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Journal of Mycology and Infection ; 27(4):75-81, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2231193


Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, only a few studies have reported CAPA in the Republic of Korea. Objective: To describe clinical characteristics of CAPA in patients at a tertiary care hospital in the Republic of Korea. Methods: This retrospective, observational consecutive case series study was conducted by reviewing the electronic medical records of patients who developed CAPA at Seoul National University Hospital from January 1, 2020, to August 31, 2021. CAPA was defined by European Confederation of Medical Mycology/International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ECMM/ISHAM) consensus criteria. Patient demographics, comorbidities, corticosteroid use, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes were investigated. Results: Eleven patients were diagnosed with probable CAPA according to the ECMM/ISHAM criteria. One patient had classical host factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis before admission. All patients received corticosteroid therapy before CAPA diagnosis. The mean total corticosteroid administered before CAPA diagnosis was 220 mg of dexamethasone equivalent dose (range, 80~572 mg), and the mean duration of steroid therapy was 15 days (range, 4~34 days). The median time from intensive care unit admission to CAPA diagnosis was 12 days (range, 5~36 days). All individuals showed aggravation on chest X-rays. Ten patients were diagnosed with positive serum galactomannan (GM), and one was diagnosed with positive GM in a bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Of the 11 patients, 8 received voriconazole-based antifungal therapy for a median of 30.5 days. Only two patients survived after antifungal treatment. Conclusion: These cases illustrate CAPA complicated in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The challenges in diagnosis and poor outcomes of CAPA emphasize the clinical suspicion and needs for further investigation. Copyright@2022 by The Korean Society for Medical Mycology. All right reserved.