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Lancet Rheumatol ; 4(2): e135-e144, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555786


In patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia, an aberrant post-viral alveolitis with excessive inflammatory responses and immunothrombosis underpins use of immunomodulatory therapy (eg, corticosteroids and interleukin-6 receptor antagonism). By contrast, immunosuppression in individuals with mild COVID-19 who do not require oxygen therapy or in those with critical disease undergoing prolonged ventilation is of no proven benefit. Furthermore, a window of opportunity is thought to exist for timely immunosuppression in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia shortly after clinical presentation. In this Viewpoint, we explore the shortcomings of a universal immunosuppression approach in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 due to disease heterogeneity related to ongoing SARS-CoV-2 replication, which can manifest as RNAaemia in some patients treated with immunotherapy. By contrast, immunomodulatory therapy has overall benefits in patients with rapid SARS-CoV-2 clearance, via blunting of multifaceted, excessive innate immune responses in the lungs, potentially uncontrolled T-cell responses, possible autoimmune responses, and immunothrombosis. We highlight this therapeutic dichotomy to better understand the immunopathology of moderate-to-severe COVID-19, particularly the role of RNAaemia, and to refine therapy choices.

Eur Respir Rev ; 29(157)2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835811


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2. Consensus suggestions can standardise care, thereby improving outcomes and facilitating future research. METHODS: An International Task Force was composed and agreement regarding courses of action was measured using the Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence (CORE) process. 70% agreement was necessary to make a consensus suggestion. RESULTS: The Task Force made consensus suggestions to treat patients with acute COVID-19 pneumonia with remdesivir and dexamethasone but suggested against hydroxychloroquine except in the context of a clinical trial; these are revisions of prior suggestions resulting from the interim publication of several randomised trials. It also suggested that COVID-19 patients with a venous thromboembolic event be treated with therapeutic anticoagulant therapy for 3 months. The Task Force was unable to reach sufficient agreement to yield consensus suggestions for the post-hospital care of COVID-19 survivors. The Task Force fell one vote shy of suggesting routine screening for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force addressed questions related to pharmacotherapy in patients with COVID-19 and the post-hospital care of survivors, yielding several consensus suggestions. Management options for which there is insufficient agreement to formulate a suggestion represent research priorities.

Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , International Cooperation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Medicine/standards , Societies, Medical , COVID-19 , Europe , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(6): 102537, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-52387


Severe COVID-19 associated pneumonia patients may exhibit features of systemic hyper-inflammation designated under the umbrella term of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or cytokine storm, also known as secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (sHLH). This is distinct from HLH associated with immunodeficiency states termed primary HLH -with radically different therapy strategies in both situations. COVID-19 infection with MAS typically occurs in subjects with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and historically, non-survival in ARDS was linked to sustained IL-6 and IL-1 elevation. We provide a model for the classification of MAS to stratify the MAS-like presentation in COVID-19 pneumonia and explore the complexities of discerning ARDS from MAS. We discuss the potential impact of timing of anti-cytokine therapy on viral clearance and the impact of such therapy on intra-pulmonary macrophage activation and emergent pulmonary vascular disease.

Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Interleukin-1/immunology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/immunology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/complications , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2