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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911245

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic induced by the SARS-CoV-2, numerous chest scans were carried out in order to establish the diagnosis, quantify the extension of lesions but also identify the occurrence of potential pulmonary embolisms. In this perspective, the performed chest scans provided a varied database for a retrospective analysis of non-COVID-19 chest pathologies discovered de novo. The fortuitous discovery of de novo non-COVID-19 lesions was generally not detected by the automated systems for COVID-19 pneumonia developed in parallel during the pandemic and was thus identified on chest CT by the radiologist. The objective is to use the study of the occurrence of non-COVID-19-related chest abnormalities (known and unknown) in a large cohort of patients having suffered from confirmed COVID-19 infection and statistically correlate the clinical data and the occurrence of these abnormalities in order to assess the potential of increased early detection of lesions/alterations. This study was performed on a group of 362 COVID-19-positive patients who were prescribed a CT scan in order to diagnose and predict COVID-19-associated lung disease. Statistical analysis using mean, standard deviation (SD) or median and interquartile range (IQR), logistic regression models and linear regression models were used for data analysis. Results were considered significant at the 5% critical level (p < 0.05). These de novo non-COVID-19 thoracic lesions detected on chest CT showed a significant prevalence in cardiovascular pathologies, with calcifying atheromatous anomalies approaching nearly 35.4% in patients over 65 years of age. The detection of non-COVID-19 pathologies was mostly already known, except for suspicious nodule, thyroid goiter and the ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm. The presence of vertebral compression or signs of pulmonary fibrosis has shown a significant impact on inpatient length of stay. The characteristics of the patients in this sample, both from a demographic and a tomodensitometric point of view on non-COVID-19 pathologies, influenced the length of hospital stay as well as the risk of intra-hospital death. This retrospective study showed that the potential importance of the detection of these non-COVID-19 lesions by the radiologist was essential in the management and the intra-hospital course of the patients.

2.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(2)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833277

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In this study, we propose an artificial intelligence (AI) framework based on three-dimensional convolutional neural networks to classify computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), influenza/community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and no infection, after automatic segmentation of the lungs and lung abnormalities. Methods: The AI classification model is based on inflated three-dimensional Inception architecture and was trained and validated on retrospective data of CT images of 667 adult patients (no infection n=188, COVID-19 n=230, influenza/CAP n=249) and 210 adult patients (no infection n=70, COVID-19 n=70, influenza/CAP n=70), respectively. The model's performance was independently evaluated on an internal test set of 273 adult patients (no infection n=55, COVID-19 n= 94, influenza/CAP n=124) and an external validation set from a different centre (305 adult patients: COVID-19 n=169, no infection n=76, influenza/CAP n=60). Results: The model showed excellent performance in the external validation set with area under the curve of 0.90, 0.92 and 0.92 for COVID-19, influenza/CAP and no infection, respectively. The selection of the input slices based on automatic segmentation of the abnormalities in the lung reduces analysis time (56 s per scan) and computational burden of the model. The Transparent Reporting of a Multivariable Prediction Model for Individual Prognosis or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) score of the proposed model is 47% (15 out of 32 TRIPOD items). Conclusion: This AI solution provides rapid and accurate diagnosis in patients suspected of COVID-19 infection and influenza.

3.
Immunol Lett ; 228: 122-128, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909223

ABSTRACT

As of October 2020 management of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is based on supportive care and off-label or compassionate-use therapies. On March 2020 tocilizumab - an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody - was suggested as immunomodulatory treatment in severe COVID-19 because hyperinflammatory syndrome occurs in many patients similarly to the cytokine release syndrome that develops after CAR-T cell therapy. In our retrospective observational study, 20 severe COVID-19 patients requiring intensive care were treated with tocilizumab in addition to standard-of-care therapy (SOC) and compared with 13 COVID-19 patients receiving only SOC. Clinical respiratory status, inflammatory markers and vascular radiologic score improved after one week from tocilizumab administration. On the contrary, these parameters were stable or worsened in patients receiving only SOC. Despite major study limitations, improvement of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient as well as vascular radiologic score after one week may account for improved pulmonary vascular perfusion and could explain the more rapid recovery of COVID-19 patients receiving tocilizumab compared to controls.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Respiration/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Eur Respir J ; 56(2)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has globally strained medical resources and caused significant mortality. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a machine-learning model based on clinical features for severity risk assessment and triage for COVID-19 patients at hospital admission. METHOD: 725 patients were used to train and validate the model. This included a retrospective cohort from Wuhan, China of 299 hospitalised COVID-19 patients from 23 December 2019 to 13 February 2020, and five cohorts with 426 patients from eight centres in China, Italy and Belgium from 20 February 2020 to 21 March 2020. The main outcome was the onset of severe or critical illness during hospitalisation. Model performances were quantified using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and metrics derived from the confusion matrix. RESULTS: In the retrospective cohort, the median age was 50 years and 137 (45.8%) were male. In the five test cohorts, the median age was 62 years and 236 (55.4%) were male. The model was prospectively validated on five cohorts yielding AUCs ranging from 0.84 to 0.93, with accuracies ranging from 74.4% to 87.5%, sensitivities ranging from 75.0% to 96.9%, and specificities ranging from 55.0% to 88.0%, most of which performed better than the pneumonia severity index. The cut-off values of the low-, medium- and high-risk probabilities were 0.21 and 0.80. The online calculators can be found at www.covid19risk.ai. CONCLUSION: The machine-learning model, nomogram and online calculator might be useful to access the onset of severe and critical illness among COVID-19 patients and triage at hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality/trends , Machine Learning , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Triage/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Area Under Curve , Belgium , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Internationality , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
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