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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(2): 202-204, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761197

ABSTRACT

Many studies have been conducted on ventilator-associated complications (VACs) in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). However, in these studies, the causative organisms were similar, and there were no reports on VAC corresponding with Corynebacteria. Coryneforms are frequently cultured in cases of polymicrobial infections and are usually considered contaminants in respiratory specimens. However, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum or C. striatum is known to be a pathogen in lower respiratory tract infections. We report three cases of VAC, probably due to C. pseudodiphtheriticum, in patients with COVID-19. If purulent lower respiratory tract specimens showed coryneform predominantly upon Gram staining, empirical therapy should be started. Furthermore, species identification and drug susceptibility testing should be performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Corynebacterium Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Coinfection/complications , Corynebacterium , Corynebacterium Infections/complications , Corynebacterium Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318236

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate whether patients with COVID-19 who have tested re-positive with the PCR test for the SARS-CoV-2 virus are infectious is a challenge in the current circumstances. A follow-up survey was conducted with healthcare personnel (HCP) who were exposed to a patient whose PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2 were re-positive 18 days after the initial confirmation of negative PCR results. Results: : We studied a total of 15 HCP who had contact exposures (15/15) and aerosol exposures (7/15). None of them tested positive for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 on blood examination. None of them had any symptoms during 10 days of active isolation. All PCR tests conducted using the nasopharyngeal swabs collected from the HCP on day 10 were negative. No apparent infection was found in any of the HCP who had contact exposure with and/or aerosol exposure from the patient whose PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2 were re-positive 18 days after the initial confirmation of negative results of PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2.Trial Registration: No. 170, approved June 10 th , 2020 by the ethics committee of Sakai City Medical Center.

3.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665188

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is detectable in nasopharyngeal specimens for up to 12-20 days regardless of the presence of chronic diseases in patients. We report a case of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection that lasted for more than eight weeks. The patient had persistent lymphopenia after receiving six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab (BR) therapy for follicular lymphoma; the last chemotherapy session was completed nine months before admission. The first nasopharyngeal specimen (NPS) for the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction assay tested positive for the N501Y variant five weeks before admission. The patient's general and respiratory conditions gradually worsened; therefore, he was admitted to our hospital, and the same SARS-CoV-2 variant was subsequently identified on admission. Treatment for coronavirus disease was initiated, and the patient's condition improved; however, the NPS tested positive on day 15. The patient was discharged on day 28 and was instructed to isolate at home for a month. Hence, possible prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding should be considered in patients who receive BR therapy.

4.
Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1660940

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is detectable in nasopharyngeal specimens for up to 12–20 days regardless of the presence of chronic diseases in patients. We report a case of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection that lasted for more than eight weeks. The patient had persistent lymphopenia after receiving six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab (BR) therapy for follicular lymphoma;the last chemotherapy session was completed nine months before admission. The first nasopharyngeal specimen (NPS) for the SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction assay tested positive for the N501Y variant five weeks before admission. The patient's general and respiratory conditions gradually worsened;therefore, he was admitted to our hospital, and the same SARS-CoV-2 variant was subsequently identified on admission. Treatment for coronavirus disease was initiated, and the patient's condition improved;however, the NPS tested positive on day 15. The patient was discharged on day 28 and was instructed to isolate at home for a month. Hence, possible prolonged SARS-CoV-2 shedding should be considered in patients who receive BR therapy.

5.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(2): 202-204, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389797

ABSTRACT

Many studies have been conducted on ventilator-associated complications (VACs) in patients with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). However, in these studies, the causative organisms were similar, and there were no reports on VAC corresponding with Corynebacteria. Coryneforms are frequently cultured in cases of polymicrobial infections and are usually considered contaminants in respiratory specimens. However, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum or C. striatum is known to be a pathogen in lower respiratory tract infections. We report three cases of VAC, probably due to C. pseudodiphtheriticum, in patients with COVID-19. If purulent lower respiratory tract specimens showed coryneform predominantly upon Gram staining, empirical therapy should be started. Furthermore, species identification and drug susceptibility testing should be performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Corynebacterium Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Coinfection/complications , Corynebacterium , Corynebacterium Infections/complications , Corynebacterium Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
6.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2489-2509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. Favipiravir is an orally administrable antiviral drug whose mechanism of action is to selectively inhibit RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A preliminary trial in COVID-19 patients reported significant improvements across a multitude of clinical parameters, but these findings have not been confirmed in an adequate well-controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial assessing the efficacy and safety of favipiravir in patients with moderate pneumonia not requiring oxygen therapy. METHODS: COVID-19 patients with moderate pneumonia (SpO2 ≥ 94%) within 10 days of onset of fever (temperature ≥ 37.5 °C) were assigned to receive either placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg twice a day on Day 1, followed by 800 mg twice a day for up to 13 days) in a ratio of 1:2. An adaptive design was used to re-estimate the sample size. The primary endpoint was a composite outcome defined as the time to improvement in temperature, oxygen saturation levels (SpO2), and findings on chest imaging, and recovery to SARS-CoV-2-negative. This endpoint was re-examined by the Central Committee under blinded conditions. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were randomized. The median time of the primary endpoint was 11.9 days in the favipiravir group and 14.7 days in the placebo group, with a significant difference (p = 0.0136). Favipiravir-treated patients with known risk factors such as obesity or coexisting conditions provided better effects. Furthermore, patients with early-onset in the favipiravir group showed higher odds ratio. No deaths were documented. Although adverse events in the favipiravir group were predominantly transient, the incidence was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested favipiravir may be one of options for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia treatment. However, the risk of adverse events, including hyperuricemia, should be carefully considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.jp number: JapicCTI-205238.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 100: 230-236, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959829

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Because most severely ill patients with COVID-19 in our hospital showed zinc deficiency, we aimed to examine the relationship between the patient's serum zinc level and severe cases of COVID-19. METHODS: Serum zinc <70 µg/dL was defined as the criterion for hypozincemia, and patients continuously with serum zinc <70 µg/dL were classified in the hypozincemia cohort. To evaluate whether hypozincemia could be a predictive factor for a critical illness of COVID-19, we performed a multivariate analysis by employing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Prolonged hypozincemia was found to be a risk factor for a severe case of COVID-19. In evaluating the relationship between the serum zinc level and severity of patients with COVID-19 by multivariate logistic regression analysis, critical illness can be predicted through the sensitivity and false specificity of a ROC curve with an error rate of 10.3% and AUC of 94.2% by only two factors: serum zinc value (P = 0.020) and LDH value (P = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: Proper management of the prediction results in this study can contribute to establishing and maintaining a safe medical system, taking the arrival of the second wave, and the spread of COVID-19 in the future into consideration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Zinc/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 511, 2020 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether patients with COVID-19 who have tested re-positive with the PCR test for the SARS-CoV-2 virus are infectious is a challenge in the current circumstances. A follow-up survey was conducted with healthcare personnel (HCP) who were exposed to a patient whose PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2 were re-positive 18 days after the initial confirmation of negative PCR results. RESULTS: We studied a total of 15 HCP who had contact exposures (15/15) and aerosol exposures (7/15). None of them tested positive for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 on blood examination. None of them had any symptoms during 10 days of active isolation. All PCR tests conducted using the nasopharyngeal swabs collected from the HCP on day 10 were negative. No apparent infection was found in any of the HCP who had contact exposure with and/or aerosol exposure to the patient whose PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2 were re-positive 18 days after the initial confirmation of negative results of PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2. CLINICAL TRIAL: Trial Registration: No. 170, approved June 10th, 2020 by the ethics committee of Sakai City Medical Center.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases ; 94(4):542-544, 2020.
Article in Japanese | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-696388

ABSTRACT

The patient, an 83-year-old woman, lived with her daughter, at whose workplace, a person had been diagnosed as having COVID-19. The daughter was admitted to the hospital for pneumonia, however, the results of the PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 performed twice were negative. The patient developed fever a few days later, and visited an outpatient clinic for patients with fever and a history of travel abroad. The result of a nasal swab PCR test was negative, and antibiotics were prescribed. While the fever gradually subsided, the patient began to experience dyspnea. Therefore, she visited the outpatient clinic again for a repeat nasal swab test. Meanwhile, the dyspnea became severe and she was transported to our hospital. Immediately after admission, she was intubated and initiated on mechanical ventilation. A nasal swab and a specimen of lower respiratory tract secretions were submitted for COVID-19 testing by PCR, and while the nasal swab test result was negative again, the lower respiratory tract specimen yielded a positive result�E�EThe possibility of false-negative results of PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 should be borne in mind in close contacts or strongly suspected cases of COVID-19. PCR testing of specimens of lower respiratory tract secretions might be necessary for suspected cases of COVID-19 pneumonia.

14.
Seizure ; 80: 53-55, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602007
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