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1.
Immune Network ; 22(6) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2202144

ABSTRACT

With the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, which are randomly mutated, the dominant strains in regions are changing globally. The development of preclinical animal models is imperative to validate vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 variants. The objective of this study was to develop a non-human primate (NHP) model for SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection. Cynomolgus macaques infected with Delta variants showed infectious viruses and viral RNA in the upper (nasal and throat) and lower respiratory (lung) tracts during the acute phase of infection. After 3 days of infection, lesions consistent with diffuse alveolar damage were observed in the lungs. For cellular immune responses, all macaques displayed transient lymphopenia and neutrophilia in the early stages of infection. SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant spike protein-specific IgM, IgG, and IgA levels were significantly increased in the plasma of these animals 14 days after infection. This new NHP Delta variant infection model can be used for comparative analysis of the difference in severity between SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and may be useful in the efficacy evaluation of vaccines and universal therapeutic drugs for mutations. Copyright © 2022. The Korean Association of Immunologists.

3.
Preventive Medicine Reports ; 31:102096, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2182366

ABSTRACT

Little is known about how COVID-19 has impacted the diagnosis of neck and low back pain in outpatient practices in Germany. Thus, this study aimed to compare the number of new diagnoses of neck and low back pain in German general and orthopedic practices between 2020 and 2021 and 2019. This retrospective study included patients aged >= 18 years with at least one visit to one of 915 general and 145 orthopedic practices in Germany in March - December 2019 (N = 2,842,145), March - December 2020 (N = 2,810,179), or March - December 2021 (N = 3,214,419). The number of patients newly diagnosed with neck and low back pain per general and orthopedic practice was compared between March - December 2020 and March - December 2019, and between March - December 2021 and March - December 2019 using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Analyses were conducted in general and orthopedic practices separately and were also stratified by sex and age. There was a decrease in new diagnoses of neck and low back pain in general and orthopedic practices between 2020 and 2019, and between 2021 and 2019. This decrease reached statistical significance for neck pain in general practices in 2020 (-12.4 %) and 2021 (-6.1 %), and for low back pain in general practices in 2020 (-9.3 %). Similar findings were obtained in sex- and age-stratified analyses. The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the diagnosis of neck and low back pain in general and orthopedic practices in Germany. More data from other settings and countries are warranted to confirm or refute these results.

4.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 80(4 Supplement):S40, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2176221

ABSTRACT

Study Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a general practitioner (GP) programme on low-acuity patient load (patient acuity scale P3 or P4) presenting at a participating emergency department (ED) of a regional public hospital in Singapore. Secondly, to analyse the appropriateness of participating GPs' referrals to ED based on programme criteria. Study Design/Methods: This is a descriptive observational study of a regionally implemented, government funded programme called GPFirst, from 2014 to 2019 (pre-COVID). In this programme, a patient attended to at a GPFirst clinic and subsequently referred to ED, will qualify for an ED attendance fee discount. Data are retrospectively collected from referral letters of GPs participating in the programme and the hospital's electronic health record system. Results/Findings: During the study period, 207 GPs were progressively enrolled. The annual number of low acuity attendances reduced from 62,213 in 2013 (pre-GPFirst) to 53,480 in 2019 even though the annual number of ED attendances increased gradually from 138,784 in 2014 to 141,072 in year 2019. Moreover, the annual proportion of low-acuity, self-referred cases decreased from 63.4% (39,425) in 2013 to 57.1% (30,528) in year 2019. The annual percentage of GPFirst referrals to the ED which meet referral appropriateness criteria increased from 94.5% (FY2014) to 97.6% (FY2019) and 98.0% (FY2020). Overall, the roll out of GPFirst appears to coincide with a reduction in low acuity patient load without compromising the appropriateness of GP referrals to the ED. Conclusion(s): A multi-faceted regional programme which included campaigned public education, regular GP continuous education, a supportive administrative team and financial incentive for patients, is able to reduce low acuity attendances. An ecosystem emerges which contributes to GPFirst's success. Further research is needed to evaluate safety and the effects of scaling this programme to a national level. No, authors do not have interests to disclose Copyright © 2022

5.
J Community Health ; : 1-16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2174630

ABSTRACT

This study documents the pivotal role that Community Health Workers (CHW) played while supporting underserved Latinx communities affected by COVID-19-related health inequities. With the support of CHWs' agencies historically serving three Latinx-dense counties in Arizona, we recruited CHWs who participated in a state-wide COVID-19 testing project. Using phenomenology and narrative qualitative research methods, five focus groups were facilitated in Spanish between August and November 2021. Bilingual research team members conducted the analysis of the Spanish verbatim transcripts and CHWs reviewed the results for validity. Three interconnected themes reflected the CHWs experiences: (1) CHWs as puentes/bridges with deep community embeddedness through shared experiences and social/cultural context, (2) CHWs as communication brokers and transformational agents, playing a pivotal role in responding to the health and socioeconomic challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, (3) CHWs satisfaction and frustration due to their dual role as committed community members but unrecognized and undervalued frontline public health workers. These findings emphasize the CHWs' commitment towards supporting their communities, even amidst the stressors of the pandemic. It is important to continue to integrate the role of CHWs into the larger healthcare system as opposed to relegating them to short term engagements as was the case during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article provides a set of practice, policy, and future research recommendations, emphasizing the need to allocate greater budgetary and training resources in support of CHWs.

6.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport ; 93:A64-A65, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798176
7.
Chemical Engineering Transactions ; 89:169-174, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1625397

ABSTRACT

The Seoul Metropolitan Government is promoting and implementing eco-friendly transportation policies covering the revitalization of public transportation, establishment of green transportation promotion areas, and the expansion of shared-bicycle use. With the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic, cities worldwide have been paralyzed by lockdowns, the strict implementation of social-distancing policies, and the shutdown of different industry sectors. People's movement and traffic volume have decreased significantly. The pandemic has forced to people change their travel-related decision-making tendencies. Against this backdrop, this study analysed the changes in shared-bicycle traffic in Seoul during the pandemic. This study analyzed the relationship between social distancing levels and shared bicycle usage using regression analysis. This study conducted an analysis of spatially formed clusters through Moran's I test and hotspot analysis. The results indicate that an important correlation between the spread of COVID-19 and shared bicycle use has been found. When social distancing levels increased by one level, the number of shared bicycle rental per day increased by about 10,000 times. As a result of spatial analysis, changes in shared bicycle usage are spatially forming clusters, and Moran's I test showed statistically significant results with a p-value very close to zero. The study results indicate that under special circumstances, government policy plays an important role in promoting green transportation. The use of green transportation is directly related to falling atmospheric pollution in the city. Such transportation can significantly benefit the environment. The government can produce more effective results by considering local characteristics to revitalize eco-friendly transportation. © 2021, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.

8.
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development ; 9(4):50-66, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1538865

ABSTRACT

The spread of infectious diseases is a spatial process, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cluster infections of COVID-19 have arisen globally in various urban spaces, implying that tracking the spread necessitates a spatial approach to understanding the dynamics of the disease. In this study, we employ an online survey in the Seoul metropolitan area in South Korea to examine changes in the use of urban spaces and factors that affect individual's choice in using urban spaces in the COVID-19 era. We classify various urban spaces into three activity types according to the previous studies: spaces for mandatory activities, maintenance activities, and discretionary activities. The results show that every type of urban space is visited less than before the COVID-19 outbreak. Factors involved in the use of spaces for mandatory activities include the preference for offline consumption, gender, and risk perception of COVID-19. In the case of non-mandatory activity spaces, factors that commonly influence the use of the spaces are compliance with social distancing regulations, preference for offline consumption, refraining from outdoor activities, risk perception of COVID-19, and perceived safety in the city concerning COVID-19. The present study is significant as it identified not only different factors affecting the choice of mandatory and non-mandatory activity spaces but also distinctive variables determining the choice of urban spaces for maintenance activity and discretionary activity. From the analysis, this study draws policy implications to effectively prevent and control infectious disease in the context of urban spaces. © 2021 SPSD Press from, SPSD Press, Kanazawa. All Rights Reserved.

9.
11.
8th International Research Symposium on Problem-Based Learning, IRSPBL 2021 ; : 13-27, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1371165

ABSTRACT

The pandemic situation caused by COVID-19 amplifies the volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity of society, suggesting that the unpredictability of this will be further maximized in 2021. Each field in society is selecting and executing digital transformations as one of the strategies to flexibly cope with such uncertainty and sudden changes in an environment that requires different lifestyles to lead daily lives. The education field is not an exception and universities are implementing digital transformations that move from face-to-face education that is held in a classroom environment to online learning in the virtual environment. Hanyang University has developed and operated an innovative teaching and learning model called IC-PBL (Industry-Coupled Problem/Project-Based Learning) to flexibly respond to rapid social changes and to cultivate outstanding individuals with capabilities needed in society. IC-PBL, which has been based on the face-to-face classroom environment, is also in the process of digital transformation due to such environmental changes. Previously, in IC-PBL, the online learning environment played an auxiliary role to support learning. However, as the online learning environment has suddenly been highlighted as the main learning environment of IC-PBL, various issues related to the design and operation of PBL classes in actual education fields are being raised. In this study, the results of participation observations, in-depth interviews with instructors and learners were analyzed through qualitative research on 8 classes in Hanyang University's engineering department. As a result, PBL courses strategies, in accordance with 5G, were presented to make PBL classes in blended environments into successful digital transformations. This demonstrates that PBL courses that have been mostly conducted only in face-to-face environments successfully achieved digital transformation in the post COVID-19 era and have presented strategies that can be used in educational attempts and practices necessary to create sustainable performance as a qualified class. © The authors, 2021.

12.
ACS Applied Nano Materials ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1253884

ABSTRACT

There is a demand for one-pot, portable (solid-phase), sensitive, and user-friendly immunosensors for future point-of-care (POC) self-testing. However, current immunoassays such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) typically involve several complicated steps, and they are not readily adaptable by nonexpert users. Herein, we present a rapid (∼30 min) one-pot, solid-phase immunosensor, based on nanomaterials, by combining a nanometer-thick Au/TiO2 photocatalytic film and Cy5/capture antibody/gold nanorod (GNR) conjugates immobilized on a membrane (the fluorescence of Cy5 was enhanced by the GNR). The one-pot immunoassay is started by adding a drop of a mixture containing 4-chloro-1-naphthol (CN), a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled detection antibody, and an antigen onto the one-pot immunosensor and illuminating UV light. The UV illumination on the Au/TiO2 film results in the production of H2O2, which promotes a CN precipitation reaction. 4-Chloro-1-naphthol precipitates produced by the HRP, which was bound to the conjugates via the antibodies and antigens, could preliminarily quench Cy5 fluorescence via Förster resonance energy transfer, because of their proximity to Cy5. The sensitivity of the developed one-pot immunosensor was similar to that of a commercially available ELISA kit. Given the increasing interest in the early diagnosis of various diseases, including cancers, dementia, and coronavirus disease 2019, the application of nanomaterials such as a porous thin-film photocatalyst and GNR-based fluorescent probes could pave way for the development of next-generation POC biosensors. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

14.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society ; 69(SUPPL 1):S174, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1214908

ABSTRACT

Background: Social isolation from COVID-19 has been shown to affect the mental health of all socioeconomic, ethnic and age groups. One of the most affected populations is long-term care (LTC) residents. This increased separation from their families and society has created an additive effect to their baseline physical and mental ailments. We investigated the change in depression and anxiety over time in residents of one LTC facility during this crisis. Aim: The aim of the intervention was to reduce the impact of social isolation by modifying recreational activities to include faceto-face visits, music therapy, and similar activities. Methods: Staff collected PHQ-9 and NPIQ (Neuropsychiatric inventory questionnaire) scores of all residents in the facility before implementing modified activities. Between 8/10 and 10/3/2020 we had a modified event calendar. Following the 8-week intervention, PHQ-9 and NPIQ scores were re-recorded. All LTC residents were eligible. Short-term residents, hospice patients, and those who did not participate in the intervention were excluded from analysis. Our primary outcome was change in depression and anxiety. Our secondary outcomes were change in weight, ulcers, and falls (MDS quality metrics). We hypothesized there would be a positive change in PHQ9 and NPIQ scores over time. We analyzed our data using paired sample t-tests. Analyses were conducted using SPSS v. 26. Results: 97 residents participated this intervention with an age range of 63-103 (mean = 86;SD 8). Participants' mean PHQ-9 scores improved significantly after participation in activities (9.1 vs 6.3) with a mean difference of 2.804 (CI 1.924-3.684, p<.001). Similarly, mean NPIQ scored showed a similar trend (18.74 vs 14.94) with a mean difference of 3.804 (CI 3.098-4.510, p <.001). There were no significant differences in falls, weight, or ulcers. Conclusions: This study highlights how COVID-19 has impacted LTC residents' mental health and suggests implementing modified recreational activities can improve the mental health of LTC residents. This is especially important as the pandemic, and associated restrictions, have lasted longer than anticipated. Therefore, LTC facilities should slowly and safely increase social interaction for residents whenever possible.

15.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society ; 69(SUPPL 1):S161, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1214844

ABSTRACT

Background: Nutritional risk increases with advanced age due to may factors including socioeconomic limits, medications, physical impairments, and overall diminished body reserves. Although it is important to assess protein deficiency when treating geriatric patients, one should also consider trace elements and vitamins, as deficiency can lead to disease, including dermatitis. Presentation: A 74-year-old woman presented to the hospital following a fall and was diagnosed with septic shock due to infected open skin lesions on her left knee causing MSSA bacteremia. On examination, she had a scaly diffuse rash involving her face, trunk and extremities with no mucosal involvement. She was treated with antibiotics and dermatology initially thought she had psoriasis vulgaris. Punch biopsy and histopathology revealed focal intracorneal bulla with subjacent spongiotic dermatitis and intraepidermal dyskeratotic keratinocytes suggesting nutritional deficiencies after ruling out autoimmune causes. Laboratory workup revealed decreased levels of Vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, zinc and iron. She was given nutritional supplements and vitamins and discharged to a skilled nursing facility with continued treatment and the addition of vitamin B12 and D. Within 2 months, all levels were normal, with the exception of vitamin C. Her skin lesions improved significantly. Conclusion: This case demonstrates the importance of considering nutritional deficiencies when assessing elderly patients, especially in regards to skin lesions. Nutritional assessments and interventions are easily accessible and are an efficient way to help diagnose dermatological conditions in geriatric patients. The tragedy of this COVID-19 pandemic is that this already vulnerable population is facing enormous challenges and that this is manifesting in uncommon ways such as skin lesions caused by nutritional deficiencies.

16.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S322, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185874

ABSTRACT

Background: As only few studies have analyzed viral kinetics between the incubation and symptomatic periods of COVID-19 patients, we investigated the viral kinetics and compared viral loads between patients with mild and severe COVID-19. Methods: We determined the viral kinetics of 10 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at Chosun University Hospital. Six patients were classified into the “mild” group and 4 into the “severe” group according to supplemental oxygen use during admission. Samples were collected via nasopharyngeal swabs and sputum specimens. SARS-CoV-2 was detected using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Chest radiograph scores during hospitalization were obtained Results: Ct values of the upper respiratory tract specimens were low during the early stages after symptom onset but gradually increased over time in both groups. The severe group had lower Ct values than the mild group. The Ct values of the RdRP and E genes on day 6 after symptom onset were significantly lower in the severe group than in the mild group (p < 0.05). Three of 6 patients had positive results on RT-PCR even before symptom onset;2 of them had the lowest Ct values. The chest radiograph scores were higher in the severe group than in the mild group, and the score in the severe group was the highest at approximately 3 weeks after symptom onset. Ct values when the RdRP gene and E gene were targeted to detect SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the days after symptom onset in all the patients Conclusion: Viral load and chest radiograph scores were significantly different between the severe and mild groups of COVID-19 patients. (Figure Presented).

18.
Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore ; 49(10):817-824, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-955165
19.
Clin Chim Acta ; 510: 760-766, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747276

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We describe our evaluation of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay on the Architect immunoassay analyser. METHODS: We assessed assay precision, sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV), cross-reactivity (influenza/dengue/hepatitis B and C/rheumatoid factor/anti-nuclear/double-stranded DNA/syphilis) and sample throughput in samples from real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive patients/healthcare workers (HCWs)/pre-pandemic samples. We compared the cut-off indexes (COIs) between all control samples (HCWs and pre-pandemic) to generate an optimised COI limit for reactivity. RESULTS: The assay specificity was 99.8% (n = 980) and sensitivity was 45.9-96.7% (n = 279). When tested ≥ 14 days post-positive RT-PCR (POS), the PPV/NPV was 96.4%/99.8%. The difference between the COIs of HCWs/pre-pandemic samples was small (0.01, p < 0.0001). There was minimal cross-reactivity with other antibodies. A lower COI limit for reactivity (≥0.55, using the 99th percentile COI of our controls and ROC analysis) improved diagnostic sensitivity, especially at 0-6 days POS (45.9-55.8%), with a small decrease in specificity (98.9%). The assay throughput was 100 samples in 70 min. CONCLUSION: The Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay shows excellent performance in patients ≥ 14 days POS. The difference between the COIs of HCWs and pre-pandemic samples was numerically small. A lower COI limit improves assay sensitivity with a slight decrease in specificity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Adult , Automation , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Limit of Detection , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Public Health ; 185: 44, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459366
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