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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 715-718, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702854

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins were measured in longitudinal plasma samples collected from 13 participants who received two doses of mRNA-1273 vaccine. Eleven of 13 participants showed detectable levels of SARS-CoV-2 protein as early as day 1 after first vaccine injection. Clearance of detectable SARS-CoV-2 protein correlated with production of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin A (IgA).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
Clin Lab Med ; 42(1): 97-109, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654209

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during acute infection and convalescence has been widely studied since March 2020. In this review, the authors summarize literature on humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens with a focus on spike, nucleocapsid, and the receptor-binding domain as targets of antibody responses. They highlight serologic studies during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and discuss the clinical relevance of antibody levels in COVID-19 progression. Antibody responses in pediatric COVID-19 patients are also reviewed. Finally, the authors discuss antibody responses during convalescence and their role in protection from SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Child , Humans , Immunity, Humoral
3.
J Clin Invest ; 131(14)2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDWeeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection or exposure, some children develop a severe, life-threatening illness called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in patients with MIS-C, and a severe hyperinflammatory response ensues with potential for cardiac complications. The cause of MIS-C has not been identified to date.METHODSHere, we analyzed biospecimens from 100 children: 19 with MIS-C, 26 with acute COVID-19, and 55 controls. Stools were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and plasma was examined for markers of breakdown of mucosal barrier integrity, including zonulin. Ultrasensitive antigen detection was used to probe for SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia in plasma, and immune responses were characterized. As a proof of concept, we treated a patient with MIS-C with larazotide, a zonulin antagonist, and monitored the effect on antigenemia and the patient's clinical response.RESULTSWe showed that in children with MIS-C, a prolonged presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the GI tract led to the release of zonulin, a biomarker of intestinal permeability, with subsequent trafficking of SARS-CoV-2 antigens into the bloodstream, leading to hyperinflammation. The patient with MIS-C treated with larazotide had a coinciding decrease in plasma SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen levels and inflammatory markers and a resultant clinical improvement above that achieved with currently available treatments.CONCLUSIONThese mechanistic data on MIS-C pathogenesis provide insight into targets for diagnosing, treating, and preventing MIS-C, which are urgently needed for this increasingly common severe COVID-19-related disease in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Haptoglobins/physiology , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Protein Precursors/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Antigens, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Haptoglobins/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Male , Oligopeptides/pharmacology , Permeability/drug effects , Proof of Concept Study , Protein Precursors/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Precursors/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
4.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900732

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to infect millions of people worldwide. In order to curb its spread and reduce morbidity and mortality, it is essential to develop sensitive and quantitative methods that identify infected individuals and enable accurate population-wide screening of both past and present infection. Here we show that Single Molecule Array assays detect seroconversion in COVID-19 patients as soon as one day after symptom onset using less than a microliter of blood. This multiplexed assay format allows us to quantitate IgG, IgM and IgA immunoglobulins against four SARS-CoV-2 targets, thereby interrogating 12 antibody isotype-viral protein interactions to give a high resolution profile of the immune response. Using a cohort of samples collected prior to the outbreak as well as samples collected during the pandemic, we demonstrate a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 100% during the first week of infection, and 100% sensitivity and specificity thereafter. This assay should become the gold standard for COVID19 serological profiling and will be a valuable tool for answering important questions about the heterogeneity of clinical presentation seen in the ongoing pandemic.

5.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(12): 1180-1187, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780007

ABSTRACT

Sensitive assays are essential for the accurate identification of individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we report a multiplexed assay for the fluorescence-based detection of seroconversion in infected individuals from less than 1 µl of blood, and as early as the day of the first positive nucleic acid test after symptom onset. The assay uses dye-encoded antigen-coated beads to quantify the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM and IgA antibodies against four SARS-CoV-2 antigens. A logistic regression model trained using samples collected during the pandemic and samples collected from healthy individuals and patients with respiratory infections before the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was 99% accurate in the detection of seroconversion in a blinded validation cohort of samples collected before the pandemic and from patients with COVID-19 five or more days after a positive nasopharyngeal test by PCR with reverse transcription. The high-throughput serological profiling of patients with COVID-19 allows for the interrogation of interactions between antibody isotypes and viral proteins, and should help us to understand the heterogeneity of clinical presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Seroconversion/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Clin Chem ; 66(12): 1562-1572, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 21 million people worldwide since August 16, 2020. Compared to PCR and serology tests, SARS-CoV-2 antigen assays are underdeveloped, despite their potential to identify active infection and monitor disease progression. METHODS: We used Single Molecule Array (Simoa) assays to quantitatively detect SARS-CoV-2 spike, S1 subunit, and nucleocapsid antigens in the plasma of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We studied plasma from 64 patients who were COVID-19 positive, 17 who were COVID-19 negative, and 34 prepandemic patients. Combined with Simoa anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological assays, we quantified changes in 31 SARS-CoV-2 biomarkers in 272 longitudinal plasma samples obtained for 39 patients with COVID-19. Data were analyzed by hierarchical clustering and were compared to longitudinal RT-PCR test results and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 S1 and N antigens were detectable in 41 out of 64 COVID-19 positive patients. In these patients, full antigen clearance in plasma was observed a mean ± 95% CI of 5 ± 1 days after seroconversion and nasopharyngeal RT-PCR tests reported positive results for 15 ± 5 days after viral-antigen clearance. Correlation between patients with high concentrations of S1 antigen and ICU admission (77%) and time to intubation (within 1 day) was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The reported SARS-CoV-2 Simoa antigen assay is the first to detect viral antigens in the plasma of patients who were COVID-19 positive to date. These data show that SARS-CoV-2 viral antigens in the blood are associated with disease progression, such as respiratory failure, in COVID-19 cases with severe disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Progression , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation , Limit of Detection , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/blood , Prognosis , Protein Subunits/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood
7.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(4): e2001111, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746169

ABSTRACT

Measurements of multiple biomolecules within the same biological sample are important for many clinical applications to enable accurate disease diagnosis or classification. These disease-related biomarkers often exist at very low levels in biological fluids, necessitating ultrasensitive measurement methods. Single-molecule arrays (Simoa), a bead-based digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is the current state of the art for ultrasensitive protein detection and can detect sub-femtomolar protein concentrations, but its ability to achieve high-order multiplexing without cross-reactivity remains a challenge. Here, a sequential protein capture approach for multiplex Simoa assays is implemented to eliminate cross-reactivity between binding reagents by sequentially capturing each protein analyte and then incubating each capture bead with only its corresponding detection antibody. This strategy not only reduces cross-reactivity to background levels and significantly improves measurement accuracies, but also enables higher-order multiplexing. As a proof of concept, the sequential multiplex Simoa assay is used to measure five different cytokines in plasma samples from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The ultrasensitive sequential multiplex Simoa assays will enable the simultaneous measurements of multiple low-abundance analytes in a time- and cost-effective manner and will prove especially critical in many cases where sample volumes are limited.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay , Cross Reactions/immunology , Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Calibration , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
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