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Circ J ; 85(11): 2111-2115, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435579


BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether disease severity varied according to whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients had multiple or single cardiovascular diseases and risk factors (CVDRFs).Methods and Results:COVID-19 patients with single (n=281) or multiple (n=412) CVDRFs were included retrospectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed no significant difference in the risk of in-hospital death between groups, but patients with multiple CVDRFs had a significantly higher risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio: 1.75, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-2.81). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with multiple CVDRFs have a higher risk of complications than those with a single CDVRF.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Female , Health Status , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 864-868, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087053


INTRODUCTION: Knowledge is limited on the virologic course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, particularly the time taken for viral clearance and the optimal time to discontinue isolation. This study aims to identify the clinical and demographic factors influencing the time taken for viral clearance in patients with COVID-19 to determine the optimal isolation period. METHODS: This two-center retrospective observational cohort study was conducted between March 1 and June 31, 2020. Patients with COVID-19, which was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, were included. Data were extracted from medical records. The positive duration, which was defined as the period from the day of symptom onset to the negative conversion day, was assessed using a generalized linear model. RESULTS: We included 63 patients. The mean positive duration was 20 days. The positive duration was significantly shorter for patients younger than 30 years of age and those between 30 and 60 years of age than for patients older than 60 years of age. We observed a more scattered distribution of the positive duration in older patients than in younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: Younger patients who recovered from COVID-19 took less time to clear SARS-CoV-2 than older patients; thus, a classification of the isolation periods based on age could be considered. A uniform viral clearance period for older patients may be difficult to determine because of biases such as underlying medical conditions. Further surveillance measures are recommended to determine the viral clearance time and the optimal isolation period.

COVID-19/diagnosis , Patient Isolation , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939841


Favipiravir is an oral broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is approved for treatment of influenza in Japan. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 at 25 hospitals across Japan. Eligible patients were adolescents and adults admitted with COVID-19 who were asymptomatic or mildly ill and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to early or late favipiravir therapy (in the latter case, the same regimen starting on day 6 instead of day 1). The primary endpoint was viral clearance by day 6. The secondary endpoint was change in viral load by day 6. Exploratory endpoints included time to defervescence and resolution of symptoms. Eighty-nine patients were enrolled, of whom 69 were virologically evaluable. Viral clearance occurred within 6 days in 66.7% and 56.1% of the early and late treatment groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.76 to 2.62). Of 30 patients who had a fever (≥37.5°C) on day 1, times to defervescence were 2.1 days and 3.2 days in the early and late treatment groups (aHR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 4.35). During therapy, 84.1% developed transient hyperuricemia. Favipiravir did not significantly improve viral clearance as measured by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) by day 6 but was associated with numerical reduction in time to defervescence. Neither disease progression nor death occurred in any of the patients in either treatment group during the 28-day participation. (This study has been registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials under number jRCTs041190120.).

Amides/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/physiopathology , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Random Allocation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Secondary Prevention/organization & administration , Severity of Illness Index , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome