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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847297

ABSTRACT

The effect of workplace infection control measures required by the COVID-19 pandemic on the association between long working hours and psychological distress has not yet been fully revealed. This study investigated the effect of requesting to stay home when sick (RSH) on the association between long working hours and psychological distress. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in December 2020 among participants who had previously registered with a Japanese web survey company. A total of 27,036 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire which assessed usual daily overtime work hours. RSH was assessed using an original single-item scale, while psychological distress was measured with the K6 scale. After the interaction effect of overtime work hours and RSH on psychological distress was tested, we conducted stratified analyses using RSH. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant interaction effect (p for interaction < 0.001). When we conducted stratified analyses, the odds ratios increased with longer working hours, both with and without RSH groups; however, the risk of long working hours causing psychological distress was greater in the latter group (odds ratio = 1.95 [95% confidence interval: 1.62-2.36] than in the former group (odds ratio = 1.73 [95% confidence interval: 1.55-1.93]). We found that working without RSH could strengthen the association between long working hours and psychological distress. Our findings contribute to preventing the deterioration of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Workplace/psychology
2.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12331, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819336

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between increased alcohol consumption and telecommuting, comparing employees who expressed a preference for telecommuting and those who did not. METHODS: We conducted an internet monitor survey. Responses from 20 395 of the 33 302 participants were included in the final sample. Participants were asked about their desire for and frequency of telecommuting, and about changes in alcohol consumption under the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The ratio of increased drinking in those who telecommuted at least once a week was significantly different (OR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.16-1.43, p < .001). The ratio of increased drinking in participants for whom telecommuting was not preferred was significantly different (OR = 1.08, 95%CI 1.02-1.14, p = .002). Since the interaction term was significant in preliminary analysis, stratification was performed. Participants who telecommuted despite preferring not to do so reported significantly increased alcohol consumption, as revealed by a multivariate analysis (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.18-2.00, p < .001). Participants who expressed a preference for telecommuting showed no such increase (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.27, p = .074). CONCLUSIONS: Under the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommuting that involves a mismatch with employee preference for way of working may be a new risk factor for problematic drinking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Teleworking , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 828650, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818024

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been linked to a rise in loneliness. Loneliness is associated with sleep-related problems, which in turn can be a risk factor for various psychiatric disorders. However, it is unclear whether loneliness is linked to sleep-related problems during the pandemic. Here, we studied the association between loneliness and sleep-related problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Methods: A total of 33,302 individuals who indicated they were employed were surveyed online. The survey responses of 27,036 participants were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Of those analyzed, 2,750 (10.2%) experienced feelings of loneliness. Further, sleep-related problems were significantly more common among those who felt lonely both in the short term (more than 3 days) and the long term (more than 3 months). The ORs were much weaker after adjusting for factors related to interpersonal connections, such as family and friendships, than after adjusting for factors related to socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Loneliness may be a risk factor for sleep-related problems in the COVID-19 pandemic. Having connections with family and friends may have a moderating effect on the occurrence of sleep-related problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332905

ABSTRACT

Objectives: It has been widely reported that the COVID-19 pandemic may have a psychological influence on people. Thus, it could be important to note how workplace infection prevention and control (IPC) measures for COVID-19 contribute to positive mental health among workers. We hypothesized that if workplace IPC measures are adequately implemented, they would have a positive effect on employees' work engagement. Methods: We conducted an internet-based prospective cohort study from December 2020 (baseline) to December 2021 (follow-up after one year) using self-administered questionnaires. At baseline, 27,036 workers completed the questionnaires, while 18,560 (68.7%) participated in the one-year follow-up. After excluding the 6,578 participants who changed jobs or retired during the survey period, or telecommuted more than four days per week, 11,982 participants were analyzed. We asked participants about the implementation of workplace IPC measures at baseline and conducted a nine-item version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES–9) at follow-up. Results: Four groups were created according to the number of workplace IPC measures implemented. The mean (SD) UWES–9 score of the "0–2" group was the lowest at 18.3 (13.2), while that of the "8" group was the highest at 22.6 (12.6). The scores of the "3–5," "6–7," and "8" groups were significantly higher than that of the "0–2" group (all, p<0.001). The p trend of the four groups was also significant (p<0.001). Conclusions: Promoting workplace IPC measures improves workers' work engagement, and a dose-response relationship exists between workplace IPC measures and work engagement.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332245

ABSTRACT

Objective We examined the association between presenteeism and risk of job resignations and unemployment among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A prospective study of 27,036 Internet monitors was conducted, starting in December 2020, with 18,560 (68.7%) participating in the follow-up by December 2021. The Work Functioning Impairment Scale (WFun) was used to measure the degree of work function impairment. Results The group with the highest WFun scores had higher odds ratios (ORs) for both retirement and unemployment for health reasons than the group with the lowest WFun scores. ORs were 2.97 (95%CI: 2.46-3.59, p<0. 001) and 1.80 (95%CI: 1.64-1.98, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Workers with work functioning impairment were at increased risk of resignation or unemployment. Management strategies for workers with work functioning impairment are needed to reduce their disadvantages in employment.

6.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(7):3907, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762333

ABSTRACT

The effect of workplace infection control measures required by the COVID-19 pandemic on the association between long working hours and psychological distress has not yet been fully revealed. This study investigated the effect of requesting to stay home when sick (RSH) on the association between long working hours and psychological distress. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in December 2020 among participants who had previously registered with a Japanese web survey company. A total of 27,036 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire which assessed usual daily overtime work hours. RSH was assessed using an original single-item scale, while psychological distress was measured with the K6 scale. After the interaction effect of overtime work hours and RSH on psychological distress was tested, we conducted stratified analyses using RSH. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant interaction effect (p for interaction < 0.001). When we conducted stratified analyses, the odds ratios increased with longer working hours, both with and without RSH groups;however, the risk of long working hours causing psychological distress was greater in the latter group (odds ratio = 1.95 [95% confidence interval: 1.62–2.36] than in the former group (odds ratio = 1.73 [95% confidence interval: 1.55–1.93]). We found that working without RSH could strengthen the association between long working hours and psychological distress. Our findings contribute to preventing the deterioration of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Front Sports Act Living ; 4: 809465, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742282

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies have determined that exercise and physical activity positively affect physical and mental health, and that healthy workers contribute to increased work performance. The relationship between the time spent on exercise during leisure time and physical activity, including work, with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in workers is unclear, with variations observed between occupational types. This cross-sectional study examined these associations among Japanese workers from various occupations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: An Internet-based national health survey-Collaborative Online Research on Novel-coronavirus and Work-study (CORoNaWork study)-was conducted among 33,087 Japanese workers in December 2020. After excluding invalid responses, 27,036 participants were categorized into four and five groups according to exercise and physical activity time, respectively. Each group's scores were compared on each of the four questions on the Japanese version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life (CDC HRQOL-4) using generalized linear models. Age-sex adjusted and multivariate models were used to compare each index of the CDC HRQOL-4. Results: Compared to the reference category (almost never), any level of exercise (ORs 0.56-0.77) and physical activity (ORs 0.93-0.88) were associated with better self-rated health in the multivariate model. Any exercise was also associated with significantly reduced odds for physically or mentally unhealthy days; however, high levels of physical activity (≥120 min/day) were associated with significantly increased odds for these outcomes (ORs = 1.11 and 1.16, respectively). Conclusions: The results suggest that exercise habits are more critical to workers' HRQOL than physical activity. Interventions that encourage daily exercise even for a short time are likely to be associated with better workers' health and work performance.

8.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12317, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680224

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of workers being diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and being identified as close contacts of infected persons with unemployment in Japan. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study using questionnaires about COVID-19 administered to Japanese workers. A baseline survey conducted on December 22-25, 2020, was used to determine history of being diagnosed with COVID-19 or being identified as a close contact of an infected person. Unemployment since the baseline survey was ascertained with a follow-up survey on February 18 and 19, 2021. The odds ratios (ORs) of unemployment were estimated using a multilevel logistic model with adjusted covariates nested in prefecture of residence. RESULTS: Women (n = 8771) accounted for 44% of the total sample (n = 19 941), and the mean age was 48.0 years. In terms of unemployment because of negative reasons, the multivariate analysis showed that the OR of unemployment associated with being diagnosed with COVID-19 was 2.40 (95% CI: 1.15-5.01) and that the OR associated with being identified as a close contact was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.31-3.11). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between workers being diagnosed with COVID-19 and unemployment. The reason is not clear, but if the unemployment is unwanted by the individual, workplace adjustment may help prevent unwilling unemployment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Unemployment , Workplace
9.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12313, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between interruption to routine medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and sickness presenteeism among workers in Japan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using data obtained from an internet monitor questionnaire was conducted. Interruption to medical care was defined based on the response "I have not been able to go to the hospital or receive treatment as scheduled." The fraction of sickness presenteeism days in the past 30 days was employed as the primary outcome. A fractional logit model was used for analysis to treat bounded data. RESULTS: Of the 27 036 participants, 17 526 (65%) were workers who did not require routine medical care, 8451 (31%) were using medical care as scheduled, and 1059 (4%) experienced interrupted medical care. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of sickness presenteeism was significantly higher among workers who experienced interrupted medical care (3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.04-3.89) than those who did not require routine medical care. In terms of symptoms, the highest aOR was observed among workers with mental health symptoms (aOR: 5.59, 95% CI: 5.04-6.20). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the importance of continuing necessary treatment during a pandemic to prevent presenteeism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Presenteeism , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12308, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589270

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between perceived organizational support (POS) and COVID-19 vaccination intention as well as the influence of the implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. METHODS: We analyzed data from an Internet survey of workers aged 20-65 years conducted in December 2020, during a period of widespread COVID-19 infection in Japan. RESULTS: Of the 23 846 participants in this survey, 1958 (8%) reported very high POS. In the group with very high POS, 836 (43%) workers wanted the COVID-19 vaccination; in contrast 1382 (36%) workers in the group with very low POS wanted the vaccination. POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (odds ratio [OR] = 1.11). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.06). In the analysis with POS as a categorical variable, very high POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (reference: very low POS) (OR = 1.34). The OR decreased after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.17). High POS was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intention (OR = 1.17) but not with vaccination intention after additional adjustment for the number of workplace infection control measures (OR = 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: High POS during the COVID-19 pandemic increased employees' vaccination intention. The relationship between POS and vaccination intention was strongly influenced by implementation of workplace infection prevention measures. Implementing appropriate workplace infection prevention measures in the event of an emerging infectious disease outbreak may influence the vaccination behavior of employees, which may contribute to the acquisition of herd immunity in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Organizational Culture , Vaccination , Workplace , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology , Workplace/organization & administration , Workplace/psychology , Young Adult
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297065

ABSTRACT

Introduction This study examined the association between increased alcohol consumption and telecommuting, comparing employees who expressed a preference for telecommuting and those who did not. Methods We conducted an internet monitor survey. Responses from 20,395 of the 33,302 participants were included in the final sample. Participants were asked about their desire for and frequency of telecommuting, and about changes in alcohol consumption under the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results Participants who telecommuted despite preferring not to do so reported significantly increased alcohol consumption, as revealed by a multivariate analysis (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.25-2.12). Participants who expressed a preference for telecommuting showed no such increase. Conclusions Under the COVID-19 pandemic, telecommuting that involves a mismatch with employee preference for way of working may be a new risk factor for problematic drinking.

12.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 34(2-3): 191-198, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571671

ABSTRACT

Although multilayered strategies including preventive behaviors should be adopted to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, evidence on the effectiveness of preventive behaviors against COVID-19 remains limited. This Internet-based prospective cohort study collected baseline data in November 2020 and follow-up data in February 2021, during the third wave of the epidemic in Japan. Among the 19 941 included participants, the percentages reporting that they always used a face mask, practiced hand washing/disinfection, gargling, and ensuring proper room ventilation were 85.4%, 36.0%, 51.1%, and 44.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that less frequently practicing hand washing/disinfection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20), gargling (OR = 1.20), and ensuring proper room ventilation (OR = 1.38) were significantly associated with self-reported COVID-19-like illness (CLI). These results suggest that personal preventive behaviors may be effective in reducing CLI, even when universal masking is practiced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Arch Public Health ; 79(1): 222, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To prevent the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), it is important to avoid 3Cs (closed spaces, crowded places, and close-contact settings). However, the risk of contact with an unspecified number of people is inevitable while commuting to and from work. In this study, we investigated the relationship between commuting, and the risk of COVID-19 and COVID-19-induced anxiety. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain a dataset from 27,036 respondents. One-way commuting time was evaluated using a five-case method. The commuting distance was estimated using zip codes of the home and workplace. Logistic regression analysis was performed with the following outcomes: COVID-19 risk, close contact, infection anxiety, and infection anxiety due to commuting. Commuting distance and commuting time were analyzed separately in the model. We excluded participants with incalculable commuting distance, commuting distance exceeding 300 km, commuting distance of 0 km, or who telecommuted at least once a week. RESULTS: The total number of participants included in the analysis was 14,038. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of using public transportation for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were 4.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.51-6.93) (commuting time) and 5.18 (95% CI: 3.06-8.78) (commuting distance). The aOR of COVID-19 diagnosis decreased significantly with increasing commuting distance. The aORs of using public transportation to infection anxiety were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.31-1.59) (commuting time) and 1.45 (95% CI: 1.32-1.60) (commuting distance). The longer the commuting time, the more the aOR increased. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 risk, close contact, and infection anxiety were all associated with the use of public transportation during commuting. Both commuting distance and time were associated with infection anxiety due to commuting, and the strength of the association increased with increase in commuting time distance. Since transportation by commuting is associated with COVID-19 risk and anxiety, we recommend the use of telecommuting and other means of work.

14.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12302, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many companies in Japan have been increasingly interested in "health and productivity management (H&PM)." In terms of H&PM, we hypothesized that companies can enhance their employees' perceived workplace health support (PWHS) by supporting workers' lively working and healthy living. This could then improve their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by increasing PWHS. Consequently, this study explored the relationship between PWHS and HRQOL. METHODS: In December 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted an Internet-based nationwide health survey of Japanese workers (CORoNaWork study). A database of 27 036 participants was created. The intensity of PWHS was measured using a four-point Likert scale. We used multilevel ordered logistic regression to analyze the relationship between PWHS intensity and the four domains of the Centers for Disease Control's HRQOL-4 (self-rated health, number of poor physical health days, number of poor mental health days, and activity limitation days during the past 30 days). RESULTS: In the sex- and age-adjusted and multivariate models, the intensity of PWHS significantly affected self-rated health and the three domains of unhealthy days (physical, mental, and activity limitation). There was also a trend toward worse HRQOL scores as the PWHS decreased. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the higher the PWHS of Japanese workers, the higher their self-rated health and the fewer their unhealthy days. Companies need to assess workers' PWHS and HRQOL and promote H&PM. H&PM is also necessary to maintain and promote the health of workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Workplace , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Workplace/psychology
15.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During a pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) play an important role in protecting oneself and others from infection. There are large regional differences in COVID-19 infection rates in Japan. We hypothesized that the local infection incidence may affect adherence to individual NPIs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted online among full-time workers in Japan in December 2020. The questionnaire asked the respondents to identify their habits regarding seven common NPIs (wearing masks, washing hands after the bathroom, disinfecting hands when entering indoors, gargling when returning home, ventilating the room, disinfecting or washing hands after touching frequently touched surfaces, carrying alcohol sanitizers when outdoors). RESULTS: A total of 27 036 participants were analyzed. Compared with the region with the lowest infection rate, five of the seven NPIs showed statistically significant trends across regional infection levels, the two exceptions being wearing masks and washing hands after the bathroom. Multivariate adjustment did not change these trends. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that NPIs were more prevalent in regions with higher incidence rates of COVID-19 in Japanese workers. The findings suggest that the implementation of NPIs was influenced not only by personal attributes but also by contextual effects of the local infection level.

16.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296383

ABSTRACT

Objectives This study examined the relationship between the status of infection control efforts against COVID-19 in the workplace and workers’ mental health using a large-scale Internet-based study. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet monitoring survey conducted during the third wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Japan. Of the 33,302 people who participated in the survey, 27,036 were included in the analyses. Participants answered whether or not each of 10 different infection control measures were in place at their workplace (e.g. wearing masks at all times during working hours). A Kessler 6 (K6) score of ≥13 was defined as mild psychological distress. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with infection control measures at the workplace were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefectures of residence. Results The OR of subjects working at facilities with 4 or 5 infection control measures for psychological distress was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.34, p=0.010), that in facilities with 2 or 3 infection control measures was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.25-1.64, p<0.001), and that in facilities with 1 or no infection control measures was 1.87 (95% CI: 1.63-2.14, p<0.001) compared to subjects whose workplaces had ≥6 infection control measures. Conclusion Our findings suggest that proactive COVID-19 infection control measures can influence the mental health of workers.

17.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295643

ABSTRACT

Objective This study examined the relationship between interruption to routine medical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and sickness presenteeism in Japan. Methods An internet monitor questionnaire was conducted. Data from 27,036 people were analyzed. Interruption to medical care was defined based on the response “I have not been able to go to the hospital or receive treatment as scheduled.” The number of sickness presenteeism days in the past 30 days was employed as the primary outcome. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used for analysis. Results The incidence rate ratio was significantly higher among workers who experienced interrupted medical care (2.26;95% confidence interval: 2.03–2.52) than those who did not require routine medical care. Conclusions This study suggests the importance of continuing necessary treatment during a pandemic to prevent presenteeism.

18.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295226

ABSTRACT

Objective Many companies in Japan have been increasingly interested in “health and productivity management (H&PM).” In terms of H&PM, we supposed that companies can enhance their employees’ perceived workplace health support (PWHS) by providing support for workers’ lively working and healthy living. This could then improve health-related QOL (HRQOL) by increasing PWHS. This study explored the relationship between PWHS and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods During the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2020, we conducted an Internet-based nationwide health survey of Japanese workers (CORoNaWork study). A database of 27,036 participants was created. The question regarding the intensity of PWHS was measured using a four-point Likert scale. We used a linear mixed model (LMM) to analyze the relationship between the intensity of PWHS and the four domains of CDC HRQOL-4 (self-rated health, number of poor physical health days, number of poor mental-health days, and activity limitation days during the past 30 days). Results In the sex- and age-adjusted and multivariate models, the intensity of PWHS had a main effect on self-rated health and the three domains of unhealthy days (physical, mental, activity limitation). There was also a trend toward worse HRQOL scores as the PWHS decreased. Conclusions This study aimed to document the relationship between PWHS and HRQOL. We found that the higher the PWHS of Japanese workers, the higher their self-rated health and the lower their unhealthy days. Companies need to assess workers’ PWHS and HRQOL and promote H&PM. H&PM is also necessary to maintain and promote the health of workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Prev Med Rep ; : 101621, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492486

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between loneliness and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional online study from 22 to 26 December 2020. A total of 27,036 participants, all employed at the time, were included in the analysis. Participants were asked if they felt loneliness in a single-item question. The Kessler 6 (K6) was used to assess psychological distress, defined as mild for K6 scores of 5 to 12 and severe for 13 or higher. The odds ratios (ORs) of psychological distress associated with loneliness were estimated using a multilevel logistic model nested in the prefecture of residence, with adjustment for age, sex, marital status, equivalent income, educational level, smoking, alcohol consumption, job type, number of workplace employees, and cumulative incidence rate of COVID-19 in the prefecture. Communication with friends, acquaintances, and family was strongly associated with psychological distress, so we adjusted for these factors and eating meals alone. Results showed a significant association between loneliness and psychological distress (OR = 36.62, 95% CI = 32.95-40.69). Lack of friends to talk to, lack of acquaintances to ask for help, and lack of people to communicate with through social networking sites were all strongly associated with psychological distress, as were family time and solitary eating. Even after adjusting for these factors, loneliness remained strongly associated with psychological distress (OR = 29.36, 95% CI = 26.44-32.98). The association between loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic and psychological distress indicates the need for intervention.

20.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 94, 2021 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), many countries have used contact tracing apps, including Japan's voluntary-use contact-confirming application (COCOA). The current study aimed to identify industry and workplace characteristics associated with the downloading of this COVID-19 contact tracing app. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of full-time workers used an online survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of industry and workplace characteristics with contact tracing app use. RESULTS: Of the 27,036 participants, 25.1% had downloaded the COCOA. Workers in the public service (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.45) and information technology (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.20-1.58) industries were more likely to use the app than were those in the manufacturing industry. In contrast, app usage was less common among workers in the retail and wholesale (aOR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99) and food/beverage (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94) industries, but further adjustment for company size attenuated these associations. Workers at larger companies were more likely to use the app. Compared with permanent employees, the odds of using the app were higher for managers and civil servants but lower for those who were self-employed. CONCLUSIONS: Downloading of COCOA among Japanese workers was insufficient; thus, the mitigating effect of COCOA on the COVID-19 pandemic is considered to be limited. One possible reason for the under-implementation of the contact tracing app in the retail and wholesale and food/beverage industries is small company size, as suggested by the fully adjusted model results. An awareness campaign should be conducted to promote the widespread use of the contact tracing app in these industries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Industry/classification , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
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