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1.
Health Promot Int ; 38(3)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237738

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic halted everyday life in higher education along with social and psychological impacts. The objective of our study was to explore the factors related to sense of coherence (SoC) from a gender perspective among university students in Turkey. This is a cross-sectional survey conducted online with a convenience sampling method as part of the international COVID-Health Literacy (COVID-HL) Consortium. SoC was measured by a nine-item questionnaire that was adapted to the Turkish language, including socio-demographic information and health status, including psychological well-being, psychosomatic complaints, and future anxiety (FA). 1595 students from four universities, of whom 72% were female, participated in the study. Cronbach's alpha for the SoC scale was 0.75. Based on the median split of the individual scores, levels of SoC showed no statistically significant difference according to gender. Logistic regression analysis indicated that higher SoC was associated with medium and high subjective social status, studying in private universities, high psychological well-being, low FA, and none/one psychosomatic complaint. While results were similar among female students, type of university and psychological well-being showed no statistically significant association with SoC among males. Our results indicate that structural (subjective social status) and contextual (type of university) factors, along with gender-based variations, are associated with SoC among university students in Turkey.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sense of Coherence , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Turkey/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sex Factors , Students/psychology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268033

ABSTRACT

To date, we know little about COVID-19-related health literacy among school leaders, particularly in East Asia. The present study aimed to assess the level of COVID-19-related health literacy and associated factors (vaccine hesitancy, self-endangering behaviour, and work satisfaction) among school leaders in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional study of 259 school leaders was carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic between April 2021 and February 2022. COVID-19-related health literacy using HLS-COVID-Q22, three subscales of self-endangering work behaviour scales (i.e., "extensification of work", "intensification of work" and "quality reduction"), and two dimensions of Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) (i.e., psychosomatic complaints and exhaustion) were used. The study employed independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and multilinear regression models. The findings show that more than half (53.7%) of school leaders had insufficient health literacy. Participants with insufficient health literacy scored significantly higher in the following factors: exhaustion related to work situation (p = 0.029), psychosomatic complaints (p < 0.001), attitude about vaccination (i.e., less agree with vaccination) (p < 0.001), level of informing on COVID-19 related information (i.e., felt less informed) (p < 0.001), and level of confusion about COVID-19-related information (i.e., felt more confused) (p < 0.001). In a linear regression model predicting attitude about coronavirus vaccination, age (ß, -0.188, 95% CI, -0.024, -0.005, p = 0.002) and health literacy (ß, -0.395, 95% CI, -0.716, -0.361, p < 0.001) were the negative predictors, F(5, 214) = 11.859, p < 0.001. For the linear regression model adjusted for sex and age for predicting health literacy, the model was insignificant. Despite being a highly educated group, this study reveals that one in two Hong Kong school leaders have insufficient health literacy. Inadequate health literacy was strongly associated with a negative attitude about vaccination, low information, and confusion about COVID-19-related information. Additionally, insufficient health literacy was associated with the two secondary symptoms of burnouts. The study highlights an urgent need to develop intervention programmes to promote the COVID-19-specific as well as overall health literacy of the school leaders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Schools , Vaccination/psychology
3.
Digit Health ; 9: 20552076231165970, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254612

ABSTRACT

Background: Digital health literacy (DHL) enables healthy decisions, improves protective behaviors and adherence to COVID-19 measures, especially during the era of the "infodemic", and enhances psychological well-being. Objective: We aimed to explore the mediating roles of fear of COVID-19, information satisfaction, and the importance of online information searching on the association between DHL and well-being. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted among 1631 Taiwanese university students, aged 18 years and above, from June 2021 to March 2022. The collected data include sociodemographic characteristics (sex, age, social status, and financial satisfaction), the importance of online information searching, information satisfaction, fear of COVID-19, DHL, and well-being. A linear regression model was utilized to investigate factors associated with well-being, followed by a pathway analysis to assess the direct and indirect relationship between DHL and well-being. Results: The scores of DHL and overall well-being were 3.1 ± 0.4 and 74.4 ± 19.7, respectively. Social status (B = 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73-3.07, p < 0.001), DHL (B 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.49, p < 0.001), importance of online information searching (B = 0.78, 95% CI 0.38-1.17, p < 0.001), and information satisfaction (B = 3.59, 95% CI 2.22-4.94, p < 0.001) were positively associated with well-being, whereas higher fear of COVID-19 scores (B = -0.38, 95% CI -0.55-(-0.21), p < 0.001) and female (B = -2.99, 95% CI -5.02-0.6, p = 0.004) were associated with lower well-being, when compared with lower fear scores and male, respectively. Fear of COVID-19 (B = 0.03, 95% CI 0.016-0.04, p < 0.001), importance of online information searching (B = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.05, p = 0.005), and information satisfaction (B = 0.05, 95% CI 0.023-0.067, p < 0.001) were significantly mediated the relationship between DHL and well-being. Conclusion: Higher DHL scores show direct and indirect associations with higher well-being scores. Fear, importance of online information searching, and information satisfaction significantly contributed to the association.

4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1052423, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244629

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has generated an avalanche of information, which, if not properly addressed, generates uncertainty and limits healthy decision-making. On the other hand, the pandemic has exacerbated mental health problems among young people and adolescents, causing a worsening of their wellbeing. Previous studies have found that digital health literacy has a positive impact on people's attitudes toward the disease. This study aimed to analyze the association between digital health literacy on COVID-19 with subjective wellbeing in university students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was developed in 917 students from Ecuador. Subjective wellbeing was measured with the World Health Organization WellBeing Scale. Digital health literacy was assessed using the Spanish-translated version of the Digital Health Literacy Instrument adapted to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions were performed. Results: Digital health literacy and subjective wellbeing proofed to be significantly higher among males and among students with higher social status. The association between digital health literacy and subjective wellbeing was significant; for each increase of one point in the digital health literacy scale, an average increase of 9.64 points could be observed on the subjective wellbeing scale (IC 95% 5.61 - 13.67, p-value <0.001). This correlation persisted after adjust by demographic and socioeconomic variables. Conclusion: Improving digital health literacy in health would improve the subjective wellbeing of university students. It is suggested strengthen the digital health literacy through public and university policies that promote access, search skills and discernment of digital information. Socioeconomic and gender inequalities related to digital health literacy need to be further investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Male , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Universities , Ecuador/epidemiology , Students/psychology
5.
Health Sci Rep ; 6(2): e1095, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234643

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health concerns of university students are gaining more attention since the emergence of the coronavirus disease. Consequently, scholars in education, health and psychology-related fields have attributed the dwindling subjective well-being (SWB) of students to their low levels of digital health literacy (DHL). However, little attention has been paid to an important variable like pocket money (PM) which might serve as a buffer against reduced levels of SWB. In this study, we explored the dynamics of PM and its linkage with DHL and SWB among university students in Ghana. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, a convenient sample of 1160 students was obtained from the University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. The COVID-DHL and WHO-5 Well-being instruments were used for the data collection for a 2 months period (February-March, 2021). Chi-square test, multivariate regression, simple linear regression, and PROCESS mediation analyses were performed with the use of SPSS software version 25. Results: The study found that while most of the students were financially supported by their parents (n = 715, 61.6%), a larger proportion of them reported that their PM was either less sufficient or not sufficient (n = 550; 76.9%). Findings revealed a positive relationship between PM and SWB (B = -36.419, p < 0.001; B = -13.146, p = 0.012; B = -10.930, p = 0.043), with this relationship mediated by DHL (B = -1.139, confidence interval [CI] [-2.073, -0.263] vs. -2.300, CI [-4.290, -0.532] vs. -8.366, CI [-14.863, -1.908]). Conclusions: Students with little to insufficient PM were vulnerable to mental health problems, although this could be buffered by the high DHL levels. In practical terms, not only should the PM of university students be increased, but the sources of PM should be complemented since the sufficiency level of PM was associated with the source of finance. More importantly, parents should be empowered through job creation so that sufficient levels of PM can be provided to university students.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225176

ABSTRACT

Gender appears to be a strong predictor of online health information-seeking behaviour (OHISB), which is related to Digital Health Literacy (DHL). Gender differences in OHISB have been studied in different countries with different results, but no studies have investigated gender-specific OHISB among University students during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to investigate any gender differences in OHISB in the period between the first and second waves of the pandemic in Italian university students. A questionnaire developed by the global COVID-HL network, including existing and adapted validated scales and self-developed scales, was administered to 2996 University students in Florence. Gender differences were tested using the χ2 test or the Mann-Whitney U test. Male students reported a higher score in DHL than females (p < 0.001). However, female students seek COVID-19 information more often on different sources (for themselves and other people), on various topics, consider various aspects of information quality to be "very important'' (p < 0.05) and are more likely to be "often dissatisfied'' or "partly satisfied'' with information (p < 0.001). Our study confirmed gender as an important dimension to explain students' OHISB differences, which could help institutions promote gender-specific education programmes and provide gender-oriented health information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Universities , Information Seeking Behavior , Sex Factors , Pandemics
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1057782, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199541

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic developed rapidly, with changing guidelines, misinformation, inaccurate health information and rumors. This situation has highlighted the importance of health literacy, especially among educators. The aims of this study were (i) to assess COVID-19-specific health literacy among school teachers in Hong Kong and (ii) to examine its association with demographic factors, self-endangering work behaviors (i.e., work intensification, work extensification and work quality reduction), secondary burnout symptoms (i.e., exhaustion related to work and psychosomatic complaints), the level of knowledge of COVID-19- or pandemic-related information and the level of confusion about COVID-19-related information. Methods: A self-report survey was administered to 366 Hong Kong school teachers from April 2021 to February 2022. COVID-19-specific health literacy was measured using the HLS-COVID-Q22 instrument. Other instruments, including self-endangering work behavior scales (i.e., extensification of work, intensification of work and work quality reduction) and two dimensions of the Burnout Assessment Tool (i.e., psychosomatic complaints and exhaustion) were also used for assessment. Data were analyzed using an independent samples Student's t-test, analysis of variance, correlation analysis and adjusted multilinear regression models. Results: The results showed that 50.8% of school teachers had sufficient health literacy, 38.3% had problematic health literacy and 10.9% had inadequate health literacy. The HLS-COVID score did not vary by sex, but varied according to the type of school, the number of working hours per week and the number of students attending the school. Teachers with sufficient health literacy scored significantly lower for two types of self-endangering work behavior-intensification of work (p = 0.003) and work quality reduction (p = 0.007)-than those with insufficient health literacy. After excluding those who had already been vaccinated, respondents with sufficient health literacy felt more positive about COVID-19 vaccination than those with insufficient health literacy (t[180] = 4.168, p < 0.001). In addition, teachers with sufficient health literacy felt more informed (p < 0.001) and less confused (p < 0.001) about COVID-19-related information than those with insufficient health literacy. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (ß = 0.14, p = 0.011) and the number of teaching hours per week (ß = -0.206, p < 0.001) were significant predictors of the HLS-COVID score. Conclusions: The findings of this study may serve as a guide for addressing health literacy gaps among school teachers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Hong Kong/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , School Teachers , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has influenced educational systems worldwide. School principals coped with numerous significant challenges regarding school management during the epidemiological crisis that could generate a lot of work-related stress. Thus, the presented study examines Polish school principals' perceived stress and its association with exhaustion and psychosomatic complaints as burnout risk indicators. Principals' gender and age as sociodemographic control variables were also considered in this paper. METHODS: A cross-sectional online study was conducted in eight provinces of Poland from June to December 2021. The study was part of a global COVID-HL school principal survey under the global COVID-Health Literacy Research Network. Two subscales of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) (perceived helplessness [PH] and perceived self-efficacy [PSE]) were considered independent variables in relation to school principals' mental and physical exhaustion and psychosomatic complaints. Regression models consisting of two equations were used to test the relationship between variables. The first equation consists of the control variables (age, gender), and in the second equation, the independent variables (PH and PSE) were included in addition to the control variables. RESULTS: Almost 50% of school principals experienced a lack of control that caused anger and stress. Mental and physical exhaustion during the pandemic was often or always felt by 30% of respondents. Nearly half of Polish school principals experienced psychosomatic complaints in the form of muscle pain and headaches. PH, to a greater extent than PSE, was associated with mental and physical exhaustion and psychosomatic complaints. With age, the level of psychosomatic complaints and mental and physical exhaustion decreases, but it was higher among women. Regression analysis revealed significant associations between exhaustion and mental health outcomes, even after controlling for demographic variables Conclusion: This study showed that almost half of Polish school principals indicated a high frequency of perceived stress during the pandemic. PH was more substantially associated with mental and physical exhaustion in younger female principals than PSE. Younger female school principals reported more exhaustion and psychosomatic complaints. This finding should be the baseline information for policymakers to improve the wellbeing of Polish school principals and prevent the risk of burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Humans , Female , Poland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Schools , Psychophysiologic Disorders , Risk Factors
9.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(6): e916, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127734

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous research has established a strong association between COVID-19 digital health literacy (DHL) and subjective well-being among several populations, including students. With the growing misinformation and heightened fear of COVID-19 among persons with an underlying medical condition, several scholars have questioned the direct relationship between DHL and well-being. This study assessed the moderating roles of information accuracy concerns and the existence of an underlying medical condition among students. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a multi-stage sampling approach was used to select 1392 students from senior high schools in Northern Ghana who completed a questionnaire containing information on DHL, information accuracy, subjective well-being, and underlying health condition, with reported internal consistency coefficients above 0.70. The data which was processed with SPSS version 25, was analyzed using correlation (Pearson and biserial), and Hayes' PROCESS for the moderation and mediation analyses. Results: A significant positive relationship was found between (a) DHL and subjective well-being, (b) DHL and information accuracy concerns, and (c) information accuracy concerns and subjective well-being. However, the prevalence of underlying health condition was negatively associated with information accuracy, DHL, and subjective well-being. Information accuracy concerns and the existence of an underlying medical condition significantly regulated the relationship between DHL and subjective well-being. Conclusions: Demonstrating satisfactory levels of DHL does not necessarily result in improved subjective well-being. However, emphasis should be placed on whether individuals attach much importance to the accuracy of information retrieved as well as having or not an underlying health condition.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(23)2022 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123679

ABSTRACT

The health and well-being of school leaders during the COVID-19 pandemic have been largely neglected compared to the health and well-being of students and teachers. This study assessed the magnitude of perceived stress and well-being and the associated factors, including number of working hours, work-related sense of coherence (work-SoC), perceived stress, self-endangering work behaviour, secondary burnout symptoms, and satisfaction with work, among school leaders in Hong Kong, China during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional, survey-based study collected demographic data and mental health measurements from 259 eligible school leaders in Hong Kong from April 2021 to February 2022. Pearson's correlation analyses, multilinear regression models, and independent-samples Student's t-tests were performed. The findings revealed that school leaders' perceived stress was negatively correlated with their well-being (r = -0.544, p < 0.01) and work-related SoC (r = -0.327, p < 0.01) but positively correlated with their extensification of work (r = 0.473, p < 0.01), exhaustion related to work situations (r = 0.559, p < 0.01), and psychosomatic complaints (r = 0.439, p < 0.01). In a model that adjusted for gender and age, student leaders with higher subjective well-being scores had a lower level of perceived stress (B = -0.031; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.59, -0.02; p = 0.034), whereas leaders in schools with a larger student population had a higher level of perceived stress (B = 0.002; 95% CI, 0.000, 0.003; p = 0.030). School leaders with a higher likelihood of performing the self-endangering work behaviour of 'intensification of work' had higher perceived stress levels (B = 1.497; 95% CI, 0.717, 2.278; p < 0.001). School leaders with a higher work-related SoC (B = 4.20; 95% CI, 1.290, 7.106; p = 0.005) had a higher level of well-being. School leaders with higher levels of perceived stress (B = -0.734; 95% CI, -1.423, -0.044; p = 0.037), a higher likelihood of performing the self-endangering work behaviour of 'extensification of work' (B = -4.846; 95% CI, -8.543, -1.149; p = 0.010), and a higher score for exhaustion related to work (B = -10.449; 95% CI, -13.864, -7.033; p = 0.000) showed lower levels of well-being. The finding of a high incidence of stress among school leadership justifies the need for more societal attention to the well-being of school leaders in Hong Kong. It is important that policies and initiatives are designed to enhance the well-being of school leaders and that they are supported in leading the management of schools and coping with stress in school settings.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Schools , Hong Kong/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110071

ABSTRACT

School teachers have faced many challenges due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and public health-related containment measures. Recent studies have demonstrated high levels of stress and mental health issues among school teachers. To better understand teacher well-being and inform practices to support them in the face of the ongoing pandemic, we aimed to assess perceived stress, well-being and associated factors among school teachers in Hong Kong, China. For this cross-sectional study, we employed a self-reported questionnaire to assess teacher well-being as an indicator of mental health. Drawing on quantitative data obtained from 336 teachers in Hong Kong from April 2021 to February 2022, we assessed workloads, work-related sense of coherence, perceived stress, secondary burnout symptoms (i.e. intensification of work and exhaustion related to work situation), self-endangering work behaviours and satisfaction with work. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the associations between well-being, demographic and work characteristics. A high percentage (87.6%) of teachers had high levels of perceived stress, which was positively associated with extensification of work (r = 0.571, p < 0.01), intensification of work (r = 0.640, p < 0.01) and exhaustion related to work situation (r = 0.554, p < 0.01). A multilinear regression model adjusted for age and gender was computed to detect predictors of teachers' well-being index values (F(12, 296) = 41.405, p < 0.001, R2 = 0.627). A higher WHO-5 score was associated with (1) higher teaching hours (B = 0.235, 95% CI = 0.093, 0.413, p = 0.002); (2) higher work-related sense of coherence (B = 2.490, 95% CI = 0.209, 4.770, p = 0.032); (3) higher work satisfaction (B = 5.410, 95% CI = 2.979, 7.841, p < 0.001); (4) lower level of exhaustion related to work situations (B = -9.677, 95% CI = -12.279, -7.075, p < 0.001); and (5) lower level of psychosomatic complaints (B = -4.167, 95% CI = -6.739, -7.075, p = 0.002). These findings highlight the critical need to allocate more attention and resources to improve the mental health of school teachers in Hong Kong. The findings can also inform the development of psychological and organisational interventions and support mechanisms for teachers during the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic and in preparation for future stressful scenarios. Safeguarding the well-being and mental health of teachers is important for improving the quality of teaching and learning environments and the mental health of school students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065945

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate the associations between information searching about public health and social measures (PHSM) and university students' digital health literacy (DHL) related to the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 3,084 Portuguese university students (75.7% females), with an average age of 24.2 (SD = 7.5). Sociodemographic data, DHL questionnaire and online information concerning PHSM were gathered. Cox proportional hazards models were performed. RESULTS: Students who searched for personal protective measures achieved in shorter time sufficient "evaluating reliability" (HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1; 1.7) and "determining relevance" (HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.2; 1.8). Searching for surveillance and response measures was associated with sufficient "determining relevance" (HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1; 1.9). Finally, those students who searched for environmental, economic and psychosocial measures achieved in shorter time "determining relevance" (HR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0; 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: Searching for PHSM was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of achieving sufficient DHL subscales in a shorter time. Further studies are needed, including developing strategies to increase the availability of high-quality information concerning public health and social measures and to improve (digital) health literacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infodemic , Male , Public Health , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061344, 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053212

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Examine if pre-COVID-19 pandemic (prior March 2020) health-related behaviours during primary school are associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2021. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using an online cohort survey (January 2018 to February 2020) linked with routine PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results. SETTING: Children attending primary schools in Wales (2018-2020), UK, who were part of the Health and Attainment of Pupils in a Primary Education Network (HAPPEN)_school network. PARTICIPANTS: Complete linked records of eligible participants were obtained for n=7062 individuals. 39.1% (n=2764) were tested (age 10.6±0.9; 48.9% girls) and 8.1% (n=569) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (age 10.6±1.0; 54.5% girls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Logistic regression of health-related behaviours and demographics were used to determine the ORs of factors associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Consuming sugary snacks (1-2 days/week OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.49; 5-6 days/week OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.61; reference 0 days), can swim 25 m (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.39) and age (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.35) were associated with an increased likelihood of being tested for SARS-CoV-2. Eating breakfast (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.27), weekly physical activity ≥60 min (1-2 days OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.74; 3-4 days OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.82; reference 0 days), out-of-school club participation (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), can ride a bike (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.93), age (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.28) and girls (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46) were associated with an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Living in least deprived areas (quintile 4 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.90; quintile 5 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.89) compared with the most deprived (quintile 1) was associated with a decreased likelihood. CONCLUSIONS: Associations may be related to parental health literacy and monitoring behaviours. Physically active behaviours may include coparticipation with others and exposure to SARS-CoV-2. A risk-versus-benefit approach must be considered in relation to promoting these health behaviours, given the importance of health-related behaviours such as childhood physical activity for development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Child , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Health Behavior
14.
BMJ open ; 12(9), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2011945

ABSTRACT

Objectives Examine if pre-COVID-19 pandemic (prior March 2020) health-related behaviours during primary school are associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2021. Design Retrospective cohort study using an online cohort survey (January 2018 to February 2020) linked with routine PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results. Setting Children attending primary schools in Wales (2018–2020), UK, who were part of the Health and Attainment of Pupils in a Primary Education Network (HAPPEN)_school network. Participants Complete linked records of eligible participants were obtained for n=7062 individuals. 39.1% (n=2764) were tested (age 10.6±0.9;48.9% girls) and 8.1% (n=569) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (age 10.6±1.0;54.5% girls). Main outcome measures Logistic regression of health-related behaviours and demographics were used to determine the ORs of factors associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Results Consuming sugary snacks (1–2 days/week OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.49;5–6 days/week OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.61;reference 0 days), can swim 25 m (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.39) and age (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.35) were associated with an increased likelihood of being tested for SARS-CoV-2. Eating breakfast (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.27), weekly physical activity ≥60 min (1–2 days OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.74;3–4 days OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.82;reference 0 days), out-of-school club participation (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), can ride a bike (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.93), age (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.28) and girls (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46) were associated with an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Living in least deprived areas (quintile 4 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.90;quintile 5 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.89) compared with the most deprived (quintile 1) was associated with a decreased likelihood. Conclusions Associations may be related to parental health literacy and monitoring behaviours. Physically active behaviours may include coparticipation with others and exposure to SARS-CoV-2. A risk-versus-benefit approach must be considered in relation to promoting these health behaviours, given the importance of health-related behaviours such as childhood physical activity for development.

15.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2064-2077, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School principals have been reported to have a higher prevalence of burnout and psychological problems than their colleagues. During the pandemic, extra workload and pressure from unprecedented situations potentially cause fear, stress and depression. Therefore, we aimed to explore associated factors of stress, fear of COVID-19 (F-CoV-19S) and depressive symptoms among school principals. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Taiwan from 23 June to 16 July 2021. Data of 413 school principals were collected, including socio-demographic factors, COVID-19-related factors, work-related information, health status, sense of coherence (SoC), health literacy (HL), F-CoV-19S, stress and depression. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were utilized to explore associations. RESULTS: School principals with symptoms like COVID-19 (S-COVID-19-S), or with health-related activity limitations had a higher score of stress (B = 0.92; p = .039) (B = 1.52; p < .001) and a higher depression likelihood (OR = 3.38; p < .001) (OR = 3.06; p < .001), whereas those with a better SoC had a lower stress score (B = -1.39; p < .001) and a lower depression likelihood (OR = 0.76; p = .020). School principals confusing about COVID-19-related information had a higher score of stress (B = 2.47; p < .001) and fear (B = 3.77; p < .001). The longer working time was associated with a higher fear score (B = 1.69; p = .006). Additionally, school principals with a higher HL score had a lower stress score (B = -1.76; p < .001), a lower fear score (B = -1.85; p < .001) and a lower depression likelihood (OR = 0.53; p = .043). CONCLUSIONS: Health-related activity limitations, S-COVID-19-S, COVID-19-related information confusion and longer working hours were positively associated with at least one mental health problem (e.g. stress, fear and depression), whereas better SoC and HL showed the benefits to mitigate fear, stress and depressive symptoms in school principals. Our study provides evidence for appropriate strategies to improve principals' mental health during the pandemic.Key messages:School principals with health-related activity limitations or with symptoms like COVID-19 were more likely to be stressed and depressed.Higher levels of stress and fear were observed in school principals who confused about COVID-19-related information, and who had longer working time than before the pandemic.Better sense of coherence and higher health literacy could potentially mitigate the fear, stress and depressive symptoms in school principals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Sense of Coherence , Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Fear , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Scand J Public Health ; 50(6): 660-661, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928027

ABSTRACT

For the management of the COVID-19 pandemic, risk communication has been a much-needed preventive and educative action to support citizens - including children - to adopt preventive and health protective measures. However, the COVID-19 pandemic is not the only health concern at hand that has raised concerns about the health status of children and required disease-preventive strategies. Bearing in mind the mental health problems and learning losses reported during the pandemic, in this commentary, we will argue that by now, it is time to consider critically if there could be more space for positive communication and education, both alongside and as an integral part of risk communication, to help adolescents not just to survive but also to live the fullest possible life now and in the future. Otherwise, the adolescents of COVID-19 could become 'the children of risk communication' to the detriment of their health and well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communication , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 65(7-8): 758-767, 2022 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examines the extent to which schools implement activities on health promotion and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, potential differences with regard to demographic variables, school type, state, and participation in state health promotion initiatives are determined. METHODS: As part of the international COVID Health Literacy Network, an online-based study was conducted from March to April 2021 with 2186 school principals from the German federal states of Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, and North Rhine-Westphalia. The implementation status of COVID-19-related school health promotion was assessed using a self-developed instrument. After examining the factorial structure of the instrument, univariate and bivariate data analyses were performed. RESULTS: Three dimensions of implementing school health promotion can be identified: (1) COVID-19-related support for pupils, (2) health promoting design of teaching, learning, and working conditions, and (3) the principles of Health Promoting Schools. A low level of implementation is observed for aspects of teaching, learning, and working conditions as well as for participation and cooperation with community stakeholders. Significant differences are observed, with female, older, and primary school principals reporting a higher implementation status, while for federal states non-homogenous differences are found. Stratified by participation in state health promotion initiatives, only schools with a certificate in health promotion show a higher level of implementation. DISCUSSION: The results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic is a disruptive event for schools, impeding the implementation of holistic activities on health promotion and prevention. In particular, more attention should be given to the creation of health promoting working conditions, participation, and community cooperation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Health Promotion/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , School Health Services , Schools
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862800

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic and the associated "infodemic" have shown the importance of surveillance and promotion of health literacy, especially for young adults such as university students who use digital media to a very high degree. This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the Italian version of the COVID-19 adapted version of the Digital Health Literacy Instrument (DHLI). This cross-sectional study is part of the COVID-19 University Students Survey involving 3985 students from two Italian universities. First, item analysis and internal consistency were assessed. Then, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed comparing different models. The Italian DHLI showed good psychometric characteristics. The protecting privacy subscale was excluded, given the criticalities presented in the validation process. CFA confirmed the four-factor structure, also including a high-order factor. This result allows using the scale to measure a global level of digital health literacy and consider its levels separately for each construct component: searching the web for information, evaluating reliability, determining personal relevance, and adding self-generated content.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Language , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Universities , Young Adult
19.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266276, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789183

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a growing interest in online information about coronavirus worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the digital health literacy (DHL) level, information-seeking behaviour, and satisfaction of information on COVID-19 among East and South-East Asia university students. This cross-sectional web-based study was conducted between April to June 2020 by recruiting students from universities in China, Malaysia, and the Philippines. University students who have Internet access were invited to participate in the study. Items on sociodemographic variables, DHL, information-seeking behaviour, and information satisfaction were included in the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were conducted. A total of 5302 university students responded to the survey. The overall mean score across the four DHL subscales was 2.89 (SD: 0.42). Search engines (e.g., Google, Bing, Yahoo) (92.0%) and social media (88.4%) were highly utilized by the students, whereas Websites of doctors or health insurance companies were of lower utilization (64.7%). Across the domains (i.e., adding self-generated content, determining relevance, evaluating reliability, and protecting privacy) higher DHL was positively associated with higher usage of trustworthy resources. Providing online information on COVID-19 at official university websites and conducting health talks or web-based information dissemination about the strategies for mental health challenges during pandemic could be beneficial to the students. Strengthening DHL among university students will enhance their critical thinking and evaluation of online resources, which could direct them to the quality and trustworthy information sources on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Information Seeking Behavior , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 658, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigates university students' digital health literacy and web-based information-seeking behaviours during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in England. It compares undergraduate and postgraduate students in non-health related subjects with health care students, many of whom were preparing for, or working in, frontline roles. The survey was conducted as part of a wider study by the COVID-HL research consortium. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among n = 691 university students aged ≥18 years from 25 universities across England using an adapted digital survey developed by COVID-HL. Data were collected regarding sociodemographic characteristics and specific measures drawn from the Future Anxiety Scale and the Digital Health Literacy Instrument (DHLI). These had been adapted for use in an English setting and to the specific context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Other data collected included students' anxiety or worries about the future using the Dark Future Scale as well as behaviours in online information-seeking. Data were analysed using correlations to test for relationships between constructs and also between group comparisons to test for differences between students studying health and non-health related subjects. RESULTS: Across digital health literacy dimensions, there was no significant difference between students studying health-related subjects and other students. Health care students did report greater difficulties in relation to how to behave online. They also relied less on public body sources for information about the pandemic. A significant difference was found between the two student populations in relation to their anxiety about the future with health care students reporting fewer fears about the future. CONCLUSIONS: Although digital health literacy is well developed in university students, a significant proportion of students still face difficulties with evaluating online information which may frustrate public health efforts. This could be addressed by ensuring health students' curriculum in particular encompasses digital health literacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
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