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1.
J Public Health Afr ; 13(3): 1720, 2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201489

ABSTRACT

Background: Many sub-Saharan African patients receive clinical care from extramurally-supported research and surveillance. Dur- ing the COVID-19 pandemic, pausing these activities reduces pa- tient care, surveillance, and research staff employment, increasing pandemic losses. In Oyo State, Nigeria, we paused a multi-country invasive salmonellosis surveillance initiative and a rural clinical bac- teriology project. Objective: Working with research partners raises health facility con- cerns about SARS-CoV-2 transmission risks and incurs infection pre- vention costs, so we developed and implemented re-opening plans to protect staff and patients and help health facilities deliver care. Methods: Our reopening plan included appointing safety and per- sonal protective equipment (PPE) managers from existing project staff cadres, writing new standard operating procedures, implement- ing extensive assessed training, COVID-19 testing for staff, procuring and managing PPE, and providing secondary bacteraemia blood culture support for COVID-19 patients in State isolation facilities. Results: Surveillance data showed that the pandemic reduced care access and negatively affected patient unsupervised antibacterial use. The re-opening plan repurposed human and material resources from national and international extramurally-supported programs to mitigate these effects on public health. Conclusions: A structured reopening plan restarted care, surveil- lance, and infection prevention and control.

3.
Afr J Lab Med ; 10(1): 1785, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596581
6.
Afr J Lab Med ; 9(1): 1447, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067843
8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 554-557, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596923

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19, is shed in stool. SARS coronaviruses have been detected in wastewater during outbreaks in China, Europe, and the United States. In this perspective, we outline the risk fecal shedding poses at locations without safely managed sanitation, as in most of Nigeria where we work. We believe that feco-oral transmission could occur if community transmission becomes high and sustained in densely populated cities without proper sanitation in Nigeria and many other African and Asian settings. In the absence of basic sanitation, or where existing sanitation is not safely managed, groundwater, which is often drawn up from wells and boreholes for drinking and household use, can become contaminated with enteric bacteria and viruses from fecal matter. Endemic and epidemic transmission of multiple feco-oral pathogens via this route continues to be documented in areas without safely managed sanitation, and, therefore, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission needs to be evaluated, tracked, and forestalled in such settings. We suggest that fecal matter from treatment facilities and recovered patients should be carefully and properly disposed. Furthermore, environmental surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and accumulated human waste, as well as efforts to mitigate the virus' entry into unprotected household water sources, should be a priority part of the COVID-19 response in settings without safely managed sanitation for the duration of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Sanitation , Water Quality , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Groundwater , Humans , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Water Wells
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