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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1212-1217, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many health care workers around the world tackled with COVID-19, however sadly, the infection of many medical care workers were reported. To reduce the risk of infection, we launched selected team (Team COVID) of non-specialists and brought in active telemedicine method and computed tomography (CT)-first protocol. We describe our actual practice and the health status of medical doctors dealing with COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Between April 17, 2020 and May 24, 2020, 10 doctors worked with COVID-19 patients as part of Team COVID. The Team COVID doctors used a CT-first triage protocol for outpatients and telemedicine for inpatients and outpatients. We evaluated paired serum-specific antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 at the initial and end of the study duration and PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 at the end of the study duration. Furthermore, 36-item short-form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire (SF-36) at the beginning and end of the study period were evaluated. RESULTS: Ten doctors worked as Team COVID: seven internal medicine doctors and three surgeons. During the study period, Team COVID treated 165 individuals in the outpatient clinic and isolated hospitalized patients for 315 person-days. There were no positive results of serum-specific antibody testing and PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Team COVID doctors. Furthermore, the SF-36 showed no deterioration in physical and mental QOL status. No in-hospital infection occurred during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The Team COVID fulfilled the treatment using the active telemedicine and CT-first triage protocol without in hospital infection and excess stress. The combination strategy seems acceptable for both the protection and stress relief among the medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triage
3.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 55, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure is associated with high mortality. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is associated with microembolism or microvascular endothelial injuries. Here, we report that syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a component of the endothelial glycocalyx, may be a biomarker of severity classification for COVID-19 related to endothelial injury. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We analyzed the data of COVID-19 patients for 1 year from February 2020 at Yokohama City University Hospital and Yokohama City University Medical Center Hospital. We selected COVID-19 patients who required admission care, including intensive care, and analyzed the classification of severe and critical COVID-19 retrospectively, using various clinical data and laboratory data with SDC-1 by ELISA. RESULTS: We analyzed clinical and laboratory data with SDC-1 in five severe COVID-19 and ten critical COVID-19 patients. In the two groups, their backgrounds were almost the same. In laboratory data, the LDH, CHE, and CRP levels showed significant differences in each group (P = 0.032, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.007, respectively) with no significant differences in coagulation-related factors (platelet, PT-INR, d-dimer, ISTH score; P = 0.200, 0.277, 0.655, and 0.36, respectively). For the clinical data, the SOFA score was significantly different from admission day to day 14 of admission (p < 0.0001). The SDC-1 levels of critical COVID-19 patients were significantly higher on admission day and all-time course compared with the levels of severe COVID-19 patients (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal change of SDC-1 levels closely reflect the severity of COVID-19, therefore, SDC-1 may be a therapeutic target and a biomarker for the severity classification of Covid-19.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly increases the use of mechanical ventilation (MV). Such cases further require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and have a high mortality. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers pathophysiologically reflecting future deterioration of COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were collected from 102 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Interleukin (IL)-6 level and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA copy number in plasma were assessed with ELISA kit and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Twelve patients died or required ECMO owing to acute respiratory distress syndrome despite the use of MV. Among various variables, a ratio of oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2), IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA on admission before intubation were strongly predictive of fatal outcomes after the MV use. Moreover, among these variables, combining SpO2/FiO2, IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA showed the highest accuracy (area under the curve: 0.934). In patients with low SpO2/FiO2 (< 261), fatal event-rate after the MV use at the 30-day was significantly higher in patients with high IL-6 (> 49 pg/mL) and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia (> 1.5 copies/µL) compared to those with high IL-6 or RNAaemia or without high IL-6 and RNAaemia (88% vs. 22% or 8%, log-rank test P = 0.0097 or P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Combining SpO2/FiO2 with high IL-6 and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia which reflect hyperinflammation and viral overload allows accurately and before intubation identifying COVID-19 patients at high risk for ECMO use or in-hospital death despite the use of MV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13431, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286474

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that leads to severe respiratory failure (RF). It is known that host exposure to viral infection triggers an iron-lowering response to mitigate pathogenic load and tissue damage. However, the association between host iron-lowering response and COVID-19 severity is not clear. This two-center observational study of 136 adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients analyzed the association between disease severity and initial serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels. Serum iron levels were significantly lower in patients with mild RF than in the non-RF group; however, there were no significant differences in iron levels between the non-RF and severe RF groups, depicting a U-shaped association between serum iron levels and disease severity. TIBC levels decreased significantly with increasing severity; consequently, TSAT was significantly higher in patients with severe RF than in other patients. Multivariate analysis including only patients with RF adjusted for age and sex demonstrated that higher serum iron and TSAT levels were independently associated with the development of severe RF, indicating that inadequate response to lower serum iron might be an exacerbating factor for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Iron/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Transferrin/analysis
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26161, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258818

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic continues to spread worldwide. Because of the absence of reliable rapid diagnostic systems, patients with symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 are treated as suspected of the disease. Use of computed tomography findings in Coronavirus disease 2019 are expected to be a reasonable method for triaging patients, and computed tomography-first triage strategies have been proposed. However, clinical evaluation of a computed tomography-first triage protocol is lacking.The aim of this study is to investigate the real-world efficacy and limitations of a computed tomography-first triage strategy in patients with suspected Coronavirus disease 2019.This was a single-center cohort study evaluating outpatients with fever who received medical examination at Yokohama City University Hospital, prospectively registered between 9 February and 5 May 2020. We treated according to the computed tomography-first triage protocol. The primary outcome was efficacy of the computed tomography-first triage protocol for patients with fever in an outpatient clinic. Efficacy of the computed tomography-first triage protocol for outpatients with fever was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. We conducted additional analyses of the isolation time of feverish outpatients and final diagnoses.In total, 108 consecutive outpatients with fever were examined at our hospital. Using the computed tomography-first triage protocol, 48 (44.9%) patients were classified as suspected Coronavirus disease 2019. Nine patients (18.8%) in this group were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using polymerase chain reaction; no patients in the group considered less likely to have Coronavirus disease 2019 tested positive for the virus. The protocol significantly shortened the duration of isolation for the not-suspected versus the suspected group (70.5 vs 1037.0 minutes, P < .001).Our computed tomography-first triage protocol was acceptable for screening patients with suspected Coronavirus disease 2019. This protocol will be helpful for appropriate triage, especially in areas where polymerase chain reaction is inadequate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Triage/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Clinical Protocols , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Young Adult
7.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 26, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure has a high mortality rate. Based on recent reports, the most severely ill patients present with coagulopathy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like massive intravascular clot formation is frequently observed. Coagulopathy has emerged as a significant contributor to thrombotic complications. Although recommendations have been made for anticoagulant use for COVID-19, no guidelines have been specified. We describe four cases of critical COVID-19 with thrombosis detected by enhanced CT scan. The CT findings of all cases demonstrated typical findings of COVID-19 and pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombus without critical exacerbation. Two patients died of respiratory failure due to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Previous reports have suggested coagulopathy with thrombotic signs as the main pathological feature of COVID-19, but no previous reports have focused on coagulopathy evaluated by whole-body enhanced CT scan. Changes in hemostatic biomarkers, represented by an increase in D-dimer and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, indicated that the essence of coagulopathy was massive fibrin formation. Although there were no clinical symptoms related to their prognosis, critical COVID-19-induced systemic thrombus formation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic dose anticoagulants should be considered for critical COVID-19 because of induced coagulopathy, and aggressive follow-up by whole body enhanced CT scan for systemic venous thromboembolism (VTE) is necessary.

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