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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6100, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077054

ABSTRACT

In cultured cells, SARS-CoV-2 infects cells via multiple pathways using different host proteases. Recent studies have shown that the furin and TMPRSS2 (furin/TMPRSS2)-dependent pathway plays a minor role in infection of the Omicron variant. Here, we confirm that Omicron uses the furin/TMPRSS2-dependent pathway inefficiently and enters cells mainly using the cathepsin-dependent endocytosis pathway in TMPRSS2-expressing VeroE6/TMPRSS2 and Calu-3 cells. This is the case despite efficient cleavage of the spike protein of Omicron. However, in the airways of TMPRSS2-knockout mice, Omicron infection is significantly reduced. We furthermore show that propagation of the mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 QHmusX strain and human clinical isolates of Beta and Gamma is reduced in TMPRSS2-knockout mice. Therefore, the Omicron variant isn't an exception in using TMPRSS2 in vivo, and analysis with TMPRSS2-knockout mice is important when evaluating SARS-CoV-2 variants. In conclusion, this study shows that TMPRSS2 is critically important for SARS-CoV-2 infection of murine airways, including the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Cathepsins , Furin/genetics , Furin/metabolism , Mice, Knockout , Peptide Hydrolases , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
2.
Pathogens ; 11(8)2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969405

ABSTRACT

In this study, we show that the coronavirus (CoV) genome may encode many functional hydrophobic alpha-helical peptides (HAHPs) in overlapping reading frames of major coronaviral proteins throughout the entire viral genome. These HAHPs can theoretically be expressed from non-canonical sub-genomic (sg)RNAs that are synthesized in substantial amounts in infected cells. We selected and analyzed five and six HAHPs encoded in the S gene regions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively. Two and three HAHPs derived from SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV, respectively, specifically interacted with both the SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV S proteins and inhibited their membrane fusion activity. Furthermore, one of the SARS-CoV-2 HAHPs specifically inhibited viral RNA synthesis by accumulating at the site of viral RNA synthesis. Our data show that a group of HAHPs in the coronaviral genome potentially has a regulatory role in viral propagation.

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