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1.
Res Pract Technol Enhanc Learn ; 17(1): 28, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957072

ABSTRACT

With COVID-19 pandemic forcing academic institutions to shift to emergency remote teaching (ERT), teachers worldwide are attempting several strategies to engage their learners. Even though existing research in online learning suggests that effectiveness of the online session is more dependent on pedagogical design rather than technology feature, teachers may still focus on the intricacies of the technology. In this paper, we present the evolution of an active learning pedagogy, supported by technology (eBook reader-BookRoll, Analytics Dashboard-LAViEW), for an undergraduate physics classroom across a semester that was affected by the lockdown due to pandemic. The technology-enhanced pedagogy evolved in three phases-technology used in "Content Focus" mode, technology used in "Problem Focus" mode and technology used in "Learning Dialogue Focus" mode. The entire activities were designed and implemented within the technology-enhanced and evidence-based education and learning (TEEL) ecosystem, which supported integration of learning technologies with analytics system. Comparison of the student's learning logs indicated that there was a sustained engagement in the learning activities conducted during the blended (before lockdown) and online mode (during lockdown). We had conducted one-way ANOVA to compare the post-test scores for each teaching phase and found statistically significant differences in the latter phases. A preliminary qualitative analysis of the learner artifacts generated as memos in BookRoll during each phase revealed that students were posing conceptual clarifications during the latter phases. These were also having greater alignment with the session agenda and showed construction of new knowledge based on the seed knowledge provided during the instructor-learner interaction sessions. The study provides key insights into how reflection and practice by both learner and teacher improves the acceptance of technology-enabled pedagogy.

2.
Res Pract Technol Enhanc Learn ; 17(1): 12, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753131

ABSTRACT

Recent spread of the COVID-19 forces governments around the world to temporarily close educational institutions. In this paper, we evaluated learning engagement, level of satisfaction and anxiety of e-book based remote teaching strategy on an online learning platform. The research involves 358 students at an urban junior-high school in Japan. Learning logs were analyzed to measure student engagement, whereas survey responses indicated their perception regarding the remote learning experience. Log analysis revealed that the average completion rate over 267 learning materials was 67%. We also observed a significant decrease in engagement 3 weeks after remote learning and different subjects and grades. Survey analysis showed students felt both satisfaction and anxiety about remote learning. However, there were significant differences in the level of satisfaction between different grades. The results indicated that (1) maintaining students' motivation is a challenge to remote learning in secondary schools, and (2) we need to relieve students' anxiety about their own progress in the class and their classes after the break. This study is the first to report trends in actual teaching-learning engagement, which were recorded during sessions of emergency remote teaching in Japanese schools. The results can inform the future implementation of remote learning in junior-high schools.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318233

ABSTRACT

Background: Clarification of the risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is strongly warranted for global health. Recent studies have indicated that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with unfavorable progression of COVID-19. This is assumed to be due to excessive deposition of visceral adipose tissue (VAT);however, the evidence investigating the association between intra-abdominal fat and COVID-19 prognosis is sparse. We therefore investigated whether measuring the amount of intra-abdominal fat is useful to predict the prognosis of COVID-19. Methods The present study enrolled 53 consecutive cases of COVID-19 patients aged ≥ 20 years with chest computed tomography (CT) scans. The VAT area, total adipose tissue (TAT) area, and VAT/TAT ratio were estimated using axial CT images at the level of the upper pole of the right kidney. Severe COVID-19 was defined as death or acute respiratory failure demanding oxygen at ≥ 6 liters per minute, a high-flow nasal cannula, or mechanical ventilation. The association of VAT/TAT with the incidence of progression to a severe state was estimated as a hazard ratio (HR) using Cox regression analysis. To compare the prediction ability for COVID-19 disease progression between BMI and VAT/TAT, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each was assessed. Results A total of 15 cases (28.3% of the whole study subjects) progressed to severe stages. The incidence of developing severe COVID-19 increased significantly with VAT/TAT (HR per 1% increase = 1.040 (95% CI 1.008–1.074), P  = 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounders, the positive association of VAT/TAT with COVID-19 aggravation remained significant (multivariable-adjusted HR = 1.055 (95% CI 1.000–1.112) per 1% increase, P  = 0.049). The predictive ability of VAT/TAT for COVID-19 becoming severe was significantly better than that of BMI (AUC of 0.73 for VAT/TAT and 0.50 for BMI;P  = 0.0495 for the difference). Conclusions A higher ratio of VAT/TAT was an independent risk factor for disease progression among COVID-19 patients. VAT/TAT was superior to BMI in predicting COVID-19 morbidity. COVID-19 patients with high VAT/TAT levels should be carefully observed as high-risk individuals for morbidity and mortality.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-304703

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced the transition to emergency online learning without prior preparation or guidelines. This transition has been particularly challenging in developing countries and low-resource contexts and hindered student engagement. We aim to identify the engagement strategies which students, engaging in emergency online learning in low-resource contexts, perceive to be effective. We conducted a sequential mixed-methods study based on Moore’s interaction framework for distance education. First, we conducted a literature review and interviewed ten teachers and ten students to identify a list of engagement strategies. Then, we designed a questionnaire that examines student perceptions of these strategies. We administered the questionnaire to 313 students engaging in emergency online learning in low-resource contexts. Our analysis results showed that student-content engagement strategies, e.g. screen sharing, summaries, and class recordings, are perceived as the most effective, closely followed by student-teacher strategies, e.g. Q&A sessions and reminders. Student-student strategies, e.g. group chat and collaborative work, are perceived as the least effective. The perceived effectiveness of engagement strategies depends on the context and the students’characteristics, e.g. gender, major, and technology access. To support instructors, instructional designers, and researchers we propose a ten-level guide for engaging students during emergency online classes in low-resource contexts.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1240, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clarification of the risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity is strongly warranted for global health. Recent studies have indicated that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with unfavorable progression of COVID-19. This is assumed to be due to excessive deposition of visceral adipose tissue (VAT); however, the evidence investigating the association between intra-abdominal fat and COVID-19 prognosis is sparse. We therefore investigated whether measuring the amount of intra-abdominal fat is useful to predict the prognosis of COVID-19. METHODS: The present study enrolled 53 consecutive cases of COVID-19 patients aged ≥ 20 years with chest computed tomography (CT) scans. The VAT area, total adipose tissue (TAT) area, and VAT/TAT ratio were estimated using axial CT images at the level of the upper pole of the right kidney. Severe COVID-19 was defined as death or acute respiratory failure demanding oxygen at ≥ 6 L per minute, a high-flow nasal cannula, or mechanical ventilation. The association of VAT/TAT with the incidence of progression to a severe state was estimated as a hazard ratio (HR) using Cox regression analysis. To compare the prediction ability for COVID-19 disease progression between BMI and VAT/TAT, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 15 cases (28.3% of the whole study subjects) progressed to severe stages. The incidence of developing severe COVID-19 increased significantly with VAT/TAT (HR per 1% increase = 1.040 (95% CI 1.008-1.074), P = 0.01). After adjustment for potential confounders, the positive association of VAT/TAT with COVID-19 aggravation remained significant (multivariable-adjusted HR = 1.055 (95% CI 1.000-1.112) per 1% increase, P = 0.049). The predictive ability of VAT/TAT for COVID-19 becoming severe was significantly better than that of BMI (AUC of 0.73 for VAT/TAT and 0.50 for BMI; P = 0.0495 for the difference). CONCLUSIONS: A higher ratio of VAT/TAT was an independent risk factor for disease progression among COVID-19 patients. VAT/TAT was superior to BMI in predicting COVID-19 morbidity. COVID-19 patients with high VAT/TAT levels should be carefully observed as high-risk individuals for morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intra-Abdominal Fat , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intra-Abdominal Fat/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology ; 47(4), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1564465

ABSTRACT

UNESCO reported that 90% of students are affected in some way by COVID-19 pandemic. Like many countries, Japan too imposed emergency remote teaching and learning at both school and university level. In this study, we focus on a national university in Japan, and investigate how teaching and learning were facilitated during this pandemic period using an e-book platform, BookRoll, which was linked as an external tool to the university's learning management system. Such an endeavor also reinforced the Japanese national thrust regarding explorations of e-book-based technologies and using Artificial Intelligence in education. Teachers could upload reading materials for instance their course notes and associate an audio of their lecture. While students who registered in their course accessed the learning materials, the system collected their interaction logs in a learning record store. Across the spring semesters from April - July 2020, BookRoll system collected nearly 1.5 million reading interaction logs from more than 6300 students across 243 courses in 6 domains. The analysis highlighted that during emergency remote teaching and learning BookRoll maintained a weekly average traffic above 1,900 learners creating more than 78,000 reading logs and teachers perceived it as useful for orchestrating their course.

7.
Nurse Educ Today ; 108: 105164, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In nursing education, knowledge and competence in conducting physical assessments are crucial. Therefore, physical assessment knowledge has become a fundamental and essential education program for nursing students. However, most of the current nursing courses are taught via a didactic teaching approach, making it difficult for students to think deeply about relevant issues due to the lack of interaction and context. This may, in turn, have an impact on learning effectiveness and clinical judgment. OBJECTIVE: A virtual patient (VP)-based social learning approach is proposed to enhance nursing students' performance and clinical judgment in education programs. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment method was adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 40 senior nursing students participated in the study (VP-based social learning approach group = 20, control group = 20). METHODS: The study involved a pre- and post-test to examine students' learning achievements, self-efficacy, and communication skills. The experimental group adopted the VP-based learning approach, while the control group adopted the conventional didactic learning approach. ANCOVA was employed to compare the performances of the two groups. RESULTS: The experimental results indicate that using a VP for learning can enhance students' learning achievements, self-efficacy, and communication skills. In addition, based on the analysis of the results, students generally believed that learning with a VP makes learning more enjoyable. CONCLUSION: The VP-based social learning approach would be an effective strategy to train nursing students who have limited opportunities to experience real clinical situations, in particular during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Education, Nursing , Social Learning , Students, Nursing , Clinical Competence , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Education Sciences ; 11, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1227316

ABSTRACT

We aim to identify the engagement strategies that higher education students, engaging in emergency online learning in low-resource settings, perceive to be effective. We conducted a sequential mixed-methods study based on Moore's interaction framework for distance education. We administered a questionnaire to 313 students engaging in emergency online learning in low-resource settings to examine their perceptions of different engagement strategies. Our results showed that student-content engagement strategies, e.g., screen sharing, summaries, and class recordings, are perceived as the most effective, closely followed by student-teacher strategies, e.g., Q and A sessions and reminders. Student-student strategies, e.g., group chat and collaborative work, are perceived as the least effective. The perceived effectiveness of engagement strategies varies based on the students' gender and technology access. To support instructors, instructional designers, and researchers, we propose a 10-level guide for engaging students during emergency online classes in low-resource settings.

9.
Respirol Case Rep ; 9(5): e00744, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160366

ABSTRACT

A 78-year-old Japanese woman with no smoking history suffered from near-fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring four-week invasive mechanical ventilation, with subsequent radiological features of pulmonary fibrosis. Although methylprednisolone gradually improved her respiratory condition, her oxygenation and exercise tolerance had drastically deteriorated, necessitating high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. In parallel with tapering systemic steroid, the patient was treated with nintedanib. Three months later, the patient was able to walk with a walking aid using oxygen at 4 L/min. The present case is an indication that nintedanib might provide a novel therapeutic approach for managing post-COVID-19 fibrosis, although further studies are warranted.

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