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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224047

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a frequent condition in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with worse outcomes. Previous studies suggested an immunothrombosis instead of a thrombus embolism, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants and prognosis of APE during COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively included all consecutive patients with APE confirmed by computed tomography pulmonary angiography hospitalized at Strasbourg University Hospital from 1 March to 31 May 2019 and 1 March to 31 May 2020. A comprehensive set of clinical, biological, and imaging data during hospitalization was collected. The primary outcome was transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: APE was diagnosed in 140 patients: 59 (42.1%) with COVID-19, and 81 (57.9%) without COVID-19. A 812% reduction of non-COVID-19 related APE was registered during the 2020 period. COVID-19 patients showed a higher simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) score (1.15 ± 0.76 vs. 0.83 ± 0.83, p = 0.019) and were more frequently transferred to the ICU (45.8% vs. 6.2%, p < 0.001). No difference regarding the most proximal thrombus localization, Qanadli score (8.1 ± 6.9 vs. 9.0 ± 7.4, p = 0.45), the proportion of subsegmental (10.2% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.86), and segmental pulmonary embolism (35.6% vs. 24.7%, p = 0.16) was evidenced between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 APE. In COVID-19 patients with subsegmental or segmental APE, thrombus was, in all cases (27/27 patients), localized in areas with COVID-19-related lung injuries. Marked inflammatory and prothrombotic biological markers were associated with COVID-19 APE. CONCLUSIONS: APE patients with COVID-19 have a particular clinico-radiological and biological profile and a dismal prognosis. Our results emphasize the preeminent role of inflammation and a prothrombotic state in these patients.

2.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979579

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) penetrates the respiratory epithelium through angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) binding. Myocardial and endothelial expression of ACE2 could account for the growing body of reported evidence of myocardial injury in severe forms of Human Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to provide insight into the impact of troponin (hsTnI) elevation on SARS-CoV-2 outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. (2) Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of hospitalized adult patients with the SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a university hospital in France. The observation period ended at hospital discharge. (3) Results: During the study period, 772 adult, symptomatic COVID-19 patients were hospitalized for more than 24 h in our institution, of whom 375 had a hsTnI measurement and were included in this analysis. The median age was 66 (55-74) years, and there were 67% of men. Overall, 205 (55%) patients were placed under mechanical ventilation and 90 (24%) died. A rise in hsTnI was noted in 34% of the cohort, whereas only three patients had acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and one case of myocarditis. Death occurred more frequently in patients with hsTnI elevation (HR 3.95, 95% CI 2.69-5.71). In the multivariate regression model, a rise in hsTnI was independently associated with mortality (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.49-6.65) as well as age ≥ 65 years old (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.45-7.18) and CRP ≥ 100 mg/L (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.12-13.98). After performing a sensitivity analysis for the missing values of hsTnI, troponin elevation remained independently and significantly associated with death (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.78-8.28). (4) Conclusion: Our study showed a four-fold increased risk of death in the case of a rise in hsTnI, underlining the prognostic value of troponin assessment in the COVID-19 context.

3.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945853

ABSTRACT

While cardiovascular disease has been associated with an increased risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), no studies have described its clinical course in patients with aortic stenosis who had undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Numerous observational studies have reported an association between the A blood group and an increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our objective was to investigate the frequency and clinical course of COVID-19 in a large sample of patients who had undergone TAVR and to determine the associations of the ABO blood group with disease occurrence and outcomes. Patients who had undergone TAVR between 2010 and 2019 were included in this study and followed-up through the recent COVID-19 outbreak. The occurrence and severity (hospitalization and/or death) of COVID-19 and their associations with the ABO blood group served as the main outcome measures. Of the 1125 patients who had undergone TAVR, 403 (36%) died before 1 January 2020, and 20 (1.8%) were lost to follow-up. The study sample therefore consisted of 702 patients. Of them, we identified 22 cases (3.1%) with COVID-19. Fourteen patients (63.6%) were hospitalized or died of disease. Multivariable analysis identified the A blood group (vs. others) as the only independent predictor of COVID-19 in patients who had undergone TAVR (odds ratio (OR) = 6.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.11-18.92; p = 0.001). The A blood group (vs. others; OR = 8.27; 95% CI = 1.83-37.43, p = 0.006) and a history of cancer (OR = 4.99; 95% CI = 1.64-15.27, p = 0.005) were significantly and independently associated with disease severity (hospitalization and/or death). We conclude that patients who have undergone TAVR frequently have a number of cardiovascular comorbidities that may work to increase the risk of COVID-19. The subgroup with the A blood group was especially prone to developing the disease and showed unfavorable outcomes.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 380-389, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932428

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Cardiovascular disease has been recognized as a major determinant of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vulnerability and severity. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a functional receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is up-regulated in patients with heart failure. We sought to examine the potential association between reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 1162 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention between February 2014 and October 2018, we enrolled 889 patients with available clinical follow-up data. Follow-up was conducted by telephone interviews 1 month after the start of the French lockdown which began on 17 March 2020. Patients were divided into two groups according to LVEF <40% (reduced LVEF) (n = 91) or ≥40% (moderately reduced + preserved LVEF) (n = 798). The incidence of COVID-19-related hospitalization or death was significantly higher in the reduced LVEF group as compared with the moderately reduced + preserved LVEF group (9% vs. 1%, P < 0.001). No association was found between discontinuation of ACE-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blockers and COVID-19 test positivity. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, reduced LVEF was an independent predictor of COVID-19 hospitalization or death (odds ratio: 6.91, 95% confidence interval: 2.60 to 18.35, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients with previous ACS, reduced LVEF was associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19. Aggressive COVID-19 testing and therapeutic strategies may be considered for patient with impaired heart function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Disease Susceptibility/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/mortality
6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(1): 95-104, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926192

ABSTRACT

Although a reduction in hospital admissions of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) patients has been observed globally during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, clinical features of those patients have not been fully investigated. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of patients with ACS during the COVID-19 pandemic. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who were admitted for ACS at our institution between March 1 and April 20, 2020 and compared with the equivalent period in 2019. Admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) reduced by 39.5% in 2020 compared with the equivalent period in 2019. Owing to the emergency medical services (EMS) of our region, all time components of ST-elevated myocardial infarction care were similar during the COVID-19 outbreak as compared with the previous year's dataset. Among the 106 ACS patients in 2020, 7 patients tested positive for COVID-19. Higher incidence of type 2 myocardial infarction (29% vs. 4%, p = 0.0497) and elevated D-dimer levels (5650 µg/l [interquartile range (IQR) 1905-13,625 µg/l] vs. 400 µg/l [IQR 270-1050 µg/l], p = 0.02) were observed in COVID-19 patients. In sum, a significant reduction in admission for AMI was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 patients were characterized by elevated D-dimer levels on admission, reflecting enhanced COVID-19 related thrombogenicity. The prehospital evaluation by EMS may have played an important role for the timely revascularization for STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Angina, Unstable/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angina, Unstable/diagnosis , Angina, Unstable/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895382

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) penetrates respiratory epithelium through angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 binding, raising concerns about the potentially harmful effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) on Human Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) evolution. This study aimed to provide insight into the impact of RASi on SARS-CoV-2 outcomes in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. (2) Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of hospitalized adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a university hospital in France. The observation period ended at hospital discharge. (3) Results: During the study period, 943 COVID-19 patients were admitted to our institution, of whom 772 were included in this analysis. Among them, 431 (55.8%) had previously known hypertension. The median age was 68 (56-79) years. Overall, 220 (28.5%) patients were placed under mechanical ventilation and 173 (22.4%) died. According to previous exposure to RASi, we defined two groups, namely, "RASi" (n = 282) and "RASi-free" (n = 490). Severe pneumonia (defined as leading to death and/or requiring intubation, high-flow nasal oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, and/or oxygen flow at a rate of ≥5 L/min) and death occurred more frequently in RASi-treated patients (64% versus 53% and 29% versus 19%, respectively). However, in a propensity score-matched cohort derived from the overall population, neither death (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.50), p = 0.76) nor severe pneumonia (HR 1.03 (95%CI 0.73-1.44), p = 0.85) were associated with RASi therapy. (4) Conclusion: Our study showed no correlation between previous RASi treatment and death or severe COVID-19 pneumonia after adjustment for confounders.

8.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854148

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. COVID-19 may present as acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, and patients with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities are reported to be the most vulnerable. Notably, acute myocardial injury, determined by elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels, is commonly observed in severe cases, and is strongly associated with mortality. Therefore, understanding the effects of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system is essential for providing comprehensive medical care for critically ill patients. In this review, we summarize the rapidly evolving data and highlight the cardiovascular considerations related to COVID-19.

9.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(12): 1716-1719, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735592

ABSTRACT

This is the first study to show a stepwise increase in venous thrombotic events according to COVID-19 coagulopathy (COVID-19-associated hemostatic abnormalities [CAHA]) staging and lung injuries assessed by chest computed tomography. Excess mortality and/or transfer to intensive care unit according to CAHA staging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hemostasis/physiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(7): ofaa249, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651101

ABSTRACT

A 56-year-old man presented a particularly severe and multisystemic case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In addition to the common lung and quite common pulmonary embolism and kidney injuries, he presented ocular and intestinal injuries that, to our knowledge, have not been described in COVID-19 patients. Although it is difficult to make pathophysiological hypotheses about a single case, the multiplicity of injured organs argues for a systemic response to pulmonary infection. A better understanding of physiopathology should feed the discussion about therapeutic options in this type of multifocal damage related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

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