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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783494

ABSTRACT

A recent study reported that patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) are at increased risk of death from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no studies on the outcome of COVID-19 patients with preexisting ILD treated with corticosteroids or antiviral drugs. We extracted 26 patients with preexisting ILD by medical records and HRCT pattern. Of 503 patients with COVID-19, we selected 52 patients as control matched for age and sex. Twenty out of the 26 ILD patients (76.9%) received corticosteroid therapy, and 23 patients (88.5%) also received antiviral treatment with remdesivir or favipiravir. Although no statistical difference was found, the proportion of severe patients in ILD group tended to be higher than in non-ILD group (23.1% vs. 42.3%; p = 0.114). Also, mortality rate in ILD group tended to be higher than in non-ILD patients (11.5% vs. 3.8%; p = 0.326). In univariate analysis to evaluate risk factors for severe condition, diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, and honeycomb lung were not risk factors of severe disease. Treatment with corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and immunosuppressive agents may affect the outcome of COVID-19 patients with ILD.

2.
Heart Vessels ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748495

ABSTRACT

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we sought to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac involvement in patients with COVID-19 using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A literature review was performed to investigate the left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF), the prevalence of LV late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), pericardial enhancement, abnormality on T1 mapping, and T2 mapping/T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and myocarditis (defined by modified Lake Louis criteria). Pooled mean differences (MD) between COVID-19 patients and controls for LVEF and RVEF were estimated using random-effects models. We included data from 10.462 patients with COVID-19, comprising 1.010 non-athletes and 9.452 athletes from 29 eligible studies. The meta-analysis showed a significant difference between COVID-19 patients and controls in terms of LVEF [MD = - 2.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 5.11 to - 0.56, p < 0.001] and RVEF (MD = - 2.69%, 95% CI - 4.41 to - 1.27, p < 0.001). However, in athletes, no significant difference was identified in LVEF (MD = - 0.74%, 95% CI - 2.41 to - 0.93, p = 0.39) or RVEF (MD = - 1.88%, 95% CI - 5.21 to 1.46, p = 0.27). In non-athletes, the prevalence of LV LGE abnormalities, pericardial enhancement, T1 mapping, T2 mapping/T2WI, myocarditis were 27.5% (95%CI 17.4-37.6%), 11.9% (95%CI 4.1-19.6%), 39.5% (95%CI 16.2-62.8%), 38.1% (95%CI 19.0-57.1%) and 17.6% (95%CI 6.3-28.9%), respectively. In athletes, these values were 10.8% (95%CI 2.3-19.4%), 35.4% (95%CI - 3.2 to 73.9%), 5.7% (95%CI - 2.9 to 14.2%), 1.9% (95%CI 1.1-2.7%), 0.9% (0.3-1.6%), respectively. Both LVEF and RVEF were significantly impaired in COVID-19 patients compared to controls, but not in athletes. In addition, the prevalence of myocardial involvement is not negligible in patients with COVID-19.

3.
Korean J Intern Med ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737118
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312933

ABSTRACT

Background: Corticosteroids use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial, especially in mild to severe patients who do not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation. Moreover, many factors remain unclear regarding the appropriate use of corticosteroids for COVID-19. In this context, this multicenter, retrospective, propensity score–matched study was launched to evaluate the efficacy of systemic corticosteroid administration for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 ranging in the degree of severity from mild to critically-ill disease. Methods: : This multicenter, retrospective study enrolled consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients diagnosed January–April 2020 across 30 institutions in Japan. Clinical outcomes were compared for COVID-19 patients who received or did not receive corticosteroids, after adjusting for propensity scores. The primary endpoint was the odds ratio (OR) for improvement on a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15. Results: : Of 1092 COVID-19 patients analyzed, 118 patients were assigned to either the corticosteroid and non-corticosteroid group, after propensity score matching. At baseline, most patients did not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation (85.6% corticosteroid group vs. 89.8% non-corticosteroid group). The odds of improvement in a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15 was significantly lower for the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (OR, 0.611;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.388–0.962;p = 0.034). The time to improvement in radiological findings was significantly shorter in the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.758;95% CI, 1.323–2.337;p < 0.001), regardless of baseline clinical status. The duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was shorter in corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (HR, 1.466;95% CI, 0.841–2.554;p = 0.177). Of the 106 patients who received methylprednisolone, the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the pulse/semi-pulse versus standard dose group (HR, 2.831;95% CI, 1.347–5.950;p = 0.006). Conclusions: : Corticosteroids for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 did not improve clinical status on Day 15, but reduced the time to improvement in radiological findings for all patients regardless of disease severity and also reduced the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients who required intubation. Trial registration : This study was registered in the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry on April 21, 2020 (ID: UMIN000040211).

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314230

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 is an unprecedented threat to humanity provoking global health concerns. Since the etio-pathogenesis of this illness is not fully characterized, the prognostic factors enabling treatment decisions have not been well documented. An accurate prediction of the disease progression can aid in appropriate patient categorization to determine the best treatment option. Here, we introduced an innovative approach utilizing data-independent acquisition (DIA) mass spectrometry to identify the serum proteins closely associated with the COVID-19 severity. We observed 23 proteins to be differentially expressed between the cohorts of critically ill COVID-19 patients with adverse and favorable prognosis. Myoglobin (MB), CHI3L1 and IGFALS were found to have a high sensitivity and specificity for their possible use as independent biomarkers to provide information on the disease prognosis. Our findings can help in formulating a diagnostic approach for accurately discriminating severe COVID-19 patients and provide appropriate treatment based on their predicted prognosis.Funding: This work was in part supported by grants from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (JP19fk0108169 to YK and JP19fk0108110/JP20he0522001 to AR).Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: This research plan and protocol was approved by the Clinical Ethics Committee of Yokohama City University Hospital (B2002000048). This study was also performed with the approval of the Clinical Ethics Committee in each of the medical facilities. Informed consent was obtained from all patients and/or their guardians before serum samples collection.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314229

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented threat to humanity provoking global health concerns. Since the etio-pathogenesis of this illness is not fully characterized, the prognostic factors enabling treatment decisions have not been well documented. An accurate prediction of the disease progression can aid in appropriate patient categorization to determine the best treatment option. Here, we have introduced a proteomic approach utilizing data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) to identify the serum proteins closely associated with the prognosis of COVID-19. We observed 27 proteins to be differentially expressed between the cohorts of severely ill COVID-19 patients with adverse and favorable prognosis. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that 15 out of the 27 proteins might be regulated by cytokine signalling relevant to interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and their differential expression was possibly implicated in the systemic inflammatory response and cardiovascular disorders. We further evaluated the practical prognosticators for the clinical prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Subsequent ELISA analyses further uncovered that CHI3L1 and IGFALS could be potent prognostic markers with a high sensitivity. Our findings can help in formulating a diagnostic approach for accurately discriminating severe COVID-19 patients and provide appropriate treatment based on their predicted prognosis.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(2): ofab626, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650181

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection elicits varying degrees of protective immunity conferred by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). In this study, we report the persistence of nAb responses over 12 months after infection despite their decreasing trend noticed from 6 months. Methods: The study included sera from 497 individuals who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 between January and August 2020. Samples were collected at 6 and 12 months after onset. The titers of immunoglobulin (Ig)G to the viral nucleocapsid protein (NP) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. The nAb titer was determined using lentivirus-based pseudovirus or authentic virus. Results: Antibody titers of NP-IgG, RBD-IgG, and nAbs were higher in severe and moderate cases than in mild cases at 12 months after onset. Although the nAb levels were likely to confer adequate protection against wild-type viral infection, the neutralization activity to recently circulating variants in some of the mild cases (~30%) was undermined, implying the susceptibility to reinfection with the variants of concerns (VOCs). Conclusions: Coronavirus disease 2019 convalescent individuals have robust humoral immunity even at 12 months after infection albeit that the medical history and background of patients could affect the function and dynamics of antibody response to the VOCs.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20638, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475483

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented threat to humanity that has provoked global health concerns. Since the etiopathogenesis of this illness is not fully characterized, the prognostic factors enabling treatment decisions have not been well documented. Accurately predicting the progression of the disease would aid in appropriate patient categorization and thus help determine the best treatment option. Here, we have introduced a proteomic approach utilizing data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) to identify the serum proteins that are closely associated with COVID-19 prognosis. Twenty-seven proteins were differentially expressed between severely ill COVID-19 patients with an adverse or favorable prognosis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that 15 of the 27 proteins might be regulated by cytokine signaling relevant to interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and their differential expression was implicated in the systemic inflammatory response and in cardiovascular disorders. We further evaluated practical predictors of the clinical prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Subsequent ELISA assays revealed that CHI3L1 and IGFALS may serve as highly sensitive prognostic markers. Our findings can help formulate a diagnostic approach for accurately identifying COVID-19 patients with severe disease and for providing appropriate treatment based on their predicted prognosis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Gene Expression Profiling , Proteomics/methods , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Virus Diseases
10.
Diagn Interv Imaging ; 102(9): 493-500, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397290

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been reported as a global emergency. As respiratory dysfunction is a major clinical presentation of COVID-19, chest computed tomography (CT) plays a central role in the diagnosis and management of patients with COVID-19. Recent advances in imaging approaches using artificial intelligence have been essential as a quantification and diagnostic tool to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases. Furthermore, cardiovascular involvement in patients with COVID-19 is not negligible and may result in rapid worsening of the disease and sudden death. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging can accurately depict myocardial involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review summarizes the role of the radiology department in the management and the diagnosis of COVID-19, with a special emphasis on ultra-high-resolution CT findings, cardiovascular complications and the potential of artificial intelligence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/virology , Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2489-2509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus. Favipiravir is an orally administrable antiviral drug whose mechanism of action is to selectively inhibit RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A preliminary trial in COVID-19 patients reported significant improvements across a multitude of clinical parameters, but these findings have not been confirmed in an adequate well-controlled trial. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial assessing the efficacy and safety of favipiravir in patients with moderate pneumonia not requiring oxygen therapy. METHODS: COVID-19 patients with moderate pneumonia (SpO2 ≥ 94%) within 10 days of onset of fever (temperature ≥ 37.5 °C) were assigned to receive either placebo or favipiravir (1800 mg twice a day on Day 1, followed by 800 mg twice a day for up to 13 days) in a ratio of 1:2. An adaptive design was used to re-estimate the sample size. The primary endpoint was a composite outcome defined as the time to improvement in temperature, oxygen saturation levels (SpO2), and findings on chest imaging, and recovery to SARS-CoV-2-negative. This endpoint was re-examined by the Central Committee under blinded conditions. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients were randomized. The median time of the primary endpoint was 11.9 days in the favipiravir group and 14.7 days in the placebo group, with a significant difference (p = 0.0136). Favipiravir-treated patients with known risk factors such as obesity or coexisting conditions provided better effects. Furthermore, patients with early-onset in the favipiravir group showed higher odds ratio. No deaths were documented. Although adverse events in the favipiravir group were predominantly transient, the incidence was significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested favipiravir may be one of options for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia treatment. However, the risk of adverse events, including hyperuricemia, should be carefully considered. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.jp number: JapicCTI-205238.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 661187, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241181

ABSTRACT

Objective: There is scarce evidence regarding the long-term persistence of neutralizing antibodies among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. This study determined neutralizing antibody titers (NT50) and antibodies against spike protein (SP) or nucleocapsid protein (NP) antigens approximately 6 months after the diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: COVID-19 survivors in Japan were recruited. Serum samples and data related to patients' characteristics and COVID-19 history were collected. NT50 and titers of antibodies against NP and SP antigens were measured at 20-32 weeks after the first positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results. Factors associated with NT50 were identified using the multivariable linear regression and the correlations among NT50 and titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and total immunoglobulins (Igs) against NP and SP were assessed by Spearman's correlation. Results: Among 376 participants (median [range] days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, 180 (147-224); median [range] years of age, 50 (20-78); 188 [50%] male), most tested positive for NT50 (n = 367, 98%), SP-IgG (n = 344, 91%), SP-total Ig (n = 369, 98%), NP-IgG (n = 314, 84%), and NP-total Ig (n = 365, 97%). Regression analysis indicated that higher BMI, fever, and the requirement of mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were significantly associated with higher NT50. Anti-SP antibodies correlated moderately with NT50 (Spearman's correlation: 0.63 for SP IgG; 0.57 for SP-total Ig), while the correlation was weak for anti-NP antibodies (0.37 for NP IgG; 0.32 for NP-total Ig). Conclusions: Most COVID-19 survivors had sustained neutralizing antibodies and tested positive for SP-total Ig and NP-total Ig approximately 6 months after infection.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10727, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238019

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids use in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial, especially in mild to severe patients who do not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation. Moreover, many factors remain unclear regarding the appropriate use of corticosteroids for COVID-19. In this context, this multicenter, retrospective, propensity score-matched study was launched to evaluate the efficacy of systemic corticosteroid administration for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 ranging in the degree of severity from mild to critically-ill disease. This multicenter, retrospective study enrolled consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients diagnosed January-April 2020 across 30 institutions in Japan. Clinical outcomes were compared for COVID-19 patients who received or did not receive corticosteroids, after adjusting for propensity scores. The primary endpoint was the odds ratio (OR) for improvement on a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15. Of 1092 COVID-19 patients analyzed, 118 patients were assigned to either the corticosteroid and non-corticosteroid group, after propensity score matching. At baseline, most patients did not require invasive/noninvasive ventilation (85.6% corticosteroid group vs. 89.8% non-corticosteroid group). The odds of improvement in a 7-point ordinal score on Day 15 was significantly lower for the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (OR, 0.611; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.388-0.962; p = 0.034). The time to improvement in radiological findings was significantly shorter in the corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.758; 95% CI, 1.323-2.337; p < 0.001), regardless of baseline clinical status. The duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was shorter in corticosteroid versus non-corticosteroid group (HR, 1.466; 95% CI, 0.841-2.554; p = 0.177). Of the 106 patients who received methylprednisolone, the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the pulse/semi-pulse versus standard dose group (HR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.347-5.950; p = 0.006). In conclusion, corticosteroids for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 did not improve clinical status on Day 15, but reduced the time to improvement in radiological findings for all patients regardless of disease severity and also reduced the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients who required intubation.Trial registration: This study was registered in the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry on April 21, 2020 (ID: UMIN000040211).


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
15.
JMA J ; 4(2): 148-162, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226034

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented impacts on various aspects of the world. Each academic society has published a guide and/or guidelines on how to cope with COVID-19 separately. As the one and only nationwide association of academic societies that represent medical science in Japan, JMSF has decided to publish the expert opinion to help patients and care providers find specifically what they want. This expert opinion is a summary of recommendations by many academic societies and will be updated when necessary. Patients that each academic society targets differ even though they suffer from the same COVID-19, and recommendations can be different in a context-dependent manner. Readers are supposed to be flexible and adjustable when they use this expert opinion.

16.
Respir Investig ; 59(5): 596-601, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) level is a predictive factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The development of ARDS has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to determine whether serum KL-6 levels are associated with mortality and severity in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Among 361 Japanese patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized at Kanagawa Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center between February 2020 and December 2020, 356 patients with data on serum KL-6 levels were enrolled and their medical records were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A negative correlation was observed between KL-6 levels and the ratio of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen on admission. The KL-6 levels on admission and the maximal KL-6 levels were higher in patients with severe disease (n = 60) than in those with nonsevere disease (n = 296). Furthermore, the maximal KL-6 levels were higher in nonsurvivors (n = 6) than in survivors (n = 350). In nonsurvivors, the KL-6 levels increased as the disease progressed. The optimal cutoff value of the maximal KL-6 level for discriminating between survivors and nonsurvivors was 684 U/mL, with a sensitivity of 83.3%, a specificity of 90.5%, and an area under the curve of 0.89. CONCLUSIONS: The serum KL-6 level was associated with disease severity. Patients with KL-6 levels ≥684 U/mL had a significantly poorer outcome than those with KL-6 levels <684 U/mL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Humans , Mucin-1 , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 895-901, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117020

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although several reports on the risk factors for severe disease of COVID-19 already exist, reports on effective early indicators are still limited, especially from Japan. This study was conducted to clarify the patient's characteristics whose disease progressed to severe status. METHODS: The medical records of all consecutive 300 Japanese patients hospitalized at our institution between February and November 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics were evaluated to compare between mild (no oxygen needed), moderate (oxygen needs of 1-4 L/min), and severe diseases (oxygen needs of 5 L/min or more). RESULTS: The median age was 68 years old, with 123 (41.0%) males and 177 (59.0%) females. Of these, 199 patients (66.3%), 55 patients (18.3%), 46 patients (15.3%) patients were in the mild disease, moderate disease, severe disease groups, respectively. Patients with severe disease were more likely to be older, have more comorbidities, and tended to have higher body mass index. In laboratory data, lymphocyte count, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), LDH, and AST on admission were significantly associated with the severity. In multivariate analysis, age and CRP were the independent risk factors for severe disease (OR = 1.050, 1.130, respectively). The optimal cut-off value for age was 74 years old and that for CRP was 3.15 mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: Age and CRP were independently associated with disease severity of COVID-19 in multivariate analysis. Additionally, the numbers of underlying disease, lymphocyte count, and inflammatory markers such as LDH and D-dimer may also be related to disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Jpn J Radiol ; 39(5): 451-458, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064585

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the relationships among pulmonary vascular enlargement, computed tomography (CT) findings quantified with software, and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-high-resolution (UHR) CT images of 87 patients (50 males, 37 females; median age, 63 years) with COVID-19 confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction were analyzed. The maximum subsegmental vascular diameter was measured on CT. Total CT lung volume (CTLV total) and lesion extent (ratio of lesion volume to CTLV total) of ground-glass opacities, reticulation, and consolidation were measured using software. Maximum pulmonary vascular diameter and lesion extent were analyzed using Spearman's correlation analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed on CT results to predict disease severity. We also assessed changes in these measures on follow-up scans in 16 patients. RESULTS: All 23 patients with severe and critical illness had vascular enlargement (> 4 mm). Pulmonary vascular enlargement (odds ratio 3.05, p = 0.018) and CT lesion extent (odds ratio 1.07, p = 0.002) were independent predictors of disease severity after adjustment for age and comorbidities. On follow-up CT, vascular diameter and CT lesion volume decreased (p = 0.001, p = 0.002; respectively), but CTLV total did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: Subsegmental vascular enlargement is a notable finding to predict acute COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
20.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 628281, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Serological tests for COVID-19 have been instrumental in studying the epidemiology of the disease. However, the performance of the currently available tests is plagued by the problem of variability. We have developed a high-throughput serological test capable of simultaneously detecting total immunoglobulins (Ig) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) against nucleocapsid protein (NP) and spike protein (SP) and report its performance in detecting COVID-19 in clinical samples. METHODS: We designed and prepared reagents for measuring NP-IgG, NP-Total Ig, SP-IgG, and SP-Total Ig (using N-terminally truncated NP (ΔN-NP) or receptor-binding domain (RBD) antigen) dedicated automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay analyzer AIA-CL1200. After determining the basal thresholds based on 17 sera obtained from confirmed COVID-19 patients and 600 negative sera, the clinical validity of the assay was evaluated using independent 202 positive samples and 1,000 negative samples from healthy donors. RESULTS: All of the four test parameters showed 100% specificity individually (1,000/1,000; 95%CI, 99.63-100). The sensitivity of the assay increased proportionally to the elapsed time from symptoms onset, and all the tests achieved 100% sensitivity (153/153; 95%CI, 97.63-100) after 13 days from symptoms onset. NP-Total Ig was the earliest to attain maximal sensitivity among the other antibodies tested. CONCLUSION: Our newly developed serological testing exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity after 13 days from symptoms onset. Hence, it could be used as a reliable method for accurate detection of COVID-19 patients and to evaluate seroprevalence and possibly for surrogate assessment of herd immunity.

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