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1.
Chest ; 160(2): 652-670, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491830

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating medical and economic consequences globally. The severity of COVID-19 is related, in a large measure, to the extent of pulmonary involvement. The role of chest CT imaging in the management of patients with COVID-19 has evolved since the onset of the pandemic. Specifically, the description of CT scan findings, use of chest CT imaging in various acute and subacute settings, and its usefulness in predicting chronic disease have been defined better. We performed a review of published data on CT scans in patients with COVID-19. A summary of the range of imaging findings, from typical to less common abnormalities, is provided. Familiarity with these findings may facilitate the diagnosis and management of this disease. A comparison of sensitivity and specificity of chest CT imaging with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing highlights the potential role of CT imaging in difficult-to-diagnose cases of COVID-19. The usefulness of CT imaging to assess prognosis, to guide management, and to identify acute pulmonary complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is highlighted. Beyond the acute stage, it is important for clinicians to recognize pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities, progressive fibrotic lung disease, and vascular changes that may be responsible for persistent respiratory symptoms. A large collection of multi-institutional images were included to elucidate the CT scan findings described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Respir Care ; 66(12): 1805-1814, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) continues to be a global challenge due to the lack of definitive treatment strategies. We sought to determine the efficacy of early administration of anti-interleukin 6 therapy in reducing hospital mortality and progression to mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of 11,512 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who were admitted to a New York health system from March to May 2020. Tocilizumab was administered to subjects at the nasal cannula level of oxygen support to maintain an oxygen saturation of >88%. The Charlson comorbidity index was used as an objective assessment of the burden of comorbidities to predict 10-year mortality. The primary outcome of interest was hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were progression to mechanical ventilation; the prevalence of venous thromboembolism and renal failure; and the change in C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and ferritin levels after tocilizumab administration. Propensity score matching by using a 1:2 protocol was used to match the tocilizumab and non-tocilizumab groups to minimize selection bias. The groups were matched on baseline demographic characteristics, including age, sex, and body mass index; Charlson comorbidity index score; laboratory markers, including ferritin, D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein values; and the maximum oxygen requirement at the time of tocilizumab administration. Mortality outcomes were evaluated based on the level of oxygen requirement and the day of hospitalization at the time of tocilizumab administration. RESULTS: The overall hospital mortality was significantly reduced in the tocilizumab group when tocilizumab was administered at the nasal cannula level (10.4% vs 22.0%; P = .002). In subjects who received tocilizumab at the nasal cannula level, the progression to mechanical ventilation was reduced versus subjects who were initially on higher levels of oxygen support (6.3% vs 18.7%; P < .001). There was no improvement in mortality when tocilizumab was given at the time of requiring non-rebreather, high-flow nasal cannula, noninvasive ventilator, or invasive ventilator. CONCLUSIONS: Early use of anti-interleukin 6 therapy may be associated with improved hospital mortality and reduction in progression to more severe coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
3.
Chest ; 160(2): 652-670, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220803

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating medical and economic consequences globally. The severity of COVID-19 is related, in a large measure, to the extent of pulmonary involvement. The role of chest CT imaging in the management of patients with COVID-19 has evolved since the onset of the pandemic. Specifically, the description of CT scan findings, use of chest CT imaging in various acute and subacute settings, and its usefulness in predicting chronic disease have been defined better. We performed a review of published data on CT scans in patients with COVID-19. A summary of the range of imaging findings, from typical to less common abnormalities, is provided. Familiarity with these findings may facilitate the diagnosis and management of this disease. A comparison of sensitivity and specificity of chest CT imaging with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing highlights the potential role of CT imaging in difficult-to-diagnose cases of COVID-19. The usefulness of CT imaging to assess prognosis, to guide management, and to identify acute pulmonary complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is highlighted. Beyond the acute stage, it is important for clinicians to recognize pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities, progressive fibrotic lung disease, and vascular changes that may be responsible for persistent respiratory symptoms. A large collection of multi-institutional images were included to elucidate the CT scan findings described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
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