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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325533

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, however not all face the same risk. We aimed to determine antibody prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity in the Chilean HCW community.Methods: This was a nationwide, cross-sectional study consisting of a questionnaire and COVID-19 antibody testing. All HCWs in the Chilean public health care system were invited to participate three to four months following the peak of the country's first wave.Findings: Overall SARS-Cov-2 blood antibody positivity by fingerstick or venipuncture in 85 529 HCWs was 7 · 2%, ranging from 1 · 6% to 12 · 4% between regions. SARS-Cov-2 positive PCR results were self-reported in 8 330 individuals (9 · 7%) of which 47% were seropositive. Overall 10 863 (12 · 7%) either reported prior PCR positive results and/or were seropositive. Several factors were independently associated with higher IRR for seropositivity, including working in hospital (IRR 1·484), medicine/surgery w ards (IRR 1·383), emergency room (IRR 1·266), and night shifts (IRR 1·616), as were history of contact with a confirmed case (IRR 1·462), and use of public transport (IRR 1·367). These variables remained significant when including self-reported PCR positive cases in the model.Interpretation: HCWs in the hospital were at highest risk for COVID-19, especially if working in medicine/surgery wards or emergency rooms, in night shifts, older age, exposed to confirmed cases and/or using public transport. Antibody results using lateral flow likely underestimated true infection rates by nearly 40-50%. Nevertheless, risk factors were sustained when adjusting for self-reported PCR positive cases.Funding: No funding institution.Conflict of Interest: Authors do not declare any conflict of interest.Ethical Approval: The study was designed in August 2020 by Health Ministry personnel in conjunction with an academicadvisory board;the study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Servicio de Salud Araucanía Sur (Nº CEC-201, August 10, 2021).

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 808064, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649357

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy is associated with a higher risk for severe morbidity and mortality when compared with infection in non-pregnant women of childbearing age. An increasing number of countries recommend immunization against SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women. Recent studies provide preliminary and supportive evidence on safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in pregnant women; however, important knowledge gaps remain which warrant further studies. This collaborative consensus paper provides a review of the current literature on COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant women, identifies knowledge gaps and outlines priorities for future research to optimize protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the pregnant women and their infants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /adverse effects , /adverse effects , Adoptive Transfer , /immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Milk, Human/immunology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , /statistics & numerical data
3.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(1): 56-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By July 14, 2021, 81·3 % of adults (aged ≥18 years) in Chile had received a first SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and 72·3% had received a second SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, with the majority of people given Sinovac's inactivated CoronaVac vaccine (75·3% of vaccines dispensed) or Pfizer-BioNTech's mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine (20·9% of vaccines dispensed). Due to the absence of simultaneous real-world data for these vaccines, we aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity between vaccines using a dynamic national monitoring strategy. METHODS: From March 12, 2021, 28 testing stations for SARS-CoV-2 IgG detection were installed in hotspots based on cellular-phone mobility tracking within the most populated cities in Chile. Individuals voluntarily approaching the testing stations were invited to do a lateral flow test by finger prick and respond to a questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, vaccination status (including type of vaccine if one was received), variables associated with SARS-CoV-2 exposure, and comorbidities. We compared the proportion of individuals testing positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG across sites by week since vaccination between recipients of CoronaVac and BNT162b2. Unvaccinated participants served as a control population and were matched to vaccinated individuals on the basis of date of presentation to the testing station, gender, and age group. Individuals were excluded from the analysis if they were younger than 18 years, had no declared gender, had an invalid IgG test result, had previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection on PCR, could not recall their vaccination status, or had been immunised against COVID-19 with vaccines other than CoronaVac or BNT162b2. Here, we report data collected up to July 2, 2021. FINDINGS: Of 64 813 individuals enrolled, 56 261 were included in the final analysis, of whom 33 533 (59·6%) had received at least one dose of the CoronaVac vaccine, 8947 (15·9%) had received at least one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, and 13 781 (24·5%) had not received a vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity during week 4 after the first dose of CoronaVac was 28·1% (95% CI 25·0-31·2; 220 of 783 individuals), reaching a peak of 77·4% (75·5-79·3; 1473 of 1902 individuals) during week 3 after the second dose. SARS-CoV-2 IgG positivity during week 4 after the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine was 79·4% (75·7-83·1; 367 of 462 individuals), increasing to 96·5% (94·9-98·1; 497 of 515 individuals) during week 3 after the second dose and remaining above 92% until the end of the study. For unvaccinated individuals, IgG seropositivity ranged from 6·0% (4·4-7·6; 49 of 810 individuals) to 18·7% (12·5-24·9; 28 of 150 individuals) during the 5 month period. Regression analyses showed that IgG seropositivity was significantly lower in men than women and in people with diabetes or chronic diseases for CoronaVac vaccine recipients (p<0·0001), and for individuals aged 60 years and older compared with people aged 18-39 years for both vaccines (p<0·0001), 3-16 weeks after the second dose. INTERPRETATION: IgG seropositivity was lower after CoronaVac than after BNT162b2 and declined over time since vaccination for CoronaVac recipients but not BNT162b2 recipients. Prolonged IgG monitoring will allow further evaluation of seropositivity overtime, providing data, in conjunction with effectiveness studies, for possible future re-assessment of vaccination strategies. FUNDING: Instituto Sistemas Complejos de Ingeniería and Ministerio de Salud Chile. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chile/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sentinel Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sex Factors , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
4.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 144: 72-83, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, however not all face the same risk. We aimed to determine IgG/IgM prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity in Chilean HCWs. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a nationwide, cross-sectional study including a questionnaire and COVID-19 lateral flow IgG/IgM antibody testing. All HCWs in the Chilean public health care system were invited to participate following the country's first wave. RESULTS: IgG/IgM positivity in 85,529 HCWs was 7.2%, ranging from 1.6% to 12.4% between regions. Additionally, 9.7% HCWs reported a positive PCR of which 47% were seropositive. Overall, 10,863 (12.7%) HCWs were PCR and/or IgG/IgM positive. Factors independently associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for seropositivity were: working in a hospital, night shifts, contact with Covid-19, using public transport, male gender, age>45, BMI ≥30, and reporting ≥2 symptoms. Stress and/or mental health disorder and smoking were associated with decreased ORs. These factors remained significant when including PCR positive cases in the model. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs in the hospital were at highest risk for COVID-19, and several independent risk factors for seropositivity and/or PCR positivity were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542802

ABSTRACT

Human Norovirus is currently the main viral cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGEs) in most countries worldwide. Nearly 50 years after the discovery of the "Norwalk virus" by Kapikian and colleagues, the scientific and medical community continue to generate new knowledge on the full biological and disease spectrum of Norovirus infection. Nevertheless, several areas remain incompletely understood due to the serious constraints to effectively replicate and propagate the virus. Here, we present a narrated historic perspective and summarize our current knowledge, including insights and reflections on current points of interest for a broad medical community, including clinical and molecular epidemiology, viral-host-microbiota interactions, antivirals, and vaccine prototypes. We also include a reflection on the present and future impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Norovirus infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/prevention & control , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/prevention & control , Norovirus/physiology , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caliciviridae Infections/microbiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Gastroenteritis/microbiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Norovirus/genetics , Norovirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology
6.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542800

ABSTRACT

This review aims to explore the role and value of serology testing in the context of COVID-19 immunization policies in Latin American countries and the barriers and challenges to the adequate use and uptake of this tool. It builds on a review of the academic literature, evidence, and existing policies, and includes a multistage process of discussion and feedback by a group of five experts. Regional and country-level evidence and resources from five focus countries-Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico-were collected and analyzed. This review contains an overview of (1) the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the variants of concern and current testing strategies, (2) the introduction of COVID-19 vaccination, (3) the potential use of serology testing to support immunization initiatives, (4) the current frameworks for the use of serology testing in the region, and (5) the barriers and challenges to implementing serology testing in the context of COVID-19 immunization policies, including a discussion on the potential actions required to address these barriers and facilitate the uptake of this strategy in the region. Stakeholders can use elements of this document to guide timely decision-making, raise awareness, and inspire further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Immunization/standards , Antibodies, Viral , Argentina , Brazil , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Chile , Colombia , Humans , Latin America , Mexico , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): e458-e465, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak affecting 52 people from a large school community in Santiago, Chile, was identified (12 March) 9 days after the first case in the country. We assessed the magnitude of the outbreak and the role students and staff played using self-administered antibody detection tests and a self-administered survey. METHODS: The school was closed on 13 March, and the entire community was placed under quarantine. We implemented a home-delivery, self-administered, immunoglobin (Ig) G/IgM antibody test and survey to a classroom-stratified sample of students and all staff from 4-19 May. We aimed to determine the overall seroprevalence rates by age group, reported symptoms, and contact exposure, and to explore the dynamics of transmission. RESULTS: The antibody positivity rates were 9.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2-11.8) for 1009 students and 16.6% (95% CI, 12.1-21.9) for 235 staff. Among students, positivity was associated with a younger age (P = .01), a lower grade level (P = .05), prior real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity (P = .03), and a history of contact with a confirmed case (P < .001). Among staff, positivity was higher in teachers (P = .01) and in those previously RT-PCR positive (P < .001). Excluding RT-PCR-positive individuals, antibody positivity was associated with fever in adults and children (P = .02 and P = .002, respectively), abdominal pain in children (P = .001), and chest pain in adults (P = .02). Within antibody-positive individuals, 40% of students and 18% of staff reported no symptoms (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Teachers were more affected during the outbreak and younger children were at a higher risk for infection, likely because index case(s) were teachers and/or parents from the preschool. Self-administered antibody testing, supervised remotely, proved to be a suitable and rapid tool. Our study provides useful information for school reopenings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Prevalence , Schools , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 572485, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186815

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly evolving, highly transmissible, and potentially lethal pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of June 11 2020, more than 7,000,000 COVID-19 cases have been reported worldwide, and more than 400,000 patients have died, affecting at least 188 countries. While literature on the disease is rapidly accumulating, an integrated, multinational perspective on clinical manifestations, immunological effects, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of COVID-19 can be of global benefit. We aimed to synthesize the most relevant literature and experiences in different parts of the world through our global consortium of experts to provide a consensus-based document at this early stage of the pandemic.

9.
Revista chilena de infectología ; 37(3):281-286, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-734284

ABSTRACT

The global shortage of reagents and kits for nucleic acid extraction and molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 requires new cost-effective strategies for the diagnosis of suspected COVID-19 cases, especially in countries that need to increase detection capacity. Pooled nucleic acid testing has been extensively used as a cost-effective strategy for HIV HepB, HepC and influenza. Also, protocols dispensing of RNA extraction appears as an attractive option for detection of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we found that pooling of 5 samples showed that C-T variations were in the range of 1.0-4,5 units, with less likelihood of a false negative result. Results of the sample without nucleic acid extraction, was unsatisfactory, with a significant increase in C-T values, and thus for risk of a false negative result. In conclusion, pooling nasopharyngeal samples with both automated and manual extraction proved reliable, and thus a potential efficient alternative for the diagnosis of suspected COVID-19 in developing countries.

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