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1.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296535

ABSTRACT

In late November 2021, the World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.529 the fifth variant of concern, Omicron. This variant has acquired 15 mutations in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein, raising concerns that Omicron could evade naturally acquired and vaccine-derived immunity. We utilized an authentic virus, multicycle neutralisation assay to demonstrate that sera collected 1, 3, and 6 months post-two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 has a limited ability to neutralise SARS-CoV-2. However, four weeks after a third dose, neutralizing antibody titres are boosted. Despite this increase, neutralising antibody titres are reduced 4-fold for Omicron compared to lineage A.2.2 SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 45(6): 616-621, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511266

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In May 2020, The Communicable Diseases Network of Australia (CDNA) case definition introduced serological criteria to support the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We present findings that support the utility of SARS-CoV-2-specific serology for public health investigations. METHODS: From 24 January to 31 July 2020, the following information was collected from individuals with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific immunofluorescence antibody tests: history of contact with COVID-19 cases; recent travel; symptoms consistent with COVID-19; and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing (NAT) results. Individuals were classified as confirmed or probable by CDNA criteria or additionally as possible (SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG positive with compatible symptoms or epidemiologic risk) or indeterminate (SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA/IgM positive only) cases. RESULTS: A total of 10,595 individuals were tested in the six-month period. Of these, 9.8% (1,037) individuals had positive SARS-CoV-2-specific serology of which 566 (53.6%) were NAT-confirmed COVID-19 cases and 286 (27.6%) were part of a cruise ship outbreak sero-survey. The remaining 185 individuals (NAT negative) were individually classified as serologically confirmed (4, 0.4%), probable (72, 6.9%) possible (66, 6.4%) and indeterminate (38, 3.7%) cases. Maternal antibody transfer was inferred in one infant and four were unclassified. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2-specific serology is a key diagnostic tool for retrospective identification of COVID-19 infection. Implications for public health: SARS-CoV-2 specific serology can enhance the ability to find cases, link missing cases in clusters of infection and identify the epidemiological extent of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks. A combination of epidemiological criteria, clinical criteria and a quantitative serological test can be used as an adjunct to classify SARS-CoV-2 cases. Our study confirms the low level of community transmission in NSW during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2952-e2959, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) does not necessarily indicate shedding of infective virions. There are limited data on the correlation between the isolation of SARS-CoV-2, which likely indicates infectivity, and PCR. METHODS: A total of 195 patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 were tested (outpatients, n = 178; inpatients, n = 12; and critically unwell patients admitted to the intensive care unit [ICU] patients, n = 5). SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive samples were cultured in Vero C1008 cells and inspected daily for cytopathic effect (CPE). SARS-CoV-2-induced CPE was confirmed by PCR of culture supernatant. Where no CPE was observed, PCR was performed on day 4 to confirm absence of virus replication. The cycle thresholds (Cts) of the day 4 PCR (Ctculture) and the PCR of the original clinical sample (Ctsample) were compared, and positive cultures were defined where Ctsample - Ctculture was ≥3. RESULTS: Of 234 samples collected, 228 (97%) were from the upper respiratory tract. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from 56 (24%), including in 28 of 181 (15%), 19 of 42 (45%), and 9 of 11 samples (82%) collected from outpatients, inpatients, and ICU patients, respectively. All 56 samples had Ctsample ≤32; CPE was observed in 46 (20%). The mean duration from symptom onset to culture positivity was 4.5 days (range, 0-18). SARS-CoV-2 was significantly more likely to be isolated from samples collected from inpatients (P < .001) and ICU patients (P < .0001) compared with outpatients, and in samples with lower Ctsample. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 culture may be used as a surrogate marker for infectivity and inform de-isolation protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Critical Care , Humans , Immunologic Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
7.
Virus Evol ; 6(1): veaa027, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388022

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has rapidly spread outside China with major outbreaks occurring in Italy, South Korea, and Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of whole-genome sequencing data identified a distinct SARS-CoV-2 clade linked to travellers returning from Iran to Australia and New Zealand. This study highlights potential viral diversity driving the epidemic in Iran, and underscores the power of rapid genome sequencing and public data sharing to improve the detection and management of emerging infectious diseases.

8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(9): ofaa387, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205747

ABSTRACT

Background: Testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies has become an important tool, complementing nucleic acid tests (NATs) for diagnosis and for determining the prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in population serosurveys. The magnitude and persistence of antibody responses are critical for assessing the duration of immunity. Methods: A SARS-CoV-2-specific immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) assay for immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) was developed and prospectively evaluated by comparison to the reference standard of NAT on respiratory tract samples from individuals with suspected COVID-19. Neutralizing antibody responses were measured in a subset of samples using a standard microneutralization assay. Results: A total of 2753 individuals were eligible for the study (126 NAT-positive; prevalence, 4.6%). The median "window period" from illness onset to appearance of antibodies (range) was 10.2 (5.8-14.4) days. The sensitivity and specificity of either SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA, or IgM when collected ≥14 days after symptom onset were 91.3% (95% CI, 84.9%-95.6%) and 98.9% (95% CI, 98.4%-99.3%), respectively. The negative predictive value was 99.6% (95% CI, 99.3%-99.8%). The positive predictive value of detecting any antibody class was 79.9% (95% CI, 73.3%-85.1%); this increased to 96.8% (95% CI, 90.7%-99.0%) for the combination of IgG and IgA. Conclusions: Measurement of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody by IFA is an accurate method to diagnose COVID-19. Serological testing should be incorporated into diagnostic algorithms for SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify additional cases where NAT was not performed and resolve cases where false-negative and false-positive NATs are suspected. The majority of individuals develop robust antibody responses following infection, but the duration of these responses and implications for immunity remain to be established.

9.
J Clin Virol ; 138: 104797, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152482

ABSTRACT

A total of 1080 individual patient samples (158 positive serology samples from confirmed, predominantly mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients and 922 serology negative including 496 collected pre-COVID) from four states in Australia were analysed on four commercial SARS-CoV-2 serological assays targeting antibodies to different antigens (Roche Elecsys and Abbott Architect: nucleocapsid; Diasorin Liaison and Euroimmun: spike). A subset was compared to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) and micro-neutralisation. Sensitivity and specificity of the Roche (n = 1033), Abbott (n = 806), Diasorin (n = 1034) and Euroimmun (n = 175) were 93.7 %/99.5 %, 90.2 %/99.4 %, 88.6 %/98.6 % and 91.3 %/98.8 %, respectively. ROC analysis with specificity held at 99 % increased the sensitivity for the Roche and Abbott assays from 93.7% to 98.7% (cut-off 0.21) and 90.2 % to 94.0 % (cut-off 0.91), respectively. Overall seropositivity of samples increased from a maximum of 23 % for samples 0-7 days-post-onset of symptoms (dpos), to 61 % from samples 8-14dpos and 93 % from those >14dpos. IFA and microneutralisation values correlated best with assays targeting antibodies to spike protein with values >80 AU/mL on the Diasorin assay associated with neutralising antibody. Detectable antibody was present in 22/23 (96 %), 20/23 (87 %), 15/23 (65 %) and 9/22 (41 %) patients with samples >180dpos on the Roche, Diasorin, Abbott and microneutralisation assays respectively. Given the low prevalence in this community, two-step algorithms on initial positive results saw an increase in the positive predictive value (PPV) of positive samples (39 %-65 % to ≥98 %) for all combinations. Similarly accuracy increased from a range of 98.5 %-99.4 % to ≥99.8 % assuming a 1 % seroprevalence. Negative predictive value (NPV) was high (≥99.8 %) regardless of which assay was used initially.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
10.
Med J Aust ; 214(4): 179-185, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody seroprevalence after the first epidemic wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Sydney. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: People of any age who had provided blood for testing at selected diagnostic pathology services (general pathology); pregnant women aged 20-39 years who had received routine antenatal screening; and Australian Red Cross Lifeblood plasmapheresis donors aged 20-69 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; testing of de-identified residual blood specimens collected during 20 April - 2 June 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Estimated proportions of people seropositive for anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Thirty-eight of 5339 specimens were IgG-positive (general pathology, 19 of 3231; antenatal screening, 7 of 560; plasmapheresis donors, 12 of 1548); there were no clear patterns by age group, sex, or location of residence. Adjusted estimated seroprevalence among people who had had general pathology blood tests (all ages) was 0.15% (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.04-0.41%), and 0.29% (95% CrI, 0.04-0.75%) for plasmapheresis donors (20-69 years). Among 20-39-year-old people, the age group common to all three collection groups, adjusted estimated seroprevalence was 0.24% (95% CrI, 0.04-0.80%) for the general pathology group, 0.79% (95% CrI, 0.04-1.88%) for the antenatal screening group, and 0.69% (95% CrI, 0.04-1.59%) for plasmapheresis donors. CONCLUSIONS: Estimated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was below 1%, indicating that community transmission was low during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave in Sydney. These findings suggest that early control of the spread of COVID-19 was successful, but efforts to reduce further transmission remain important.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Blood Donors , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
11.
Pathology ; 52(7): 783-789, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043870

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the analytic and clinical performance of four rapid lateral flow point-of-care tests (POCTs) for identifying SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. A retrospective study was conducted between 22 January and 30 March 2020 on 132 serum samples for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody detection referred to a tertiary referral hospital laboratory in New South Wales. Multiple sera were tested from 20 confirmed or suspected COVID-19 patients with SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies detected by immunofluorescence (IFA) or neutralisation, and 71 SARS-CoV-2 uninfected individuals. We measured the sensitivity and specificity for detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies for each POCT in comparison to positive SARS-CoV-2-specific IFA and viral neutralisation, our current laboratory benchmark tests. All POCTs were found to have a low analytic sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, ranging from 27.3% to 58.2%, with a specificity between 88.3% and 100%, and a low clinical sensitivity from 45% to 65%, with a clinical specificity between 87.3% and 100%. All POCTs had an increased sensitivity when specimens were collected more than 14 days from onset of symptoms. The detection using point-of-care testing of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies after disease onset lagged behind IFA by a range of 0-9 days. POCTs promise the benefit of providing quick easy testing for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. However, their poor sensitivity and delayed antibody detection make them unsuitable as a diagnostic or screening tool alone.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
12.
Intern Med J ; 51(1): 42-51, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On 31 December 2019, the World Health Organization recognised clusters of pneumonia-like cases due to a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 became a pandemic 71 days later. AIM: To report the clinical and epidemiological features, laboratory data and outcomes of the first group of 11 returned travellers with COVID-19 in Australia. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multi-centre case series. All patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection were admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria and South Australia. RESULTS: The median age of the patient cohort was 42 years (interquartile range (IQR), 24-53 years) with six men and five women. Eight (72.7%) patients had returned from Wuhan, one from Shenzhen, one from Japan and one from Europe. Possible human-to-human transmission from close family contacts in gatherings overseas occurred in two cases. Symptoms on admission were fever, cough and sore throat (n = 9, 81.8%). Co-morbidities included hypertension (n = 3, 27.3%) and hypercholesterolaemia (n = 2, 18.2%). No patients developed severe acute respiratory distress nor required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. After a median hospital stay of 14.5 days (IQR, 6.75-21), all patients were discharged. CONCLUSIONS: This is a historical record of the first COVID-19 cases in Australia during the early biocontainment phase of the national response. These findings were invaluable for establishing early inpatient and outpatient COVID-19 models of care and informing the management of COVID-19 over time as the outbreak evolved. Future research should extend this Australian case series to examine global epidemiological variation of this novel infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
13.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1894

ABSTRACT

Background: School closures have occurred globally during the COVID-19 pandemic despite limited data on transmission among children and in educational setting

14.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(12): 1445-1450, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Isolation and quarantine are key measures in outbreak management and disease control. They are, however, associated with negative patient experiences and outcomes, including an adverse impact on mental health and lower quality of care due to limited interaction with healthcare workers. In this study, we explore the lived experience and perceptions of patients in isolation with COVID-19 in an Australian healthcare setting. METHODS: Using a phenomenological approach from a Heideggerian hermeneutical perspective, we conducted individual semistructured interviews with the first 11 COVID-19 patients admitted to a designated COVID-19 facility in Australia. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and imported into NVivo 12 for coding and analysis. RESULTS: Participants' lived experience and perceptions of COVID-19 were represented by 5 themes: "Knowing about COVID-19," "Planning for, and responding to, COVID-19," "Being infected," "Life in isolation and the room," and "Post-discharge life." Within these, participants conveyed both positive and negative lived experiences of infection, isolation, and illness. The contextual aspects of their social and physical environment together with their individual resources contributed to the framing of their planning for, and response to, the outbreak, and were important mediators in their experience. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study provide a valuable insight into the lived experiences of patients with COVID-19, which reflect those of patients with other infectious diseases who require isolation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Isolation/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Australia , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perception , Qualitative Research
15.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(11): 807-816, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School closures have occurred globally during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, empiric data on transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children and in educational settings are scarce. In Australia, most schools have remained open during the first epidemic wave, albeit with reduced student physical attendance at the epidemic peak. We examined SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children and staff in schools and early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW). METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed paediatric (aged ≤18 years) and adult COVID-19 cases who attended a school or ECEC setting while considered infectious (defined as 24 h before symptom onset based on national guidelines during the study period) in NSW from Jan 25 to April 10, 2020, were investigated for onward transmission. All identified school and ECEC settings close contacts were required to home quarantine for 14 days, and were monitored and offered SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing if symptomatic. Enhanced investigations in selected educational settings included nucleic acid testing and SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing in symptomatic and asymptomatic contacts. Secondary attack rates were calculated and compared with state-wide COVID-19 rates. FINDINGS: 15 schools and ten ECEC settings had children (n=12) or adults (n=15) attend while infectious, with 1448 contacts monitored. Of these, 633 (43·7%) of 1448 had nucleic acid testing, or antibody testing, or both, with 18 secondary cases identified (attack rate 1·2%). Five secondary cases (three children; two adults) were identified (attack rate 0·5%; 5/914) in three schools. No secondary transmission occurred in nine of ten ECEC settings among 497 contacts. However, one outbreak in an ECEC setting involved transmission to six adults and seven children (attack rate 35·1%; 13/37). Across all settings, five (28·0%) of 18 secondary infections were asymptomatic (three infants [all aged 1 year], one adolescent [age 15 years], and one adult). INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 transmission rates were low in NSW educational settings during the first COVID-19 epidemic wave, consistent with mild infrequent disease in the 1·8 million child population. With effective case-contact testing and epidemic management strategies and associated small numbers of attendances while infected, children and teachers did not contribute significantly to COVID-19 transmission via attendance in educational settings. These findings could be used to inform modelling and public health policy regarding school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: NSW Government Department of Health.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine , School Health Services , Adolescent , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Education, Distance/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Population , Quarantine/organization & administration , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , School Health Services/organization & administration , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data
16.
Trials ; 21(1): 646, 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670196

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine if lopinavir/ritonavir +/- hydroxychloroquine will reduce the proportion of participants who survive without requiring ventilatory support, 15 days after enrolment, in adult participants with non-critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infection. TRIAL DESIGN: ASCOT is an investigator-initiated, multi-centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Participants will have been hospitalised with confirmed COVID-19, and will be randomised 1:1:1:1 to receive lopinavir /ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, both or neither drug in addition to standard of care management. PARTICIPANTS: Participants will be recruited from >80 hospitals across Australia and New Zealand, representing metropolitan and regional centres in both public and private sectors. Admitted patients will be eligible if aged ≥ 18 years, have confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by nucleic acid testing in the past 12 days and are expected to remain an inpatient for at least 48 hours from the time of randomisation. Potentially eligible participants will be excluded if admitted to intensive care or requiring high level respiratory support, are currently receiving study drugs or their use is contraindicated due to allergy, drug interaction or comorbidities (including baseline QTc prolongation of 470ms for women or 480ms for men), or death is anticipated imminently. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants will be randomised 1:1:1:1 to: Group 1: standard of care; Group 2: lopinavir (400mg) / ritonavir (100mg) twice daily for 10 days in tablet form; Group 3: hydroxychloroquine (800mg) 4x200mg administered 12 hours apart on Day 1, followed by 400mg twice a day for 6 days; Group 4: lopinavir /ritonavir plus hydroxychloroquine. MAIN OUTCOMES: Proportion of participants alive and not having required intensive respiratory support (invasive or non-invasive ventilation) at 15 days after enrolment. A range of clinical and virological secondary outcomes will also be evaluated. RANDOMISATION: The randomisation schedule will be generated by an independent statistician. Randomisation will be stratified by site and will be in permuted blocks of variable block size. The randomised sequence allocation will only be accessible to the data management group, and site investigators will have individual participant allocation provided through a web-based trial enrolment platform. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label study, with researchers assessing the laboratory outcomes blinded to treatment allocation. No unblinding procedures relating to potential adverse effects are therefore required. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): We assumed that 5% of participants receiving standard of care would meet the primary outcome, aimed to evaluate whether interventions could lead to a relative risk of 0.5, assuming no interaction between intervention arms. This corresponds to a required sample size of 610 per arm, with a 5% two-sided significance level (alpha) and 80% power. The total sample size therefore is planned to be 2440. TRIAL STATUS: ASCOT protocol version 3, May 5, 2020. Recruitment opened April 4, 2020 and is ongoing, with planned completion of enrolment July 31, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12620000445976 ). Prospectively registered April 6, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Standard of Care , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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