Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 9 de 9
Filter
1.
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837724

ABSTRACT

Contemporary myocardial infarction (MI) care and management has evolved dramatically since the 1950’s;yet outpatient rehabilitation remains underutilized. Deepening our understanding of the origins and history of cardiac rehabilitation highlights a contemporary shift required for policy and practice related to secondary prevention of coronary disease in light of societal changes as well as medical, digital and surgical advancements. Contemporary “cardiac rehabilitation” began when bed rest and physical inactivity was recommended and commonplace for MI survivors. Today, most patients who survive an MI, undergo reperfusion therapy, a short inpatient stay and are discharged with minimal physical morbidity. Despite this, the majority of modern day programs continue to be structured in the same way they have been for the past 50 years and this model has become incongruent with the contemporary context, especially in the COVID-19 era. This review aims to describe the historical foundations of cardiac rehabilitation to inform solutions and meet the demands of contemporary MI management. Delivering health systems reform to address modernization is current healthcare challenge where a united and interdisciplinary effort is needed.

2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 219, 2022 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of the substantial burden of mental health disorders at an individual and population level, including consequent demand on mental health services. Lifestyle-based mental healthcare offers an additional approach to existing services with potential to help alleviate system burden. Despite the latest Royal Australian New Zealand College of Psychiatrists guidelines recommending that lifestyle is a 'first-line', 'non-negotiable' treatment for mood disorders, few such programs exist within clinical practice. Additionally, there are limited data to determine whether lifestyle approaches are equivalent to established treatments. Using an individually randomised group treatment design, we aim to address this gap by evaluating an integrated lifestyle program (CALM) compared to an established therapy (psychotherapy), both delivered via telehealth. It is hypothesised that the CALM program will not be inferior to psychotherapy with respect to depressive symptoms at 8 weeks. METHODS: The study is being conducted in partnership with Barwon Health's Mental Health, Drugs & Alcohol Service (Geelong, Victoria), from which 184 participants from its service and surrounding regions are being recruited. Eligible participants with elevated psychological distress are being randomised to CALM or psychotherapy. Each takes a trans-diagnostic approach, and comprises four weekly (weeks 1-4) and two fortnightly (weeks 6 and 8) 90-min, group-based sessions delivered via Zoom (digital video conferencing platform). CALM focuses on enhancing knowledge, behavioural skills and support for improving dietary and physical activity behaviours, delivered by an Accredited Exercise Physiologist and Accredited Practising Dietitian. Psychotherapy uses cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered by a Psychologist or Clinical Psychologist, and Provisional Psychologist. Data collection occurs at baseline and 8 weeks. The primary outcome is depressive symptoms (assessed via the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 8 weeks. Societal and healthcare costs will be estimated to determine the cost-effectiveness of the CALM program. A process evaluation will determine its reach, adoption, implementation and maintenance. DISCUSSION: If the CALM program is non-inferior to psychotherapy, this study will provide the first evidence to support lifestyle-based mental healthcare as an additional care model to support individuals experiencing psychological distress. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12621000387820 , Registered 8 April 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Adult , Anxiety , Depression/complications , Depression/therapy , Humans , Life Style , Psychotherapy , Telemedicine/methods , Victoria
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 774858, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731849

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has afforded the opportunity for some to improve lifestyle behaviours, while for others it has presented key challenges. Adverse changes in global lifestyle behaviours, including physical activity, sleep, and screen time can affect proximal mental health and in turn distal cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated differences in physical activity, sleep, and screen time in parents and children during early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia compared to pre-COVID-19 national data; and estimated associations between these movement behaviours with parent and child mental health. Cross-sectional baseline data from the COVID-19 Pandemic Adjustment Study (CPAS; N = 2,365) were compared to nationally representative pre-pandemic data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC; N = 9,438). Participants were parents of children aged ≤ 18 years, residing in Australia. Parents provided self-report measures of mental health, physical activity and sleep quality, and reported on child mental health, physical activity and screen time. Children in CPAS had significantly more sleep problems and more weekend screen time. Their parents had significantly poorer sleep quality, despite increased weekly physical activity. Children's sleep problems were significantly associated with increased mental health problems, after accounting for socioeconomic status, physical activity, and screen time. Poorer parent sleep quality and lower levels of physical activity were significantly associated with poorer mental health. Monitoring this cohort over time will be important to examine whether changes in movement behaviour are enduring or naturally improve with the easing of restrictions; and whether these changes have lasting effects on either parent or child mental health, and in turn, future risk for CVD.

4.
Cytokine ; 144: 155593, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242912

ABSTRACT

An analysis of published data appertaining to the cytokine storms of COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) reveals many common immunological and biochemical abnormalities. These include evidence of a hyperactive coagulation system with elevated D-dimer and ferritin levels, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) and microthrombi coupled with an activated and highly permeable vascular endothelium. Common immune abnormalities include progressive hypercytokinemia with elevated levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß, proinflammatory chemokines, activated macrophages and increased levels of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Inflammasome activation and release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) is common to COVID-19, H1N1, and MAS but does not appear to be a feature of CRS. Elevated levels of IL-18 are detected in patients with COVID-19 and MAS but have not been reported in patients with H1N1 influenza and CRS. Elevated interferon-γ is common to H1N1, MAS, and CRS but levels of this molecule appear to be depressed in patients with COVID-19. CD4+ T, CD8+ and NK lymphocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of CRS, MAS, and possibly H1N1 but are reduced in number and dysfunctional in COVID-19. Additional elements underpinning the pathophysiology of cytokine storms include Inflammasome activity and DAMPs. Treatment with anakinra may theoretically offer an avenue to positively manipulate the range of biochemical and immune abnormalities reported in COVID-19 and thought to underpin the pathophysiology of cytokine storms beyond those manipulated via the use of, canakinumab, Jak inhibitors or tocilizumab. Thus, despite the relative success of tocilizumab in reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients already on dexamethasone and promising results with Baricitinib, the combination of anakinra in combination with dexamethasone offers the theoretical prospect of further improvements in patient survival. However, there is currently an absence of trial of evidence in favour or contravening this proposition. Accordingly, a large well powered blinded prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test this hypothesis is recommended.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/pathology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Survival Rate
5.
Life Sci ; 264: 118617, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with significant morbidity and high levels of mortality. This paper describes the processes involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 from the initial infection and subsequent destruction of type II alveolar epithelial cells by SARS-CoV-2 and culminating in the development of ARDS. MAIN BODY: The activation of alveolar cells and alveolar macrophages leads to the release of large quantities of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and their translocation into the pulmonary vasculature. The presence of these inflammatory mediators in the vascular compartment leads to the activation of vascular endothelial cells platelets and neutrophils and the subsequent formation of platelet neutrophil complexes. These complexes in concert with activated endothelial cells interact to create a state of immunothrombosis. The consequence of immunothrombosis include hypercoagulation, accelerating inflammation, fibrin deposition, migration of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) producing neutrophils into the alveolar apace, activation of the NLRP3 inflammazome, increased alveolar macrophage destruction and massive tissue damage by pyroptosis and necroptosis Therapeutic combinations aimed at ameliorating immunothrombosis and preventing the development of severe COVID-19 are discussed in detail.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/physiology , Blood Platelets/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/physiology , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Humans , Macrophages, Alveolar/physiology , Neutrophils/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Thrombosis/immunology
6.
Life Sci ; 262: 118541, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816772

ABSTRACT

The possibility is examined that immunomodulatory pharmacotherapy may be clinically useful in managing the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), known to result from infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus. The dominant route of cell entry of the coronavirus is via phagocytosis, with ensconcement in endosomes thereafter proceeding via the endosomal pathway, involving transfer from early (EEs) to late endosomes (LEs) and ultimately into lysosomes via endolysosomal fusion. EE to LE transportation is a rate-limiting step for coronaviruses. Hence inhibition or dysregulation of endosomal trafficking could potentially inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication. Furthermore, the acidic luminal pH of the endolysosomal system is critical for the activity of numerous pH-sensitive hydrolytic enzymes. Golgi sub-compartments and Golgi-derived secretory vesicles also depend on being mildly acidic for optimal function and structure. Activation of endosomal toll-like receptors by viral RNA can upregulate inflammatory mediators and contribute to a systemic inflammatory cytokine storm, associated with a worsened clinical outcome in COVID-19. Such endosomal toll-like receptors could be inhibited by the use of pharmacological agents which increase endosomal pH, thereby reducing the activity of acid-dependent endosomal proteases required for their activity and/or assembly, leading to suppression of antigen-presenting cell activity, decreased autoantibody secretion, decreased nuclear factor-kappa B activity and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. It is also noteworthy that SARS-CoV-2 inhibits autophagy, predisposing infected cells to apoptosis. It is therefore also suggested that further pharmacological inhibition of autophagy might encourage the apoptotic clearance of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Endosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics
7.
Life Sci ; 258: 118166, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703163

ABSTRACT

In this paper, a model is proposed of the pathophysiological processes of COVID-19 starting from the infection of human type II alveolar epithelial cells (pneumocytes) by SARS-CoV-2 and culminating in the development of ARDS. The innate immune response to infection of type II alveolar epithelial cells leads both to their death by apoptosis and pyroptosis and to alveolar macrophage activation. Activated macrophages secrete proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and tend to polarise into the inflammatory M1 phenotype. These changes are associated with activation of vascular endothelial cells and thence the recruitment of highly toxic neutrophils and inflammatory activated platelets into the alveolar space. Activated vascular endothelial cells become a source of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and contribute to the development of coagulopathy, systemic sepsis, a cytokine storm and ARDS. Pulmonary activated platelets are also an important source of proinflammatory cytokines and ROS, as well as exacerbating pulmonary neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses and contributing to systemic sepsis by binding to neutrophils to form platelet-neutrophil complexes (PNCs). PNC formation increases neutrophil recruitment, activation priming and extraversion of these immune cells into inflamed pulmonary tissue, thereby contributing to ARDS. Sequestered PNCs cause the development of a procoagulant and proinflammatory environment. The contribution to ARDS of increased extracellular histone levels, circulating mitochondrial DNA, the chromatin protein HMGB1, decreased neutrophil apoptosis, impaired macrophage efferocytosis, the cytokine storm, the toll-like receptor radical cycle, pyroptosis, necroinflammation, lymphopenia and a high Th17 to regulatory T lymphocyte ratio are detailed.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/therapy , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Neutrophil Activation , Pandemics , Platelet Activation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/immunology , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Thrombophilia/therapy
8.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(7): 960-963, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has produced substantial health challenges from the perspective of both its direct health complications and the disruption to delivery of standard care for individuals with a range of acute and chronic health issues. In parallel, the widespread application of social isolation initiatives in most countries raises the potential for significant mental health consequences and psychosocial impacts. This has major implications for cardiovascular health care professionals and the management of their patients. CHALLENGES: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated physical isolation practices are likely to result in a range of mental health and psychosocial challenges. In addition to an increasing incidence of anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and post-traumatic stress, the pandemic may also witness an increase in substance abuse, domestic violence and relationship discord. The consequences of these complications will be further magnified, when considering their potential effect on cardiovascular disease and its management. PURPOSE: This commentary aims to summarise some of the potential mental health and psychosocial challenges that may arise in the setting of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/psychology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(7): e99-e104, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has introduced a major disruption to the delivery of routine health care across the world. This provides challenges for the use of secondary prevention measures in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this Position Statement is to review the implications for effective delivery of secondary prevention strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. CHALLENGES: The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced limitations for many patients to access standard health services such as visits to health care professionals, medications, imaging and blood tests as well as attendance at cardiac rehabilitation. In addition, the pandemic is having an impact on lifestyle habits and mental health. Taken together, this has the potential to adversely impact the ability of practitioners and patients to adhere to treatment guidelines for the prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events. RECOMMENDATIONS: Every effort should be made to deliver safe, ongoing access to health care professionals and the use of evidenced based therapies in individuals with CVD. An increase in use of a range of electronic health platforms has the potential to transform secondary prevention. Integrating research programs that evaluate the utility of these approaches may provide important insights into how to develop more optimal approaches to secondary prevention beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Secondary Prevention , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation/methods , Cardiac Rehabilitation/trends , Cardiology/methods , Cardiology/organization & administration , Cardiology/trends , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Prevention/methods , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Societies, Medical
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL