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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(2): 106217, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been associated with an increased incidence of ischemic stroke. The use echocardiography to characterize the risk of ischemic stroke in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has not been explored. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 368 patients hospitalized between 3/1/2020 and 5/31/2020 who had laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and underwent transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization. Patients were categorized according to the presence of ischemic stroke on cerebrovascular imaging following echocardiography. Ischemic stroke was identified in 49 patients (13.3%). We characterized the risk of ischemic stroke using a novel composite risk score of clinical and echocardiographic variables: age <55, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg, anticoagulation prior to admission, left atrial dilation and left ventricular thrombus. RESULTS: Patients with ischemic stroke had no difference in biomarkers of inflammation and hypercoagulability compared to those without ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke had significantly more left atrial dilation and left ventricular thrombus (48.3% vs 27.9%, p = 0.04; 4.2% vs 0.7%, p = 0.03). The unadjusted odds ratio of the composite novel COVID-19 Ischemic Stroke Risk Score for the likelihood of ischemic stroke was 4.1 (95% confidence interval 1.4-16.1). The AUC for the risk score was 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 Ischemic Stroke Risk Score utilizes clinical and echocardiographic parameters to robustly estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and supports the use of echocardiography to characterize the risk of ischemic stroke in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thrombosis
2.
Int J Cardiol ; 346: 100-102, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are currently no clear guidelines regarding the use of ultrasound enhancing agents (UEAs) with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for patients hospitalized with Covid-19. We investigated whether the performance of TTE with UEAs provides more diagnostic information and allows for shorter acquisition time compared to unenhanced TTE imaging in this patient population. METHODS: We analyzed the TTEs of 107 hospitalized Covid-19 patients between April and June 2020 who were administered UEAs (Definity®, Lantheus). The time to acquire images with and without UEAs was calculated. A level III echocardiographer determined if new, clinically significant findings were visualized with the addition of UEAs. RESULTS: There was a mean of 11.84±3.59 UEA cineloops/study vs 20.74±8.10 non-UEA cineloops/study (p < 0.0001). Mean time to acquire UEA cineloop images was 72.28±28.18 s/study compared to 188.07±86.04 s/study for non-UEA cineloop images (p < 0.0001). Forty-eight patients (45%) had at least one new finding on UEA imaging, with a total of 62 new findings seen. New information gained with UEAs was more likely to be found in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (21 vs 9, p < 0.001) and in those on mechanical ventilation (21 vs 15, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: TTE with UEAs required less time and fewer cineloop images compared to non-UEA imaging in patients hospitalized with Covid-19. Additionally, Covid-19 patients with severe respiratory disease benefited most with regard to new diagnostic information. Health care personnel should consider early use of UEAs in select hospitalized Covid-19 patients in order to reduce exposure and optimize diagnostic yield.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Echocardiography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
3.
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1505382

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 has been associated with an increased incidence of ischemic stroke. The use echocardiography to characterize the risk of ischemic stroke in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 has not been explored. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 368 patients hospitalized between 3/1/2020 and 5/31/2020 who had laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and underwent transthoracic echocardiography during hospitalization. Patients were categorized according to the presence of ischemic stroke on cerebrovascular imaging following echocardiography. Ischemic stroke was identified in 49 patients (13.3%). We characterized the risk of ischemic stroke using a novel composite risk score of clinical and echocardiographic variables: age <55, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg, anticoagulation prior to admission, left atrial dilation and left ventricular thrombus. Results Patients with ischemic stroke had no difference in biomarkers of inflammation and hypercoagulability compared to those without ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke had significantly more left atrial dilation and left ventricular thrombus (48.3% vs 27.9%, p = 0.04;4.2% vs 0.7%, p = 0.03). The unadjusted odds ratio of the composite novel COVID-19 Ischemic Stroke Risk Score for the likelihood of ischemic stroke was 4.1 (95% confidence interval 1.4-16.1). The AUC for the risk score was 0.70. Conclusions The COVID-19 Ischemic Stroke Risk Score utilizes clinical and echocardiographic parameters to robustly estimate the risk of ischemic stroke in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and supports the use of echocardiography to characterize the risk of ischemic stroke in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 159: 129-137, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347476

ABSTRACT

During the clinical care of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, diminished QRS amplitude on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was observed to precede clinical decompensation, culminating in death. This prompted investigation into the prognostic utility and specificity of low QRS complex amplitude (LoQRS) in COVID-19. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive adults admitted to a telemetry service with SARS-CoV-2 (n = 140) or influenza (n = 281) infection with a final disposition-death or discharge. LoQRS was defined as a composite of QRS amplitude <5 mm or <10 mm in the limb or precordial leads, respectively, or a ≥50% decrease in QRS amplitude on follow-up ECG during hospitalization. LoQRS was more prevalent in patients with COVID-19 than influenza (24.3% vs 11.7%, p = 0.001), and in patients who died than survived with either COVID-19 (48.1% vs 10.2%, p <0.001) or influenza (38.9% vs 9.9%, p <0.001). LoQRS was independently associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 when adjusted for baseline clinical variables (odds ratio [OR] 11.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9 to 33.8, p <0.001), presenting and peak troponin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, albumin, intubation, and vasopressor requirement (OR 13.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 145.5, p = 0.029). The median time to death in COVID-19 from the first ECG with LoQRS was 52 hours (interquartile range 18 to 130). Dynamic QRS amplitude diminution is a strong independent predictor of death over not only the course of COVID-19 infection, but also influenza infection. In conclusion, this finding may serve as a pragmatic prognostication tool reflecting evolving clinical changes during hospitalization, over a potentially actionable time interval for clinical reassessment.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Influenza, Human/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 7(9): 1120-1130, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to determine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). BACKGROUND: COVID-19 results in increased inflammatory markers previously associated with atrial arrhythmias. However, little is known about their incidence or specificity in COVID-19 or their association with outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 3,970 patients admitted with polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 between February 4 and April 22, 2020, with manual review performed of 1,110. The comparator arm included 1,420 patients with influenza hospitalized between January 1, 2017, and January 1, 2020. RESULTS: Among 3,970 inpatients with COVID-19, the incidence of AF/AFL was 10% (n = 375) and in patients without a history of atrial arrhythmias it was 4% (n = 146). Patients with new-onset AF/AFL were older with increased inflammatory markers including interleukin 6 (93 vs. 68 pg/ml; p < 0.01), and more myocardial injury (troponin-I: 0.2 vs. 0.06 ng/ml; p < 0.01). AF and AFL were associated with increased mortality (46% vs. 26%; p < 0.01). Manual review captured a somewhat higher incidence of AF/AFL (13%, n = 140). Compared to inpatients with COVID-19, patients with influenza (n = 1,420) had similar rates of AF/AFL (12%, n = 163) but lower mortality. The presence of AF/AFL correlated with similarly increased mortality in both COVID-19 (relative risk: 1.77) and influenza (relative risk: 1.78). CONCLUSIONS: AF/AFL occurs in a subset of patients hospitalized with either COVID-19 or influenza and is associated with inflammation and disease severity in both infections. The incidence and associated increase in mortality in both cohorts suggests that AF/AFL is not specific to COVID-19, but is rather a generalized response to the systemic inflammation of severe viral illnesses.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(18): 2043-2055, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is frequent among patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with a poor prognosis. However, the mechanisms of myocardial injury remain unclear and prior studies have not reported cardiovascular imaging data. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize the echocardiographic abnormalities associated with myocardial injury and their prognostic impact in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted an international, multicenter cohort study including 7 hospitals in New York City and Milan of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had undergone transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) and electrocardiographic evaluation during their index hospitalization. Myocardial injury was defined as any elevation in cardiac troponin at the time of clinical presentation or during the hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 305 patients were included. Mean age was 63 years and 205 patients (67.2%) were male. Overall, myocardial injury was observed in 190 patients (62.3%). Compared with patients without myocardial injury, those with myocardial injury had more electrocardiographic abnormalities, higher inflammatory biomarkers and an increased prevalence of major echocardiographic abnormalities that included left ventricular wall motion abnormalities, global left ventricular dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grade II or III, right ventricular dysfunction and pericardial effusions. Rates of in-hospital mortality were 5.2%, 18.6%, and 31.7% in patients without myocardial injury, with myocardial injury without TTE abnormalities, and with myocardial injury and TTE abnormalities. Following multivariable adjustment, myocardial injury with TTE abnormalities was associated with higher risk of death but not myocardial injury without TTE abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with COVID-19 who underwent TTE, cardiac structural abnormalities were present in nearly two-thirds of patients with myocardial injury. Myocardial injury was associated with increased in-hospital mortality particularly if echocardiographic abnormalities were present.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction/virology , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronary Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(5): 628-629, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-667383
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751541

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has challenged all medical professionals to optimise non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) as a means of limiting intubation. We present a case of a middle-aged man with a voluminous beard for religious reasons who developed progressive hypoxic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 infection which became refractory to NIV. After gaining permission to trim the patient's facial hair by engaging with the patient, his family and religious leaders, his mask fit objectively improved, his hypoxaemia markedly improved and an unnecessary intubation was avoided. Trimming of facial hair should be considered in all patients on NIV who might have any limitations with mask fit and seal that would hamper ventilation, including patients who have facial hair for religious reasons.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hair , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Religion and Medicine , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
11.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 43(10): 1139-1148, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729341

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have described several cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 including myocardial ischemia, myocarditis, thromboembolism, and malignant arrhythmias. However, to our knowledge, syncope in COVID-19 patients has not been systematically evaluated. We sought to characterize syncope and/or presyncope in COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with either syncope or presyncope. This "study" group (n = 37) was compared with an age and gender-matched cohort of patients without syncope ("control") (n = 40). Syncope was attributed to various categories. We compared telemetry data, treatments received, and clinical outcomes between the two groups. RESULTS: Among 1000 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Mount Sinai Hospital, the incidence of syncope/presyncope was 3.7%. The median age of the entire cohort was 69 years (range 26-89+ years) and 55% were men. Major comorbidities included hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Syncopal episodes were categorized as (a) unspecified in 59.4% patients, (b) neurocardiogenic in 15.6% patients, (c) hypotensive in 12.5% patients, and (d) cardiopulmonary in 3.1% patients with fall versus syncope and seizure versus syncope in 2 of 32 (6.3%) and 1 of 33 (3.1%) patients, respectively. Compared with the "control" group, there were no significant differences in both admission and peak blood levels of d-dimer, troponin-I, and CRP in the "study" group. Additionally, there were no differences in arrhythmias or death between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Syncope/presyncope in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is uncommon and is infrequently associated with a cardiac etiology or associated with adverse outcomes compared to those who do not present with these symptoms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Syncope/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Syncope/epidemiology , Telemetry
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