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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316601

ABSTRACT

Background: Increased inflammation is a hallmark of COVID-19, with pulmonary and systemic inflammation identified in multiple cohorts of patients. Definitive cellular and molecular pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils, the most numerous leukocytes in blood circulation, can contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Neutrophilia, elevated neutrophil:lymphocyte ratios, and elevated neutrophil-associated cytokines are present in COVID-19, but changes in neutrophil functions have not been characterized. Here we analyzed the functional state of circulating neutrophils in COVID-19.Methods: Blood was obtained from critically ill COVID-19 patients over two weeks and healthy controls across multiple timepoints. Plasma cytokine profiles were assessed by bead array. Neutrophils were isolated and tested ex vivo for oxidative burst, neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis) and phagocytosis. Lung tissue was obtained immediately post-mortem from COVID-19 patients for immunostaining.Results: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines IL-8 and IL-6 were identified in COVID-19 plasma both at the first measurement and across their hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Elevations in cytokines IP-10, GM-CSF, IL-1b, IL-10 and TNF were also present at the first measurement and across hospital stays. Functionally, circulating neutrophils from COVID-19 patients had exaggerated oxidative burst (p < 0.0001), NETosis (p < 0.0001) and phagocytosis (p < 0.0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis was found to be correlated with both leukocytosis and neutrophilia in COVID-19 patients. Neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma. While elevations in IL-8 and ANC correlated to COVID-19 disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death.Conclusions: Circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with increased oxidative burst, NETosis and phagocytosis. Readily accessible and dynamic, plasma IL-8 and circulating neutrophil function can be explored as potential COVID-19 disease biomarkers.Funding Statement: This work was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs (salary support and VA Merit Award, PI Crotty Alexander) and NIH NHLBI (PI Crotty Alexander).Declaration of Interests: The authors report no conflicts of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The research protocol was approved by the UCSD, VASDHS and Rady Children’s Hospital institutional review boards (IRBs) and all participants or designated family member gave written informed consent.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 479-489, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation has been well defined in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while definitive pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils are known to contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Changes in neutrophil function in COVID-19 may give insight into disease pathogenesis and identify therapeutic targets. METHODS: Blood was obtained serially from critically ill COVID-19 patients for 11 days. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and cytokine levels were assessed. Lung tissue was obtained immediately postmortem for immunostaining. PubMed searches for neutrophils, lung, and COVID-19 yielded 10 peer-reviewed research articles in English. RESULTS: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6, and general inflammatory cytokines IFN-inducible protien-19, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1ß, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor, were identified both at first measurement and across hospitalization (P < .0001). COVID-19 neutrophils had exaggerated oxidative burst (P < .0001), NETosis (P < .0001), and phagocytosis (P < .0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis correlated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma of 40% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected lungs available for examination (2 of 5). While elevations in IL-8 and absolute neutrophil count correlated with disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Literature to date demonstrates compelling evidence of increased neutrophils in the circulation and lungs of COVID-19 patients. Importantly, neutrophil quantity and activation correlates with severity of disease. Similarly, our data show that circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with enhanced NETosis and oxidative burst.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Critical Illness , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260901

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, at the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States, the Southern California Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) Consortium was formed. The consortium included physicians and coordinators from the 4 ECMO centers in San Diego County. Guidelines were created to ensure that ECMO was delivered equitably and in a resource effective manner across the county during the pandemic. A biomedical ethicist reviewed the guidelines to ensure ECMO use would provide maximal community benefit of this limited resource. The San Diego County Health and Human Services Agency further incorporated the guidelines into its plans for the allocation of scarce resources. The consortium held weekly video conferences to review countywide ECMO capacity (including census and staffing), share data, and discuss clinical practices and difficult cases. Equipment exchanges between ECMO centers maximized regional capacity. From March 1 to November 30, 2020, consortium participants placed 97 patients on ECMO. No eligible patients were denied ECMO due to lack of resources or capacity. The Southern California ECMO Consortium may serve as a model for other communities seeking to optimize ECMO resources during the current COVID-19 or future pandemics.

5.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(5): e0393, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243538

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe a ventilator and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation management strategy for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome complicated by bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula with air leaks. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Case series from 2019 to 2020. Single tertiary referral center-University of California, San Diego. Four patients with various etiologies of acute respiratory distress syndrome, including influenza, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury, and coronavirus disease 2019, complicated by bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula and chest tubes with air leaks. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula closure and survival to discharge. All four patients were placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with ventilator settings even lower than Extracorporeal Life Support Organization guideline recommended ultraprotective lung ventilation. The patients bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistulas closed during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and minimal ventilatory support. All four patients survived to discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula with persistent air leaks, the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to allow for even lower ventilator settings than ultraprotective lung ventilation is safe and feasible to mediate bronchopleural and alveolopleural fistula healing.

6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 35(10): 2869-2874, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243324

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began in the United States around March 2020. Because of limited access to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in the authors' region, a mobile ECMO team was implemented by April 2020 to serve patients with COVID-19. Several logistical and operational needs were assessed and addressed to ensure a successful program, including credentialing, equipment management, and transportation. A multidisciplinary team was included in the planning, decision-making, and implementation of the mobile ECMO. From April 2020 to January 2021, mobile ECMO was provided to 22 patients in 13 facilities across four southern California counties. The survival to hospital discharge of patients with COVID-19 who received mobile ECMO was 52.4% (11 of 21) compared with 45.2% (14 of 31) for similar patients cannulated in-house. No significant patient or transportation complications occurred during mobile ECMO. Neither the ECMO nor transport teams experianced unprotected exposures to or infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Herein, the implementation of the mobile ECMO team is reviewed, and patient characteristics and outcomes are described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 479-489, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation has been well defined in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), while definitive pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils are known to contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Changes in neutrophil function in COVID-19 may give insight into disease pathogenesis and identify therapeutic targets. METHODS: Blood was obtained serially from critically ill COVID-19 patients for 11 days. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and cytokine levels were assessed. Lung tissue was obtained immediately postmortem for immunostaining. PubMed searches for neutrophils, lung, and COVID-19 yielded 10 peer-reviewed research articles in English. RESULTS: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 6, and general inflammatory cytokines IFN-inducible protien-19, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 1ß, interleukin 10, and tumor necrosis factor, were identified both at first measurement and across hospitalization (P < .0001). COVID-19 neutrophils had exaggerated oxidative burst (P < .0001), NETosis (P < .0001), and phagocytosis (P < .0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis correlated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma of 40% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected lungs available for examination (2 of 5). While elevations in IL-8 and absolute neutrophil count correlated with disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Literature to date demonstrates compelling evidence of increased neutrophils in the circulation and lungs of COVID-19 patients. Importantly, neutrophil quantity and activation correlates with severity of disease. Similarly, our data show that circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with enhanced NETosis and oxidative burst.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Critical Illness , Humans , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Intensive Care Med ; 35(8): 818-824, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634271

ABSTRACT

It has been well known for decades that prone positioning (PP) improves oxygenation. However, it has gained widespread acceptance only in the last few years since studies have shown significant survival benefit. Many centers have established prone ventilation in their treatment algorithm for mechanically ventilated patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Physiologically, PP should also benefit awake, non-intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, proning in non-intubated (PINI) patients did not gain any momentum until a few months ago when the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic surged. A large number of sick patients overwhelmed the health care system, and many centers faced a dearth of ventilators. In addition, outcomes of patients placed on mechanical ventilation because of COVID-19 infection have been highly variable and often dismal. Hence, increased focus has shifted to using various strategies to prevent intubation, such as PINI. There is accumulating evidence that PINI is a low-risk intervention that can be performed even outside intensive care unit with minimal assistance and may prevent intubation in certain patients with ARDS. It can also be performed safely at smaller centers and, therefore, may reduce the patient transfer to larger institutions that are overwhelmed in the current crisis. We present a case series of 2 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure who experienced significant improvements in oxygenation with PP. In addition, the physiology of PP is described, and concerns such as proning in obese and patient's anxiety are addressed; an educational pamphlet that may be useful for both patients and health care providers is provided.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Obesity , Pandemics , Patient Positioning/methods , Pneumonia, Viral , Prone Position/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Anxiety/physiopathology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/psychology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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