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1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820415

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody (NAb) detection is critical for evaluating herd immunity and monitoring the efficacy of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this study, quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels after vaccination were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassays, enzyme immunoassays, and surrogate virus neutralization tests (sVNTs), as well as plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Sequential blood samples were collected before and 1 and 3 months after vaccination in 30 healthy participants (two doses of Oxford-AstraZeneca [AZ] or Pfizer-BioNTech [BNT]). After vaccination, all sera tested positive for PRNT, with NAb titers ranging from 1:10 to 1:723. Median NAb titers were higher in the BNT vaccine group than in the AZ vaccine group at both one and three months post-vaccination. Excellent overall concordance rates were observed between serological assays and PRNT. In a quantitative correlation analysis, the results of sVNTs showed a strong correlation with those of PRNT. Results of the four binding antibody assays showed a significant correlation with those of PRNT. The serologic assays evaluated in this study could be used as sVNTs to evaluate the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Envelope Proteins , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoassay , Membrane Glycoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
2.
HLA ; 100(1): 52-58, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816658

ABSTRACT

The effects of COVID-19 vaccination on alloimmunization and clinical impact in transplant candidates remain largely unknown. In a 61-year-old man who had no donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and was planned to undergo ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KT), DSAs (anti-A24, anti-B51, and anti-Cw14) developed after COVID-19 vaccination. After desensitization therapy, antibody level was further increased, leading to flow cytometric crossmatch-positive status. Donor-specific T cell immunity using interferon-gamma ELISPOT was continuously negative, whereas SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity was intact. After confirming the C1q-negative status of DSA, the patient received ABOi KT. The patient had stable graft function and suppressed alloimmunity up to 2 months after KT. COVID-19 vaccination might relate to alloimmunization in transplant candidates, and desensitization through immune monitoring can help guide transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Alleles , Antibodies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Flow Cytometry , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , HLA Antigens , Humans , Living Donors , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(2): 332-335, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) is the gold standard for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), simpler and faster antibody detection tests can be complementary for diagnosis of COVID-19. To manage the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for serologic testing has increased. In this report, the newly developed antibody detection assays ACCEL ELISA COVID-19 (ACCEL) and Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Elecsys) were evaluated. METHODS: Serum samples submitted for routine laboratory testing were analyzed (66 and 161 PCR-positive and PCR-negative samples). After the samples were aliquoted, antibody detection tests were performed using ACCEL and Elecsys assays. RESULTS: When detection of viral RNA using RT-PCR was set as the reference method for diagnosis of COVID-19, the sensitivity was 83.3% and 75.8, and the specificity was 96.9 and 99.4% in ACCEL and Elecsys, respectively. The true positivity rates of ACCEL and Elecsys assays were 57.1%/42.9%, 57.1%/28.6%, 77.8%/66.7%, and 97.1%/97.1% among the specimens collected ≤3, 4-7, 8-14, and >14 days after symptom onset, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ACCEL assay showed high sensitivity in samples collected within 7 days after symptom onset. Because many patients are asymptomatic in the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the ACCEL assay could be a good screening tool due to high sensitivity in the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Epidemiol Health ; : e2022028, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a nationwide cross-sectional surveillance system that assesses the health and nutritional status of the Korean population. To evaluate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community, we investigated the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using the sera of KNHANES participants. METHODS: The subjects were recruited between April 24, 2020, and December 12, 2020. A total of 5,284 subjects aged 10-90 years from 17 regions participated in the survey. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were screened using the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay. Positive samples were verified using four different SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays and the plaque reduction neutralizing test (PRNT). The final seropositivity criteria were defined as a positive screening test and at least one positive out of the five additional tests. RESULTS: The distribution of survey participants was as follows: 49.2% (2,600/5,284) were from a metropolitan area, 48.9% were middle-aged (in their 40s and 60s) and 19.3% were in their 20s or younger. The seropositivity rate among the participants was 0.09% (5/5,284). Out of the five antibody-positive subjects, three had a history of infection, of whom, two were infected abroad while one was infected through a local cluster outbreak. CONCLUSION: The low seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody in Korea indicates the fewer COVID-19 patients due to succeed of COVID-19 management measures. Moreover, asymptomatic infections were also detected fewer due to active PCR testing. However, hidden infections may still be prevalent in the community, thus requiring continuous quarantine and vaccination.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 751869, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunological characteristics of COVID-19 show pathological hyperinflammation associated with lymphopenia and dysfunctional T cell responses. These features provide a rationale for restoring functional T cell immunity in COVID-19 patients by adoptive transfer of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells. METHODS: To generate SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells, we isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 7 COVID-19 recovered and 13 unexposed donors. Consequently, we stimulated cells with SARS-CoV-2 peptide mixtures covering spike, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins. Then, we culture expanded cells with IL-2 for 21 days. We assessed immunophenotypes, cytokine profiles, antigen specificity of the final cell products. RESULTS: Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells could be expanded in both COVID-19 recovered and unexposed groups. Immunophenotypes were similar in both groups showing CD4+ T cell dominance, but CD8+ and CD3+CD56+ T cells were also present. Antigen specificity was determined by ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine assay, and cytotoxicity assays. One out of 14 individuals who were previously unexposed to SARS-CoV-2 failed to show antigen specificity. Moreover, ex-vivo expanded SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells mainly consisted of central and effector memory subsets with reduced alloreactivity against HLA-unmatched cells suggesting the possibility for the development of third-party partial HLA-matching products. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, our findings show that SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell can be readily expanded from both COVID-19 and unexposed individuals and can therefore be manufactured as a biopharmaceutical product to treat severe COVID-19 patients. ONE SENTENCE SUMMARY: Ex-vivo expanded SARS-CoV-2 antigen specific T cells developed as third-party partial HLA-matching products may be a promising approach for treating severe COVID-19 patients that do not respond to previous treatment options.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/transplantation , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/transplantation , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Young Adult
6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367801

ABSTRACT

Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays against the spike (S) protein are useful for monitoring immune response after infection or vaccination. We compared the results of three chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) (Abbott, Roche, Siemens) and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT, GenScript) using 191 sequential samples from 32 COVID-19 patients. All assays detected >90% of samples collected 14 days after symptom onset (Abbott 97.4%, Roche 96.2%, Siemens 92.3%, and GenScript 96.2%), and overall agreement among the four assays was 91.1% to 96.3%. When we assessed time-course antibody levels, the Abbott and Siemens assays showed higher levels in patients with severe disease (p < 0.05). Antibody levels from the three CLIAs were correlated (r = 0.763-0.885). However, Passing-Bablok regression analysis showed significant proportional differences between assays and converting results to binding antibody units (BAU)/mL still showed substantial bias. CLIAs had good performance in predicting sVNT positivity (Area Under the Curve (AUC), 0.959-0.987), with Abbott having the highest AUC value (p < 0.05). SARS-CoV-2 S protein antibody levels as assessed by the CLIAs were not interchangeable, but showed reliable performance for predicting sVNT results. Further standardization and harmonization of immunoassays might be helpful in monitoring immune status after COVID-19 infection or vaccination.

7.
Ann Lab Med ; 42(1): 71-78, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, including asymptomatic and past infections, are important to estimate the scale of the disease outbreak and to establish quarantine measures. We evaluated the clinical performance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody assays available in Korea for use in seroprevalence studies. METHODS: The sensitivity, specificity, cross-reactivity, and interference of five SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays were evaluated using the following: 398 serum samples from confirmed COVID-19 patients, 510 negative control samples from before 2018 (pre-pandemic), 163 serum samples from patients with SARS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and other viral infections, and five samples for the interference study. RESULTS: The sensitivities of the five assays ranged from 92.2% to 98%, and their specificities, including cross-reactivity and interference, ranged from 97.5% to 100%. The agreement rates were excellent (kappa >0.9). Adjustment of the cutoff values could be considered through ROC curve analysis. The positive predictive values of the individual assays varied from 3.5% to 100% at a 0.1% prevalence but were as high as ≥95% when two assays were combined. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of COVID-19 in Korea is considered to be exceptionally low at present; thus, we recommend using a combination of two or more SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays rather than a single assay. These results could help select SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays for COVID-19 seroprevalence studies in Korea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(6): 577-587, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody assays have high clinical utility in managing the pandemic. We compared antibody responses and seroconversion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using different immunoassays. METHODS: We evaluated 12 commercial immunoassays, including three automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (Abbott, Roche, and Siemens), three enzyme immunoassays (Bio-Rad, Euroimmun, and Vircell), five lateral flow immunoassays (Boditech Med, SD biosensor, PCL, Sugentech, and Rapigen), and one surrogate neutralizing antibody assay (GenScript) in sequential samples from 49 COVID-19 patients and 10 seroconversion panels. RESULTS: The positive percent agreement (PPA) of assays for a COVID-19 diagnosis ranged from 84.0% to 98.5% for all samples (>14 days after symptom onset), with IgM or IgA assays showing higher PPAs. Seroconversion responses varied across the assay type and disease severity. Assays targeting the spike or receptor-binding domain protein showed a tendency for early seroconversion detection and higher index values in patients with severe disease. Index values from SARS-CoV-2 binding antibody assays (three automated assays, one LFIA, and three EIAs) showed moderate to strong correlations with the neutralizing antibody percentage (r=0.517-0.874), and stronger correlations in patients with severe disease and in assays targeting spike protein. Agreement among the 12 assays was good (74.3%-96.4%) for detecting IgG or total antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Positivity rates and seroconversion of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies vary depending on the assay kits, disease severity, and antigen target. This study contributes to a better understanding of antibody response in symptomatic COVID-19 patients using currently available assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
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