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Travel Med Infect Dis ; 52: 102557, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256167


Patients with respiratory viral infections are more likely to develop co-infections leading to increased fatality. Mucormycosis is an epidemic amidst the COVID-19 pandemic that conveys a 'double threat' to the global health fraternity. Mucormycosis is caused by the Mucorales group of fungi and exhibits acute angioinvasion generally in immunocompromised patients. The most familiar foci of infections are sinuses (39%), lungs (24%), and skin tissues (19%) where the overall dissemination occurs in 23% of cases. The mortality rate in the case of disseminated mucormycosis is found to be 96%. Symptoms are mostly nonspecific and often resemble other common bacterial or fungal infections. Currently, COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is being reported from a number of countries such as the USA, Turkey, France, Mexico, Iran, Austria, UK, Brazil, and Italy, while India is the hotspot for this deadly co-infection, accounting for approximately 28,252 cases up to June 8, 2021. It strikes patients within 12-18 days after COVID-19 recovery, and nearly 80% require surgery. Nevertheless, the mortality rate can reach 94% if the diagnosis is delayed or remains untreated. Sometimes COVID-19 is the sole predisposing factor for CAM. Therefore, this study may provide a comprehensive resource for clinicians and researchers dealing with fungal infections, intending to link the potential translational knowledge and prospective therapeutic challenges to counter this opportunistic pathogen.

COVID-19 , Coinfection , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Brazil , Coinfection/epidemiology
Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci ; 51: 101413, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046497


Type I and type II pneumocytes are two forms of epithelial cells found lining the alveoli in the lungs. Type II pneumocytes exclusively secrete 'pulmonary surfactants,' a lipoprotein complex made up of 90% lipids (mainly phospholipids) and 10% surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D). Respiratory diseases such as influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection are reported to preferentially attack type II pneumocytes of the lungs. After viral invasion, consequent viral propagation and destruction of type II pneumocytes causes altered surfactant production, resulting in dyspnea and acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Exogenous animal-derived or synthetic pulmonary surfactant therapy has already shown immense success in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and has the potential to contribute efficiently toward repair of damaged alveoli and preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-associated respiratory failure. Furthermore, early detection of surfactant collectins (SP-A and SP-D) in the circulatory system can be a significant clinical marker for disease prognosis in the near future.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(2): 129801, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938766


BACKGROUND: Due to lack of approved drugs and vaccines, the medical world has resorted to older drugs, produced for viral infections and other diseases, as a remedy to combat COVID-19. The accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies for SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have demonstrated that several polyphenols found in plants and zinc- polyphenol clusters have been in use as herbal medicines have antiviral activities against viruses with various mechanisms. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores have been considered as nutraceuticals and nutrients showing great antiviral activities with their medicinal like activities. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we discussed the potential prophylactic and/or therapeutic effects of curcumin, zinc and zinc-ionophores in treatment of viral infections including COVID-19. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Curcuminoids and Zinc classified as nutraceuticals under GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) by FDA can provide complementary treatment for COVID 19 patients with their immunity-boosting and antiviral properties.

COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Zinc/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Food , Humans , Inflammation , Ionophores/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Virus Replication