Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research ; 22(12):2134-2140, 2020.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1738094

ABSTRACT

Most tobacco-focused clinical trials are based on locally conducted studies that face significant challenges to implementation and successful execution. These challenges include the need for large, diverse, yet still representative study samples. This often means a protracted, costly, and inefficient recruitment process. Multisite clinical trials can overcome some of these hurdles but incur their own unique challenges. With recent advances in mobile health and digital technologies, there is now a promising alternative: Remote Trials. These trials are led and coordinated by a local investigative team, but are based remotely, within a given community, state, or even nation. The remote approach affords many of the benefits of multisite trials (more efficient recruitment of larger study samples) without the same barriers (cost, multisite management, and regulatory hurdles). The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) global health pandemic has resulted in rapid requirements to shift ongoing clinical trials to remote delivery and assessment platforms, making methods for the conduct of remote trials even more timely. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of available methods for the conduct of remote tobacco-focused clinical trials as well as illustrative examples of how these methods have been implemented across recently completed and ongoing tobacco studies. We focus on key aspects of the clinical trial pipeline including remote: (1) study recruitment and screening, (2) informed consent, (3) assessment, (4) biomarker collection, and (5) medication adherence monitoring. Implications: With recent advances in mobile health and digital technologies, remote trials now offer a promising alternative to traditional in-person clinical trials. Remote trials afford expedient recruitment of large, demographically representative study samples, without undo burden to a research team. The present review provides an overview of available methods for the conduct of remote tobacco-focused clinical trials across key aspects of the clinical trial pipeline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 29(1): 12-21, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic response at the Medical University of South Carolina included virtual care visits for patients with suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The telehealth system used for these visits only exports a text note to integrate with the electronic health record, but structured and coded information about COVID-19 (eg, exposure, risk factors, symptoms) was needed to support clinical care and early research as well as predictive analytics for data-driven patient advising and pooled testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To capture COVID-19 information from multiple sources, a new data mart and a new natural language processing (NLP) application prototype were developed. The NLP application combined reused components with dictionaries and rules crafted by domain experts. It was deployed as a Web service for hourly processing of new data from patients assessed or treated for COVID-19. The extracted information was then used to develop algorithms predicting SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test results based on symptoms and exposure information. RESULTS: The dedicated data mart and NLP application were developed and deployed in a mere 10-day sprint in March 2020. The NLP application was evaluated with good accuracy (85.8% recall and 81.5% precision). The SARS-CoV-2 testing predictive analytics algorithms were configured to provide patients with data-driven COVID-19 testing advices with a sensitivity of 81% to 92% and to enable pooled testing with a negative predictive value of 90% to 91%, reducing the required tests to about 63%. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 testing predictive analytics and NLP successfully enabled data-driven patient advising and pooled testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Natural Language Processing , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(12): 1871-1877, 2020 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We describe our approach in using health information technology to provide a continuum of services during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 challenges and needs required health systems to rapidly redesign the delivery of care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our health system deployed 4 COVID-19 telehealth programs and 4 biomedical informatics innovations to screen and care for COVID-19 patients. Using programmatic and electronic health record data, we describe the implementation and initial utilization. RESULTS: Through collaboration across multidisciplinary teams and strategic planning, 4 telehealth program initiatives have been deployed in response to COVID-19: virtual urgent care screening, remote patient monitoring for COVID-19-positive patients, continuous virtual monitoring to reduce workforce risk and utilization of personal protective equipment, and the transition of outpatient care to telehealth. Biomedical informatics was integral to our institutional response in supporting clinical care through new and reconfigured technologies. Through linking the telehealth systems and the electronic health record, we have the ability to monitor and track patients through a continuum of COVID-19 services. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 has facilitated the rapid expansion and utilization of telehealth and health informatics services. We anticipate that patients and providers will view enhanced telehealth services as an essential aspect of the healthcare system. Continuation of telehealth payment models at the federal and private levels will be a key factor in whether this new uptake is sustained. CONCLUSIONS: There are substantial benefits in utilizing telehealth during the COVID-19, including the ability to rapidly scale the number of patients being screened and providing continuity of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Medical Informatics , Telemedicine , Continuity of Patient Care , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
4.
NPJ Digit Med ; 3: 109, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728999

ABSTRACT

We leveraged the largely untapped resource of electronic health record data to address critical clinical and epidemiological questions about Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To do this, we formed an international consortium (4CE) of 96 hospitals across five countries (www.covidclinical.net). Contributors utilized the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) or Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) platforms to map to a common data model. The group focused on temporal changes in key laboratory test values. Harmonized data were analyzed locally and converted to a shared aggregate form for rapid analysis and visualization of regional differences and global commonalities. Data covered 27,584 COVID-19 cases with 187,802 laboratory tests. Case counts and laboratory trajectories were concordant with existing literature. Laboratory tests at the time of diagnosis showed hospital-level differences equivalent to country-level variation across the consortium partners. Despite the limitations of decentralized data generation, we established a framework to capture the trajectory of COVID-19 disease in patients and their response to interventions.

5.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(8): 1321-1325, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In an effort to improve the efficiency of computer algorithms applied to screening for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing, we used natural language processing and artificial intelligence-based methods with unstructured patient data collected through telehealth visits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After segmenting and parsing documents, we conducted analysis of overrepresented words in patient symptoms. We then developed a word embedding-based convolutional neural network for predicting COVID-19 test results based on patients' self-reported symptoms. RESULTS: Text analytics revealed that concepts such as smell and taste were more prevalent than expected in patients testing positive. As a result, screening algorithms were adapted to include these symptoms. The deep learning model yielded an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.729 for predicting positive results and was subsequently applied to prioritize testing appointment scheduling. CONCLUSIONS: Informatics tools such as natural language processing and artificial intelligence methods can have significant clinical impacts when applied to data streams early in the development of clinical systems for outbreak response.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Natural Language Processing , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Telemedicine , Algorithms , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Deep Learning , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Organizational Case Studies , Pandemics , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , South Carolina
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL