or mRNA-1273.ß (heterologous), which encompasses the spike sequence of the B.1.351 (beta or ß) variant. Reciprocal ID 50 pseudovirus neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMT) against live SARS-CoV-2 D614G and the ß variant, were 4700 and 765, respectively, at week 6, the peak of primary response, and 644 and 553, respectively, at a 5-month post-vaccination memory time point. Two weeks following homologous or heterologous boost ß-specific reciprocal ID 50 GMT were 5000 and 3000, respectively. At week 38, animals were challenged in the upper and lower airway with the ß variant. Two days post-challenge, viral replication was low to undetectable in both BAL and nasal swabs in most of the boosted animals. These data show that boosting with the homologous mRNA-1273 vaccine six months after primary immunization provides up to a 20-fold increase in neutralizing antibody responses across all VOC, which may be required to sustain high-level protection against severe disease, especially for at-risk populations. ONE-SENTENCE SUMMARY: mRNA-1273 boosted nonhuman primates have increased immune responses and are protected against SARS-CoV-2 beta infection.

7.
Nat Immunol ; 22(10): 1306-1315, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417590

ABSTRACT

B.1.351 is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant most resistant to antibody neutralization. We demonstrate how the dose and number of immunizations influence protection. Nonhuman primates received two doses of 30 or 100 µg of Moderna's mRNA-1273 vaccine, a single immunization of 30 µg, or no vaccine. Two doses of 100 µg of mRNA-1273 induced 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution neutralizing antibody titers against live SARS-CoV-2 p.Asp614Gly and B.1.351 of 3,300 and 240, respectively. Higher neutralizing responses against B.1.617.2 were also observed after two doses compared to a single dose. After challenge with B.1.351, there was ~4- to 5-log10 reduction of viral subgenomic RNA and low to undetectable replication in bronchoalveolar lavages in the two-dose vaccine groups, with a 1-log10 reduction in nasal swabs in the 100-µg group. These data establish that a two-dose regimen of mRNA-1273 will be critical for providing upper and lower airway protection against major variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Primates/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mesocricetus , Primates/virology , RNA, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vero Cells , Viral Load/methods
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(607)2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315825

ABSTRACT

Adjuvanted soluble protein vaccines have been used extensively in humans for protection against various viral infections based on their robust induction of antibody responses. Here, soluble prefusion-stabilized spike protein trimers (preS dTM) from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were formulated with the adjuvant AS03 and administered twice to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Binding and functional neutralization assays and systems serology revealed that the vaccinated NHP developed AS03-dependent multifunctional humoral responses that targeted distinct domains of the spike protein and bound to a variety of Fc receptors mediating immune cell effector functions in vitro. The neutralizing 50% inhibitory concentration titers for pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 were higher than titers for a panel of human convalescent serum samples. NHPs were challenged intranasally and intratracheally with a high dose (3 × 106 plaque forming units) of SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020 isolate). Two days after challenge, vaccinated NHPs showed rapid control of viral replication in both the upper and lower airways. Vaccinated NHPs also had increased spike protein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses in the lung as early as 2 days after challenge. Moreover, passive transfer of vaccine-induced IgG to hamsters mediated protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data show that antibodies induced by the AS03-adjuvanted preS dTM vaccine were sufficient to mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 in NHPs and that rapid anamnestic antibody responses in the lung may be a key mechanism for protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cricetinae , Immunization, Passive , Lung , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , COVID-19 Serotherapy
9.
bioRxiv ; 2021 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine efficacy against the B.1.351 variant following mRNA-1273 vaccination in humans has not been determined. Nonhuman primates (NHP) are a useful model for demonstrating whether mRNA-1273 mediates protection against B.1.351. METHODS: Nonhuman primates received 30 or 100 µg of mRNA-1273 as a prime-boost vaccine at 0 and 4 weeks, a single immunization of 30 µg at week 0, or no vaccine. Antibody and T cell responses were assessed in blood, bronchioalveolar lavages (BAL), and nasal washes. Viral replication in BAL and nasal swabs were determined by qRT-PCR for sgRNA, and histopathology and viral antigen quantification were performed on lung tissue post-challenge. RESULTS: Eight weeks post-boost, 100 µg x2 of mRNA-1273 induced reciprocal ID 50 neutralizing geometric mean titers against live SARS-CoV-2 D614G and B.1.351 of 3300 and 240, respectively, and 430 and 84 for the 30 µg x2 group. There were no detectable neutralizing antibodies against B.1351 after the single immunization of 30 µg. On day 2 following B.1.351 challenge, sgRNA in BAL was undetectable in 6 of 8 NHP that received 100 µg x2 of mRNA-1273, and there was a ∼2-log reduction in sgRNA in NHP that received two doses of 30 µg compared to controls. In nasal swabs, there was a 1-log 10 reduction observed in the 100 µg x2 group. There was limited inflammation or viral antigen in lungs of vaccinated NHP post-challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with two doses of mRNA-1273 achieves effective immunity that rapidly controls lower and upper airway viral replication against the B.1.351 variant in NHP.

10.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907752

ABSTRACT

Immune correlates of protection can be used as surrogate endpoints for vaccine efficacy. The nonhuman primate (NHP) model of SARS-CoV-2 infection replicates key features of human infection and may be used to define immune correlates of protection following vaccination. Here, NHP received either no vaccine or doses ranging from 0.3 - 100 µg of mRNA-1273, a mRNA vaccine encoding the prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-2P) protein encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle. mRNA-1273 vaccination elicited robust circulating and mucosal antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner. Viral replication was significantly reduced in bronchoalveolar lavages and nasal swabs following SARS-CoV-2 challenge in vaccinated animals and was most strongly correlated with levels of anti-S antibody binding and neutralizing activity. Consistent with antibodies being a correlate of protection, passive transfer of vaccine-induced IgG to naïve hamsters was sufficient to mediate protection. Taken together, these data show that mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced humoral immune responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP. ONE-SENTENCE SUMMARY: mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced antibody responses are a mechanistic correlate of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHP.

11.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688652

ABSTRACT

Adjuvanted soluble protein vaccines have been used extensively in humans for protection against various viral infections based on their robust induction of antibody responses. Here, soluble prefusion-stabilized spike trimers (preS dTM) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) were formulated with the adjuvant AS03 and administered twice to nonhuman primates (NHP). Binding and functional neutralization assays and systems serology revealed that NHP developed AS03-dependent multi-functional humoral responses that targeted multiple spike domains and bound to a variety of antibody FC receptors mediating effector functions in vitro. Pseudovirus and live virus neutralizing IC50 titers were on average greater than 1000 and significantly higher than a panel of human convalescent sera. NHP were challenged intranasally and intratracheally with a high dose (3×106 PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020 isolate). Two days post-challenge, vaccinated NHP showed rapid control of viral replication in both the upper and lower airways. Notably, vaccinated NHP also had increased spike-specific IgG antibody responses in the lung as early as 2 days post challenge. Moreover, vaccine-induced IgG mediated protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge following passive transfer to hamsters. These data show that antibodies induced by the AS03-adjuvanted preS dTM vaccine are sufficient to mediate protection against SARS-CoV-2 and support the evaluation of this vaccine in human clinical trials.

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