Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
Add filters

Language
Year range
1.
Nature ; 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984401

ABSTRACT

Identifying the factors underlying severe COVID-19 in the host genetics is an emerging issue1-5. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 2,393 Japanese COVID-19 cases collected in initial pandemic waves with 3,289 controls, which identified a variant on 5q35 (rs60200309-A) near DOCK2 associated with severe COVID-19 in younger (<65 ages) patients (nCase=440, odds ratio=2.01, P=1.2×10-8). This risk allele was prevalent in East Asians but rare in Europeans, showing a value of non-European GWAS. RNA-seq of 473 bulk peripheral blood identified decreasing effect of the risk allele on DOCK2 expression in younger patients. DOCK2 expression was suppressed in severe forms of COVID-19. Single cell RNA-seq analysis (n=61) identified cell type-specific downregulation of DOCK2 and COVID-19-specific decreasing effects of the risk allele on DOCK2 in non-classical monocytes. Immunohistochemistry of lung specimens from severe COVID-19 pneumonia showed suppressed DOCK2. Moreover, inhibition of DOCK2 function using CPYPP induced much more severe pneumonia in a Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection characterized as weight loss, lung edema, enhanced viral loads, impaired macrophage recruitment and dysregulated type I interferon responses. We conclude that DOCK2 plays an important role in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and development of severe COVID-19, and could be further explored as a potential biomarker and/or therapeutic target.

2.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 29: 343-353, 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977695

ABSTRACT

We evaluated mRNA and miRNA in COVID-19 patients and elucidated the pathogenesis of COVID-19, including protein profiles, following mRNA and miRNA integration analysis. mRNA and miRNA sequencing was done on admission with whole blood of 5 and 16 healthy controls (HCs) and 10 and 31 critically ill COVID-19 patients (derivation and validation cohorts, respectively). Interferon (IFN)-α2, IFN-ß, IFN-γ, interleukin-27, and IFN-λ1 were measured in COVID-19 patients on admission (day 1, 181 critical/22 non-critical patients) and days 6-8 (168 critical patients) and in 19 HCs. In the derivation cohort, 3,488 mRNA and 31 miRNA expressions were identified among differentially expressed RNA expressions in the patients versus those in HCs, and 2,945 mRNA and 32 miRNA expressions in the validation cohort. Canonical pathway analysis showed the IFN signaling pathway to be most activated. The IFN-ß plasma level was elevated in line with increased severity compared with HCs, as were IFN-ß downstream proteins, such as interleukin-27. IFN-λ1 was higher in non-critically ill patients versus HCs but lower in critical than non-critical patients. Integration of mRNA and miRNA analysis showed activated IFN signaling. Plasma IFN protein profile revealed that IFN-ß (type I) and IFN-λ1 (type III) played important roles in COVID-19 disease progression.

3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 516, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947507

ABSTRACT

The development of an in vitro cell model that can be used to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) research is expected. Here we conducted infection experiments in bronchial organoids (BO) and an BO-derived air-liquid interface model (BO-ALI) using 8 SARS-CoV-2 variants. The infection efficiency in BO-ALI was more than 1,000 times higher than that in BO. Among the bronchial epithelial cells, we found that ciliated cells were infected with the virus, but basal cells were not. Ciliated cells died 7 days after the viral infection, but basal cells survived after the viral infection and differentiated into ciliated cells. Fibroblast growth factor 10 signaling was essential for this differentiation. These results indicate that BO and BO-ALI may be used not only to evaluate the cell response to SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapeutic agents, but also for airway regeneration studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bronchi , Humans , Organoids
4.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918620

ABSTRACT

Introduction Resistin is reported to form a cytokine network and cause endothelial damage. The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown, but the association between cytokine storm and endothelial damage is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate resistin in COVID-19 pathogenesis compared with sepsis. Materials and Methods First, we evaluated the association of plasma resistin levels and disease severity and clinical outcome in two large cohorts: a publicly available cohort including 306 COVID-19 patients in the United States (MGH cohort) and our original cohort including only intubated 113 patients in Japan (Osaka cohort 1). Second, to understand pathogenesis, we evaluate resistin, cytokines and endothelial cell adhesion molecules in COVID-19 compared with sepsis. Blood samples were collected from 62 ICU-treated COVID-19 patients and 38 sepsis patients on day 1 (day of ICU admission), days 2-3, days 6-8, and from 18 healthy controls (Osaka cohort 2). The plasma resistin, inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and IL-10) and endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were compared between patients and control. Correlations among resistin, inflammatory cytokines and endothelial cell adhesion molecules were evaluated in COVID-19 and sepsis. Results In the MGH cohort, the day 1 resistin levels were associated with disease severity score. The non-survivors showed significantly greater resistin levels than survivors on days 1, 4 and 8. In the Osaka cohort 1, 28-day non-survivors showed significantly higher resistin levels than 28-day survivors on days 6-8. Patients with late recovery (defined as the day of weaning off mechanical ventilation >12 or death) had significantly higher resistin levels than those with early recovery on day 1 and days 6-8. In the Osaka cohort 2, plasma resistin levels were elevated in COVID-19 and sepsis patients compared to controls at all measurement points and were associated with inflammatory cytokines and endothelial cell adhesion molecules. Conclusion Resistin was elevated in COVID-19 patients and was associated with cytokines and endothelial cell adhesion molecules. Higher resistin levels were related to worse outcome.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330058

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit a cytokine storm characterized by greatly elevated levels of cytokines during worsening disease. Despite this, the interferon (IFN) response is delayed, contributing to disease progression. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 generates excessive amounts of small viral RNAs (svRNAs) encoding exact 5′ ends of positive-sense genes in human cells, whereas significantly fewer similar svRNAs are produced by endemic human coronaviruses (OC43 and 229E). SARS-CoV-2 5′ end svRNAs are RIG-I agonists associated with IFN-beta expression in later stages of infection. The first 60-nt ends bearing duplex structures and 5′-triphosphates are responsible for immune-stimulation. The 5′ end svRNAs were also produced during infection ex vivo and in vivo . The delta variant retains the robust 5′ end svRNA production of the parental strain, whereas omicron (BA.1 and BA.2) produces little of these erroneous svRNAs. We propose that RIG-I activation by accumulated 5′ end svRNAs overcomes the initial IFN antagonistic ability of viral proteins and contributes to drive late over-exuberant IFN production leading to the development of severe COVID-19 and suggest that evolutionary modification of SARS-CoV-2 5′ end svRNA production may correlate with the reduced disease severity likely seen with omicron (BA.1 and BA.2).

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328658

ABSTRACT

Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit a cytokine storm characterized by greatly elevated levels of cytokines during worsening disease 1-4 . Despite this, the interferon (IFN) response is delayed, contributing to disease progression 5 . Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 generates excessive amounts of small viral RNAs (svRNAs) encoding exact 5′ ends of positive sense genes in human cells, whereas significantly fewer similar svRNAs are produced by endemic human coronaviruses (OC43 and 229E). SARS-CoV-2 5′ end svRNAs are potent RIG-I agonists associated with IFN-β expression in later stages of infection. The first 60-nt ends bearing duplex structures and 5′-triphosphates are responsible for immune-stimulation. The 5′ end svRNAs were also produced during infection in vivo. The delta variant retains the robust 5’ end svRNA production of the parental strain, whereas omicron no longer produces these erroneous svRNAs. We propose that RIG-I activation by accumulated 5′ end svRNAs overcomes the initial IFN antagonistic ability of viral proteins and drives late over-exuberant IFN production leading to the development of severe COVID-19 and suggest that evolutionary modification of SARS-CoV-2 5’ end svRNA production may correlate with the reduced disease severity likely seen with omicron.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309868

ABSTRACT

Background: Resistin increases in septic subjects and is associated with severity and prognosis. Its role in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. We investigated relationships between resistin and the severity, prognosis and time to wean off mechanical ventilation (MV) in two cohorts. Methods: : Plasma resistin was available for 306 mild-to-critical COVID-19 patients on days 1, 4 and 8 from the Massachusetts General Hospital Emergency Department COVID-19 (MGH) cohort public proteomics data. The relationship between resistin and severity (World Health Organization COVID-19 outcomes) and the prognosis were evaluated. A cohort of 62 critical COVID-19 patients (Osaka cohort) was used to evaluate the relationship between resistin on days 1 (day of ICU admission), 2–3, 6–8 and 11–15 and the prognosis and time to wean off MV. Correlations among resistin, inflammatory cytokines and endothelial damage markers were evaluated. Results: : In the MGH cohort, day 1 resistin was associated with severity and predicted the prognosis in an ROC analysis (AUC, 0.739;95% CI, 0.659–0.819). Twenty-eight-day non-survivors showed significantly greater resistin levels than 28-day survivors on days 1, 4 and 8. In the Osaka cohort, a Cox proportional hazards model (time dependent) showed a significant relationship between resistin and time to wean off MV (crude hazard ratio, 0.702 [95% CI, 0.508–0.969]). Resistin formed a network with inflammatory cytokines and endothelial damage markers. Conclusions: : Resistin was associated with severity, prognosis and time to wean off MV in COVID-19 patients. Resistin formed a network with inflammatory cytokines and endothelial damage markers, suggesting its contribution to the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

8.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1651875

ABSTRACT

Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new viral disease. Uncontrolled inflammation called “cytokine storm” is reported to contribute to disease pathogenesis as well as sepsis. We aimed to identify cytokines related to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 through a proteomics analysis of 1463 plasma proteins, validate these cytokines, and compare them with sepsis. Materials and Methods In a derivation cohort of 306 patients with COVID-19, 1463 unique plasma proteins were measured on days 1, 4, and 8. Cytokines associated with disease severity and prognosis were derived. In a validation cohort of 62 COVID-19 patients and 38 sepsis patients treated in the intensive care unit [ICU], these derived cytokines were measured on days 1 (day of ICU admission), 2-3, and 6-8 (maximum: 3 time points/patient). Derived cytokines were compared with healthy controls and between COVID-19 and sepsis patients, and the associations with prognosis were evaluated. The time to wean off mechanical ventilation (MV) was evaluated only for COVID-19. Results IL-6, amphiregulin, and growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 were associated with disease severity and prognosis in the derivation cohort. In the validation cohort, IL-6 and GDF-15 were elevated in COVID-19 and sepsis on day 1, and the levels of these cytokines were higher in sepsis than in COVID-19. IL-6 and GDF-15 were associated with prognosis in sepsis. Cox proportional hazards model with time as a dependent covariate showed a significant relationship between plasma GDF-15 level and time to wean off MV (hazard ratio, 0.549 [95% confidence level, 0.382–0.789]). The GDF-15 level at ICU admission predicted late recovery. Conclusion GDF-15 and IL-6 derived from proteomics analysis were related with disease severity of COVID-19. Their values were higher in sepsis than in COVID-19 and were associated with prognosis in sepsis. In COVID-19 patients treated in the ICU, GDF-15 was associated with the time to wean off MV and better predicted late recovery.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL